ACTION RESEARCH Mukhlash Abrar J. Sutomo Hisyam
Some Definitions: Reason & Bradbury (2002) Action research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and organizational change.
Mill (2000) stated that Action research is anysystematic inquiry conducted by teacherresearchers, principles, school counselors, or otherstakeholders in the teaching/ learning environment togather information about the ways that theirparticular schools operate, how they teach, and howwell their students learn.
Action research is also defined as an Inquiry-basedresearch conducted by teachers that follows aprocess of examining existing practices,implementing new practices, and evaluating theresults, leading to an improvement cycle thatbenefits both students and teachers.http://cs3.wnmu.edu/elearning/a404/support/a404b0_50100.html)
Watts in Ferrance (2000) statesthat action research is a processin which participants examine theirown educational practicesystematically and carefully, usingthe techniques of research.
Object of Action Research Student aspects Teacher aspects Course aspects Educational instrument aspects. Result of learning aspects Environmental aspects
Purpose of Action Research Improving teaching-learning process - Students are lazy, yawning in class - Don’t do homework - Don’t ask questions, cannot answer question - Coming late - pay no attention - Don’t speak English well Improving the effectiveness of certain methods of teaching - Teaching Vocabulary
Types of Action Research Individual Action Research - carried out by 1 teacher Collaborative Action Research - done by team: one teacher implement certain method, other teacher makes notes, or one teacher concentrate on attitude, others on motivation and students’ mastery on certain skill.
Characteristics of ActionResearch On job problem oriented -done in the classroom, don’t miss the class, don’t not interrup the teaching learning process Problem solving oriented Improvement oriented Multiple data collection: students’ mastery of speaking, attitude, Cyclic observing- implementing-reflecting Participatory
Steps in Doing Action Research Planning In this step, the researcher identifies a problem or issue and develops a plan of action in order to bring about improvement in a specific area of research context. This is a phase where the researcher considers: a. what kind of investigation is possible within the realities and constrains the teaching situation; b. and what potential improvements are possible.Consider: Material, method, media: video/film, grouping the students into smaller, change seat arrangementBefore planning: identify the problem why ?
Continued Acting==> implementing After the planning step has been completed, the next step is acting. In acting step, the researcher implements the plan that has been arranged as a guideline.
Continued Observing This step is intended at observing systematically the effects of the action and also documenting the context, actions and opinions of those involved. It is a data collection phase where the researcher uses open-eyed and open-minded tools to collect information about what is happening.Consider: Attitude, motivation, test/quizz
Continued Reflecting At this step, the researcher evaluates the effects of the action in order to get the clear result of the action. Besides, the researcher may decide to do further cycle of action research to get the expected result.Why students don’t achieve the target, what is wrong/weaknesses in the first cycle
Action research: Try to study one’s own action Population in experimental research is large, then we take sample. Only one test is given, compare pre test and post test, or See progress, improvement qualitative methods