Negrito Race: The Ultimate Link of Filipinos to the World
Running Head: NEGRITO RACE: THE ULITMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 1 Negrito Race: The Ultimate Link of Filipinos to the World Jewel D. Mercader Anthropology Division National Museum of the Philippines Padre Burgos st., Manila
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 2 AbstractEssentially, this paper discusses the significance of Negritos with regards toFilipinos‘ relation to the rest of the people of the world. This is supported by previousaccounts stating that the Negrito people are one of the earliest modern humans andextant species settlers of the country, next to Mamanuas of Agusan; thus also part ofthe earliest migrations to inhabit the earth. With respect to the forerunners of thestudies on this subject, notable anthropologists and researchers, their contributions,methods and approaches are briefly talked over. In addition, earliest accounts onpygmies before studies of scholars are shown. An introduction on Negrito Filipinosis tackled including its brief history, distribution, acculturation and relationship withthe non-Negritos. Also, the author has gladly compiled a few substantial claims withregard to the Great Wave Migration (Out-of-Africa and other several supporting andopposing theories). Significant archaeological, physiological and genetic findings arepresented. Ultimately, a conclusion on the above studies, a reflection on thesignificance of Negritos to Filipinos and a world view on human race are shared.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 3 Negrito Race: The Ultimate Link of Filipinos to the World Cultural communities in the Philippines are often regarded as pagans,minorities, barbarians and other derogatory labels. They make up about eightpercent of the Filipino people and apparently they are marginalized one way oranother. The Negritos who are thought to be one of the earliest modern human andextant settlers in the country, next to Mamanuas, are not considered ―Filipinos‖,noted by the Ilustrados. In Filomeno Aguilar‘s Tracing Origins, Renato Constantinopointed out that the designation ―Filipino‖ originally referred to Spaniards born in thecolonial Philippines, but it was transformed by Ilustrados into a ‗class concept‘ until itfinally embraced the entire nation and became a means of national identification.What Rizal considered ‗ancient Filipinos‘ are those who are civilized. He has a cleardistinction of his perception of the Malay-Filipinos—those who were civilized andhave accepted Christianity and not those who lived in the mountains. Those whosettled in the lowlands who were part of the third migratory wave were the onesIlustrados consider having racial and cultural affinity with.(2005) In terms of humanrace, which is basically distinguished through sharing the same physical features orclassified through historical accounts such as wave migrations, it is agreeable thatNegritos are not Malay-Filipinos. However, to extend the implied discrimination ontreating these Negritos as ‗aliens‘ from the land they belong to is unfair. They arejust like the others who fostered and took care of the country‘s natural resources.Although it seems that the feeling is mutual, when according to Lawrence Reid‘sHistorical Linguistics and Philippine Hunter-Gatherers, Negrito groups are careful tomaintain their own identity, distinguishing themselves from their neighbors bydeveloping distinctive linguistic emblems, by calling themselves ‗Negrito person‘, andhaving a distinct term for all non-Negrito people.(2007)
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 4Nonetheless, for the sake of self-awareness, it is still righteous to give them respectand recognize their legacy in this country. We may have our differences, but itcannot be denied that they are still part of this one big family of Filipinos, thuscontribute to its unified cultural identity.Pioneering Scholars and Earliest Accounts on Pygmies This section of the paper was referred from Rahmann‘s The PhilippineNegritos in the Context of Research on Food-Gatherers During this Century. (1975,pp. 204-236) S.V.D (Societas Verbi Divini) is one of the earliest institutions which showedgreat concern and interest on studying ‗pygmies‘ pioneered by Arnold Janssen. Heguided then the notable Father Wilhelm Schmidt (founder of Anthropos) with hisresearches. Father Paul Schebesta was also a member of the society belonging tothe first post-Schmidt generation. People mentioned above agree with the sameschool of thought. Other anthropologists who played significant role in the societyare Fritz Bornemann, Hermann Hochegger and Jesus Azcona. There were a number of researchers who dwelled on Philippine Negritos suchas Father Morice Vanoverbergh (started 1925) on Negritos of northern Luzon; FatherSchebesta on Philippine Negritos in general along with the Semang of Malaysia andpygmies of Central Africa. Also Gusinde, accompanied by Marcelino Maceda spenta few weeks in Panay, and then went to study the Mamanua in northeasternMindanao. However they were not able to finish this research. As per the firstaccounts on Pygmy peoples, it is known that Georg Schweinfurth was the first to re-discover the African Pygmies (after the ancient Egyptians), by meeting some of themin a Congo village. After then, in 1929, Schebesta began his systematic field workamong Pygmies of Central Africa.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 5 Back to the Ancient Egyptians who first encountered the pygmies, it is saidthat they had a good knowledge of the dwarfs in tropical Africa who were highlycherished cultic dancers at the court of the pharaohs. The account was supportedby a letter of Pharaoh Phiops II of the Sixth Dynasty, 2500-2300 B.C.(Rahmann,1975, p. 207) Also, ca. 800 B.C., pygmies had come to the attention of the Greeksand Romans even at the time of Homer. This had a rather extensive, althoughvague knowledge of the African pygmies when these people were only mentioned ina passage/third song in Iliad. Later, St. Augustine and St. Albert the Great reckonedthe pygmies to be among the human monstrosities and asked whether they weredescendants of Noah and ultimately, of Adam. A better understanding on food gatherers was gained only after someerroneous views had been expressed. This was started by Ernst Haeckel when headvocated biogenetic law which upholds that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny (thiswas soon rejected). This was followed by J. Kollman advocating a specialevolutionary theory. He considered the pygmies of our time as the last remnants ofthe original pygmy races. This was also assumed by Schmidt, however in contrast,he said that there was only one uniform Pygmy race originally. Eugen Fischeropposed Kollman by advocating the degeneration theory when he pioneered studieson human heredity. He said that the African pygmies only developed their presenteconomy, food gathering, when they moved from the steppe into virginal forest. Thiswas opposed by Schebesta saying that Bambuti culture is of a primary-primitivenature and developed within the virginal forest though he admitted that there was amutation towards a bodily pygmaean growth. On the other hand, Rudolf Martinagrees partly with Kollman that the low stature of the Semang was an originalelement that was preserved by heredity and not a form of degeneration. Rudolf
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 6Poech distinguished five groups of Pygmy peoples: Southeast Asian Negritos,central African Pygmies, the Bushmen, the Lapps, and the Veddoid wherein he didnot assume their racial unity. Schebesta however made a few points on the study of the problem of racialaffinity between the Negritos of Southeast Asia and the African Pygmies: Only theAndamanese, Semang and the Philippine Aeta belong to the Negritos and that theircharacteristics exhibit them as Negroid. The Negrito race constitutes racial elementsof melanosoid, Veddoid, premongoloid and australoid origin together with the Negritobase, thus it is not a homogenous race. Ultimately, Negritos are not Pygmies butthere is a possible genetic connection between them. Schmidt on the other hand,dealt with the pygmies‘ belief on the existence of a high god or Supreme being.Schmidt was inspired by Andrew Lang‘s work who asserted that the belief in highgod existed among the materially low tribes of Southeast Australia and among theAndamanese. Several anthropologists followed and because of all their extensive work, foodgathering culture is now well known somatologically and culturally but there are moreto know. Comprehensive monographs and comparative studies on PhilippineNegritos might be extended to the Semang and Andamanese as a check onSchebesta‘s hypothesis of a basic cultural unity of Southeast Asian Negritos. Also,not just cultural anthropology, but social anthropology and applied anthropologyshould have a full share in the scholarly endeavor. Negritos of the PhilippinesBrief History and Distribution Aetas are tentatively known as the first modern human settlers in the countrywho came around 30,000 years ago via land bridges, coming from Mainland Asia
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 7when the Malay Peninsula was still somehow connected with the Sundaland.(Noval-Morales, 1979, pp. 5-7) After some time, based from genetic studies of Omoto, theMamanuas of Agusan are thought to have arrived to the archipelago as early as50,000 years ago. (III. Identification of the Carbonic Anhydrase-1 Variant, 1981)Negritos are thought to have come from the same race as the Great Andamanese ofAndaman Islands, Semang of Malaysia and Mani of Thailand. They are low-staturedpeople whose main occupation and skill is hunting and gathering. When new andmore advanced migrants came into the Philippines, they moved and lived into themountains. As per the map updated by Dr. Jesus Peralta of the ethnic groups in thePhilippines,(The Filipino People: Differentiation and Distribution Based on Linguistic,Cultural and Racial Criteria, 1974) it showed that Negritos are composed of Aburlin,Agta (Angat, Casiguranin Dumagat, Central Cagayan, Ebukid, Iriga, Isarog,Katabaga, Manide, Abiyan, Northeast Cagayan, Palanan, Roso, Sta. MargaritaTageilog, Umiray Dumagat, Villaviciosa, and Yaga), Alta, Atta, Ati, Ayta (Bataan,Tayabas, and Zambales) and Batak. The Mamanuas who are considered negritosearlier are listed separately. According to William Reed,(Negritos of Zambales, 1904) Negritos of more orless pure blood, known variously as Aeta, Agta, Baluga, Dumagat etc. are found in atleast eleven other provinces of Luzon. On the mainland of the Province of Tayabas,the Negritos are generally called Aeta and maybe regarded as being to a largedegree of pure blood. On another note, Zuniga said that the eastern side ofCordillera is also the undisputed possession of Negritos and the only spot in thePhilippines in which the original masters of the Archipelago were hold of unrestrictedpossession. Quoting Blumentritt‘s opinion by William Reed, it is said that the numberof Negritos will not exceed 25,000. Of these the group largest in numbers and
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 8probably purest in type is that in the Zambales mountain range, western Luzon. TheNegritos of Panay, Negros and Mindanao are also to be regarded as pure to largeextent. On the east side of Luzon and in the Island of Paragua, there is a markedevidence of admixture.Lifestyle and Acculturation According to Headland‘s The Casiguran Dumagats Today and in 1936, (1975)Negritos are basically nomadic and would move into different sites in accordance toweather and availability of resources. Their resting places are more often than notelevated from the ground. The flooring has a length of a man but the shade/roof hasa height less than of a man. In a collective setting, they would form their huts in acircle so that they are able to see everyone while dancing, performing rituals andanything under the sun. They practice a simple way of living wherein they findcontentment. An interviewed negrito by Thomas Headland in this study, mentionedthat they do not want to get accustomed with change, for when they do, they wouldnever stop looking for it and would not be able to settle in life--making them unhappy. Dwellings of Negritos in various regions also differ. In Orion, Bataan province,floors consist of three or four whole bamboos. They would also eat on bananaleaves. In Tuao, Cagayan, they would have a rectangular roof. Their rice wouldcome from Kalingas and during meal, they always desire for salt. Amongst allnegritos, they are the ones who bathe the most. The Casiguran Dumagats‘ usualdwellings from then and now are lean-tos hut with low and and unwalled shed. Infood, their staple meal would be rice or processed starch extracted from the softinner pulp of the caryota palm. To obtain rice, they make trades with the Malay withhunted deer, wild pig and monkey. They also gather some seafood forsupplementary viand. In terms of drinking, even since then, Dumagat people love to
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 9drink liquor/‘tuba‘. It has been a part of their daily routine that it has brought seriousproblems to their community with regards to productivity and health concerns. As per their occupation, they all started as keen hunters and gatherers but astime went by, more and more Negritos chose to work as laborers for the Malays toafford other necessities. In connection to this, ‗ahibay‘ system (socioeconomic traderelationship between Dumagat and Malay) was developed. This system upholds theidea of having a ‗debt of gratitude‘ or ‗utang na loob‘ between the two groups in away that Malay Filipinos would act as go-betweens or spokesmen of the Dumagatpeople in marriages and help them with other economic transactions, while in return,the latter would help the former and serve them as laborers. Sometimes this systemis abused however it is still notable that a lot of Malay and Dumagat people are loyaland are in good terms with each other. In clothing, men and boys usually wear G-string and girls wear ‗tapis‘.Married ones would be usually bare from waist and up but single girls would wrapthe ‗tapis‘ around covering their breasts. In the late 1960s, women began to usemachine-sewed clothes and men started to wear long or short pants. Dumagat menand women are also naturally modest so to speak; when they undress or bathe, theycover their genitals (neither the woman assisting in childbirth would dare to lookunder the blanket of the pregnant woman). Another customary to the Negritos is thefiling of teeth and gums but thought to be not indigenous to the group; instead it wasinfluenced by the Ilongots. They also cut geometric designs using glass blades ontothe back and outer arms (padit). Filing of teeth and cutting geometric designs aredone for aesthetic purposes. Dumagat women usually go under puberty at age 17 and then marry, whilemen marry on their early twenties. They also practice the ‗sakad‘ system of the
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 10Panay negritos. It is when the groom-to-be visits the girl‘s house three times andthen consummates their love eventually. Negritos are strictly monogamous althoughtwo cases had been reported which showed practice on having more than one wife.There had been no case of rape/sexual abuse neither divorce, unless the other haseloped. Religion has been consistently animist but through time they had an idea of‗God‘ and were speculated to have been influenced by the advent of Christianity.Education was obviously oriented and encouraged to the Dumagat people thoughever since, they had been very reluctant of heeding to the system, thus very fewDumagat are literate and might also one big reason why there had been a littlechange in their culture and customs. In language, in light with defining basicelements of an earlier Negrito culture, it was concluded that no linguistic elementsheld in common among the Negrito groups which are distinct from other Philippinegroups. In conclusion, there had been little change in culture of the Negrito whichmight be caused by minimal orientation with education. Most of the changesoccurred after 1960; for example, instead of continuing the hunting and gatheringcustom, most Negritos now just work as laborers for the Malays. Lastly, theirpopulation gets even worse having a ratio of twenty-three to one between Malaysand Negritos respectively.Relationship with the Non-Negritos In Tessa Minter‘s paper Contemporary Relations between Agta and TheirFarming (2009), it presented three cases including the three places wherein Agtasare mostly situated in the northern Luzon: Divisoria, Diangu and Disabungan. Thewhole study focused on whether the farmers and foragers are mutually dependent to
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 11each other or the latter being exploited by the former. The Agta and farmersunderwent turbulent circumstances from the past century; the relationship betweenthe two has had many fluctuations. In the end, it is understood that neither gives anaccurate disposition of the case – that over time, relations between Agta and non-Agta may develop, breakdown, and redevelop. They may be characterized bytension or intimacy. They may be mutually beneficial or exploitative. However, itseems that which greatly influences the relationship between the foragers andfarmers is the pressure on land. Speaking of land matters, Lourdes Amos, on her Cultural Integrity: PromotingCultural Survival and Decentralizing Good Forest Governance in Ancestral Domains:The Agta-Dumagat People: Province of Aurora, Philippines,(2003) discussed thecase of the Agta-Dumagat as an example of how the complex interstices of capitalinterests, local and national government and local community interests can besuccessfully negotiated for an end result of respect for Indigenous People‘scustomary rights and good forest governance. The IPRA was enacted by Ramos in 1997, for recognition, protection andpromotion of the Indigenous People‘s rights. However this threatened migrantsettlers to be excluded from access within the Ancestral Domains. To take note, theAgta-Dumagat benefit from the subsistence value of their traditional resources whilemigrant settlers and private groups benefit from commercial potential of theseresources—thus, conflicts arouse. According to Larsen, in forming a commonmanagement strategy, the varying interests of local people over resource use needsto be balanced by inter-relating cultural development and environmental justice. In light with the above mentioned strategy, it is good to know that theauthorities of the Agta-Dumagat promote inclusive decision-making through
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 12consensus processes in a centralized system of collective leadership. Having theidea of consensus decision-making is good but the one that has to be worked out isthe decentralization of power. Achieving cultural independence within a symbioticrelationship between the Agta-Dumagat and the migrant settlers/private groups is thekey to have a just and harmonious access to the ancestral domains. A feworganizations have initiated this advocacy (TAGPUAN, KASAPI, NCIPP and PLANT)along with the six Agta-Dumagat organizations. Their campaign fostered theconcept of pre-conquest rights to lands and domains primarily Native Title andCultural Integrity. With symbiotic living being said, it must consider the benefits of both parties.It is understood that development in the cultural context is geared towards devisingmeans of promoting cultural heritage and passing it down to posterity -- in whichAgta-Dumagat are mostly concerned of. With a financial help from other governmentand private groups, state and development of the ancestral domains will be securedand Agta Dumagat customs and traditions will be preserved. To determine the useof the Domain, sharing it with the non-IP, the IP conducts an initial review oftraditional patterns of resource use and is overlaid onto those that exist at present.Thus, in conclusion it has been decided that specific land use within the Domain isnow classified as agricultural/settlement/residential, hunting/fishing ground, andsacred ceremonial/burial sites. To date, TAGPUAN is involved in facilitatingcommunity protocols and decision-making is still consensus. Great Wave Migration Theories (Out-of-Africa and Other Supporting and Opposing Theories) This section was primarily referred from George Weber‘s website LonelyIslands (2009). Also, all figures used were taken from this web-site.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 13 The Andaman Association built by George Weber aims to document and explain further the scientific study of all aspects of the Negrito and other remnant people in Asia and elsewhere in the world, their ethnology, anthropology, genetics, archaeology, prehistory and history, their outside relationships to other populations and (if not extinct) their present situation - and last but not least their place in the origins and history of the human race.(Weber, The Andaman Association, 2009) Reading a few of their articles helped so much in providing information aboutthe human race, specifically the Great Wave Migration. According to this website, which the author of this paper thinks most wouldagree is that, the whole point of continuously studying the human race is to be ableto have complete new insights into the human condition, its past, its origins andperhaps even its future. While anthropologists and other concerned scholars deal onwave migrations, one striking problem has to be considered, and that is the strangelack of variation in the modern human genome. This means that there had to be amother of all genetic bottlenecks in our relatively recent past. It is thought that theToba volcanic eruption (73,000 years ago) played an important role in the vast lost ofgenetic variety since the Great migration (Out-of-Africa) started 100,000 years ago.In this Great Wave Migration, some groups stayed in Africa while others took theirjourney.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 141. The mtDNA gene flow shows the routes various modern people took to getto where they are now and where groups split off from a source population.From a genetic perspective, all humans are therefore Africans, either residingin Africa or in recent exile. Genetically speaking, we can group the human species into 5 groups whichare African, European, Asian, Austronesian and Papuan/Australian.2. The genetic relationships within the human race today (or at least of manymajor groups within it) has been published by L.L. Cavalli-Sforza et al, 1994,The History and geography of Human Genes, Princeton University Press.(This chart is an adaptation)
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 15 In accordance to human evolution, a very human-like presence of two sets offootprints were found in Laetoli, Tanzania (East Africa) which were made roughly 3.7million years ago and most likely candidate species of Australopithecus afarensis(known to have lived in the area 3.2 million years ago). Another was recentlydiscovered on the now dormant Italian Roccamonfina volcano from north of Naples.With all of these findings, we might want to know what first made the first humansdifferent. It is said that the ancestors of the early humans were omnivorous; eatinganything except if it is poisonous. Latter, the early humans soon discovered thatwhile running, they could also throw stones and then developed their skill intohunting, now by throwing pointed sticks. A pebble tool was found out in Ethiopia andis thought to have been hammered into the shape of a scraper 2.5 million years ago.Chimpanzees, however, have been observed using pebbles as hammers to crackopen nuts. The next chart is a rough-and-ready sketch of human and pre-human specieswith the help of skimpy archaeological and genetic evidences provided by the livingand the dead. Of all the pre-humans discovered, the Neanderthal Man or Homoneanderthalensis is the one which puts conflict on the initial suggested theory thatapes, pre-humans and everything genetically connected came from Africa, sinceNeanderthal remnants were never found in Africa except for the tools under thestone tool technology of the Mousterian and Levalloisian technology, which is said tobe initiated by these people. The Great Human Migration must have begun tointrude into Neanderthal territory from before 70,000 years ago when it is thoughtthat they were pushed by the migrating Homo sapiens in the area (Europe). Theirlast known traces were found in a cave near Gibraltar, dated to 24,000 years ago.Also, the enigmatic remains of pre-human species in Java and China (among a few
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 16others) suggest that there have been some early ―Out of Africa‖ migrations longbefore Homo sapiens existed, should the former remnants could not be explained as‗local developments‘. 3. The chart shows a selection of Homo and pre-Homo species. As earlier mentioned, some stayed in Africa while others joined the GreatWave Migration. These people who stayed are the Sanid people (Khoisan) andNegrids (Capoids). Studies in molecular genetics have shown that of all humangroups the Khoisans are the closest to the roots of the Homo sapiens family tree,and that they are the oldest identifiable surviving human group today.The Negridsand Sanid people just had a clear separation from each other from around 5,000years ago, when the former were pushed by the latter to go to the south of Africa.Around 5,000 years ago the Bantu began to dramatically develop their metal-working
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 17skills and produced superior weapons which led to improved agricultural andhorticultural skills and eventually caused population explosion (Bantu explosion).This event led to large-scale colonization of the the territories of the hunter-gathererKhoisanids. This discovery led researchers to speculate that the growingtechnological sophistication might have encouraged the most successful groups toexpand, to conquer better hunting grounds, thus to migrate. However according toGeorge Weber, this is just something interesting to think about and is purelyhypothetical. Also, this might not be applied generally since for example accordingto Dr. Jesus T. Peralta, in the Philippines, the earliest carbon 14 date flake toolsobtained from Tabon cave were for about 30,000 years B.C, and that these aremade exactly the same as the tools found in Cagayan Valley which date about700,000 years earlier.(Glances: Prehistory of the Philippines, 2011) This means thatpeople then have been using the same technology and was just later on modifiedabout 100,000 or more years ago. During the Great Wave Migration which started 100,000 years ago, thosepeople who came out of Africa branched into two directions which are the southernand northern routes. The southern branch had more or less, reached their presentlocation before 30,000 years ago. This include the Dravidians in India, the Negrito inIndia and Southeast Asia, the Papuans in Newguinea and some Pacific islands, theAustralians in Australia and the Tasmanians in Tasmania. Thus descendants arespecifically the Andamanese, Nicobarese, Shompen, Mani, Semang, Tasmanians,Palau Islanders and if proven true, some of the oldest Americans/pre-Amerinds whoare Pericuans and Fuegians. However, vaguely, some Negrito-like groups haveexisted in southern China and have not been there for at least several thousand
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 18years, thus possible related people survivors, however still managed to hang on inTaiwan. 4. Southern Branch Migration There is some slight controversial evidence that outliers of the southernbranch may have reached the Americas, as early as 50,000 years ago when windand sea currents in the Pacific could have been favorable to carrying lost sailorseastwards towards America. These evidences include human traces in Monte Verdedated to 30,000 years, oldest finds dated to 36,000 years in Pedra Furada, Braziland the Pericu tribe, an unusual group on the Californian peninsula in Mexico(thesecould have been among the last survivors of a pre-Amerind population, although thetribe died out during the late 18th century). The people who joined the Northern Migration, on the other hand had aproblem adapting to a drastic change in climate moving into the north from Africa.What attracted them to go to the icy north must have been the enormous amount ofmeat available like mammoth, elks, deer, wooly rhinoceros and many others whoonce lived in now largely empty Siberia. These people were the ancestors of today‘sEuropids and Mongolids (many Siberian people, Chinese, Mongolian, Korean,Japanese, Vietnamese, and Burmese) as well as less directly, of the modern Inuit-
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 19eskimo and the Amerindians. The ancestors lived in Siberia for about 60,000 years(long enough for them to adapt to the climate). Once they had dark skin colors butthen this eventually changed to white or yellow. The slit eyes of Mongoloids are alsoprobably an adaptive measure against cold and especially glare from the sun. 12,000 to 10,000 years ago, climate in Siberia warmed dramatically andplentiful food animals died out, thus Homo sapiens had to adapt or perish. The twomain Siberian human groups, Mongolid and Europid had to look for new huntinggrounds. Mongolid moved mostly south towards what is now China and SoutheastAsia. This event must be connected with the remarkable patchwork of people andlanguages in Siberia. On the way, they seem to have hived off a group which movedeast into the Americas and became the Amerind people and later the Inuit andAleuts. 5. Northern Branch Migration They say the Austronesians though are the offshoot of both Northern andSouthern Branches. Earliest traces of modern humans in Taiwan dated around30,000 years ago suggest that they might have been part of Southern Migration and
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 20were related to Negrito, Papuans and Australians. Thinking that China, the mainlandof Taiwan was greatly involved also in the Northern Branch at the time, there mighthad been a mingling of people at the fringes of China, including Taiwan, coming fromboth Northern and Southern Migrations. Around 5,000 years ago, prehistoricTaiwanese started the Austronesian explosion, the time when civilization of Ur inMesopotamia was in its flower while Chinese civilization had only just begun. However according to Solheim‘s Nusantao Maritime Trading andCommunication Network theory which was carefully based on artifact findings, saidthat trade network first spread in Asia-Pacific consisting of both Austronesian andnon-Austronesian. Instead of Taiwan as the origin of Austronesians, he placed it inthe ‗Early Central Lobe‘ or in Eastern coastal Vietnam at around 9000BC. Hesuggested that people spread around 5000BC in the ‗Late Central lobe‘ includingPhilippines, southern China and Taiwan. From there, Austronesian became theofficial language and continued to spread eastward and westward. Solheim‘s ideawas more akin to concentric circles compared to Bellwood‘s linearexpansion.(Wikipedia, 2012) Austronesians were the earliest wet-rice farmers andknown to have settled along the coast of the East and the South China Seas. Thesepeople have been the world‘s most daring and successful seafarers the world hasever seen.Negrito Migration Following the southern branch migration out-of-Africa, the aboriginal Filipinos(Negritos) descended from ancestors who came from Central Africa passing throughIndian subcontinent and then reached the Andamanese Islands. It went throughSoutheast Asia and is now known as the ‗Orang Asli‘ or Semang in Malaysia andAetas in Philippines. Jesuit Francisco Colin in 1663 said that the Negritos from India
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 21were only pushed away by the succeeding civilized migrants from Sumatra, Java,Borneo and Macassar. Moving on and still following the wave migration, it seemedthat Australia was first inhabited by immigrants around 50,000 years ago passingthrough Indonesian archipelago. Prior to that, the Andamanese formed part of alarge Southeast Asia.(Padilla, 2000) These Great Andamanese are now confidentlyconsidered as of the same kind of Negritos like Aeta of the Philippines, Mani ofThailand and Semang of Malaysia. The question is whether the less unified Negritopopulation just broken up and largely destroyed by the Great Migrations of modernspeaking languages of Austronesian(Malayan etc.), Austroasiatic (Khmer, Nicobari,etc.) and Sino-Tibetan (Thai, Burmese, etc.) families from the North about 8,000 and5,000 years ago.(Weber, Prehistory and Theories, 2006) Significant Findings on Migration and Genetic Relations of Negrito RaceArchaeologicalPottery and Shell Middens: According to Reid Lawrence, provided that the earliest movement of Neolithicpeoples came from Taiwan around 4500 to 4000 years ago, it is speculated that priorto this movement of Austronesian-speaking group, Philippines was probablyoccupied by several separate groups, with widely disparate languages. Also, thesepeople before the Austronesian-speaking group have occupied coastal areas as theystill do in northern Luzon and broad river valleys. Thus, we are to consider thefounded extensive shell middens and other pre-Neolithic remains near Lal-lo andother sites along the lower Cagayan River in northern Luzon dated to 5000 BP, athousand years prior to the arrival of Austronesians in the area.(Reid, 2007) The‗Out-of-Taiwan‘ movement was supported by archaeological evidences such aspottery from Torongan and Sunget in the Batanes Islands between Taiwan and
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 22Luzon which were dated to between 3600 and 3000 BP recovered from site atNagsabaran Cagayan Valley of Northern Luzon.Stone Tool Industries (Microliths): According to George Weber it is important to connect a specific populationwhether extinct or alive to a specific prehistoric tool technology that is discovered.For one example is the study of archaeological findings of the Andamans orTasmanians. It is speculated that the stone tools found in Andamanese kitchenmidden are closely related to the Toalean stone tool industry which on the otherhand started and were found all over the Indonesian archipelago and beyond. Thismight conclude that if Andamanese tools are Toalean, all Toalean must have beenmade by Negrito, but something quite impossible. However, it is considerable that ifAndamanese used Toalean, then Negrito ancestors were much more widespread inthe past and not isolated then as they were during the last 2,200 years. It is found that microliths in South Sulawesi are of the same Toalean type asthe stone tools found in Andamanese kitchen midden. Toalean is dated back to mid-Holocene found in number of caves in Sulawesi, Indonesia around 6000BC up to 1stmillennium AD overlapping the pottery from the late 3 rd millennium BC. Also, someof the Toalean findings are found, aside from Sulawesi, in areas wherein Negritoidpeople are still living. (Weber, Prehistory and Theories, 2006) There is also a thought whether the Hoabinhian stone tool industry had beena forerunner of Toalean. The former flourished around 17,000 to around 3,000 yearsfrom the present. On the other hand, there is no evidence that Negrito groups used
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 23Hoabinhian tools except that two sites (Sumatra and Southern China) wherein bothare still Negritoid territories were found with these tools. (Ibid.) In Philippine studies, stone tools were also excavated in Cagayan Valley,along with fossils of an extinct animal, elephas, on the same bedrock layer, whichknown to have lived around 750,000 years ago. According to Dr. Jesus Peralta,(Glances: Prehistory of the Philippines, 2011) these stone tools were made exactlythe same as the tools used by the found Homo erectus earlier in Indonesia (Javaman) and China (Peking man). Thus, to date, it is considered that Homo erectuspeople are the first inhabitants of the archipelago. This is another one of the manyprobable proofs of having earlier migration long before the Great Wave Migration.Nevertheless, continues works are pursued to finally find the remains of the peoplewho made these stone tools.Fossil Finds: The following list of archaeological fossil finds was taken from GeorgeWeber‘s web-site, Lonely Islands. (2009) This is a compilation of evidencesgathered, accumulated and evaluated over the past 200 years. Those findingswhich date earlier than the said Great Wave Migration has started, suggest thatthere could have been earlier migrations, provided that these are not ‗localdevelopments‘ within the area.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 24
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 25
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 26 In the Philippines, in 2007, Armand Salvador discovered the Callao man inCallao Cave through its metatarsal remains, which was found to be about 67,000years old. Its biological classification is still uncertain whether it is a modern humanor a Homo floresiensis (the latter is sometimes treated as a subspecies or apathological specimen of the former). Earlier, Robert Fox also discovered a skullcap of a Homo sapiens sapiens in Tabon Cave, Palawan which dated to 22 to 23thousand years old.(Peralta, Glances: Prehistory of the Philippines, 2011) TheTabon man indicates that it was Pre-Mongoloid. However two experts opined thatthe mandible is ‗Australian‘, and that these people cannot be Negritos.(Wikipedia,2012)Physiological In David Barrow‘s The Negrito and the Allied Types in the Philippines,(1910) itrevealed the presence of Negrito blood of several other pagan people in thePhilippines determined by measurement and observation of physical features fromthose who are considered pure Negrito. The Negritos who were first measured and considered of pure blood are thosefrom south slope of Mount Mariveles in Bataan. Subjects were assessed withaccordance to the methods of Topinard‘s system of nomenclature: stature/armreach, cephalic index (long heads/dolichocephalic, medium heads/mesaticephalic,broad or round heads/brachycephalic), nasal index (broad and flat nose/platyrhinian,medium nose/mesorhinian, and thin high nose/leptorhinian), skin color (dark brown,yellowish/saffron, light), hair, muscular development, eyes and lips. As per the pure blooded Negritos, it was found out that their stature isdistinctly ‗pigmy‘ and they have unusually long arms; their heads while usually
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 27decidedly round (brachycephalic), has considerable variation and approachesmesaticephaly; the shape of their nose is peculiar wherein the root is deeplydepressed and the bridge is short and low with an end rounding and bulbous(platyrhinian). The Negritos‘ color is dark brown with a hair typically African (kinkyand grows in little clusters). Their body proportion is good except that the headappears a little large and the arms are excessively long. They are usually slenderthan stocky and their eyes are pretty, dark brown in color and well opened. Their lipsare full and their chins are slightly retreating, their ears are well shaped andattached. Moving on to the North, the author has also measured some Igorots. All in all,the researcher was able to measure 53 Igorots wherein 8 are women. In conclusion,Igorot is one of the exceptionally short races, with long arms, muscular race of darkbrown to saffron skin color, with black hair which is usually straight or wavy, havingfull lips and broad noses, with high nasal index and heads usually mesaticephalic orbrachycephalic. Apparently, some distinct features are Negrito, or at leastcharacteristic of the black race of Oceania, still however, at base, they are Malayan,especially in consideration of their culture. In terms of the Ilongot, after the test was done to a few, it was found out thattheir stature is a little less than the average of Igorot, who are brachycephalic andplatyrhinian; although color is much lighter than the Igorots for they are less exposedto sunlight, but neither comparable to white or Mongol races. As per its culture, it isa composite of Malayan and Negrito elements. David Barrow also added that the Ilongots resemble the ‗Sakay‘ of the MalayPeninsula who exhibit both Negrito and Malayan characters. In the end, the author
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 28believed that the Sakay, like so many of the types of the Philippines, is an exhibit tothe widely diffused Negrito element in Malayan peoples.GeneticsUnderstanding Negrito Race in General This section was referred from George Weber‘s article on Andamanese:Genetics and Possible Relations.(2006) This article gave significant information onhuman variability which includes race based on Genetics using individual differencesin DNA sequence. The responsible researchers characterized whole-genomepatterns of common human DNA variation genotyping 1,586,383 nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) in 71 Americans of European, African and Asian ancestry.The results showed a strong correlation between extended regions of linkagedisequilibrium and functional genomic elements, providing a tool for exploringquestions with regards to causal role of common human DNA on genetic variationwithin and between human populations. The study used haplogroups, group of haplotypes (series of alleles) whichdetermine genetic traits. All known haplogroups are present in sub-saharan Africaand that many occur only there, supporting the theory that everyone came out fromthe continent. It was given emphasis that one of the most sought-after ethnic groups to beused as basis of studies on human race is the Andamanese, for they were isolatedfor the longest time of all, maybe next to the Khoisans of Africa. They are includedas one of the Negritos or suspected relatives along with the Semang of MalayPeninsula, Aeta of Philippines, Vedda of Sri-Lanka, Dravidian group, Tasmanians in
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 29Australia, Papuans, Khoisan of South Africa, Congo pygmies, Pericu of theCalfornian peninsula in Mexico and the remnants of southernmost South Americawhich are the Fuegians. It was also mentioned that though Negritos, such as the Andamanese, whosettled in their areas not going back to more than 2,200 years ago, are not Africanpygmies; there are however fascinating connections to the Khoisan of South Africa.It can be assumed too that the Negritos represent an ancient if not the most ancientcomponent in the prehistoric peopling of Asia by anatomically modern humans assuch they could go back 70,000 years ago. There are two opposing school of thoughts with regards to the Negritos andtheir relationships to other population. First holds that Negritos were one group livingin a large area of tropical Asia many thousands of years ago when new and moreaggressive immigrants arrived who pushed the Ancestral Negritos and Veddoids intothe remoter jungle areas. This school has received a massive boost from the latestgenetic evidence. The other school of thought holds that Negritoid and Veddoidgroups developed independently from each other and are not really related, thus,similarities are not regarded as ancestral traits but result of similar life style in similarenvironments. This school‘s impression seemed baffling; hence it is more than alittle doubtful whether the various and originally quite different groups had enoughtime for physical adaptations of near-perfect similarity to have occurred. A study on the evolutionary history of Andaman was also presented in thearticle from the American Journal of Human Genetics.(Kashyap, 2003) Genetic andepigenetic data are interpreted as favoring the long-term isolation of theAndamanese, extensive population substructure and/or two temporally distinct
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 30settlements. An early colonization featured populations bearing mtDNA line M2, andthis lineage is hypothesized to represent the phylogenetic signal of an early southernmovement of humans through Asia. This suggested that there may have been atleast distinguishable founding events for the Andaman Islands; the earlier one couldbe as early as the southern migration out-of-Africa. The early colonization of the Andaman archipelago by bearers of the M2lineage supports the growing evidence of an early movement of humans throughsouthern Asia and indicates the phenotypic similarities with African groups areconvergent. It also suggests that early human migrants were capable of reaching allthe islands of southern Asia, therefore, near Oceania, by the late Pleistocene. Suchdispersal is consistent with the scattered distribution of negrito populations. Also, the whole of the Indonesian archipelago and Papua-New Guinea isscattered with tribes showing unusual frequencies. It has been suggested on thebasis of blood frequencies that the Muruts of North Borneo, the Papuans ofSchouten and Halmahera, the Bagobos, the Igorots of the Philippines as well as theAngami Naga of north-east India, the Sakay of Malaya, the Mois of Indo-China andall Negritos are related, representing a very ancient element of population that is alsodistantly connected to the Australian aborigines. The Negritos on the MalayPeninsula and in the Philippines are undoubtedly related to the Andamanese, yettheir blood frequencies are quite different, reflecting intensive and long-standingcontact with their neighbors.Genetic Studies on Mamanwas In an article from the Anthropological Science,(Mirandai, 2004) JC virus (JCV)is ubiquitous in the human population, usually being transmitted from parents to
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 31children during cohabitation. JCV genotyping is a useful means of elucidating theorigins of various ethnic groups in the world. The authors used this method to gaininsights into the origin of the Mamanwa, a Philippine Negrito in tribe in NortheastMindanao. The Mamanuas are presumed to be among the oldest indigenouspeoples in the region. Their direct ancestors of the present-day Mamanwa havebeen postulated to be either the Proto-Malay population of late PleistoceneSundaland or the Negritos from Borneo, Sumatra, and Malaya who came via the stillremaining land bridges some 30,000-25,000 years ago. According to genotyping, it is found that the Mamanwa carried two major JCVgenotypes, B3-b/2E and SC-f/7A. This was in contrast with the JCV genotype profileof modern Filipinos who carry up to five genotypes, with B3-b/2E showing only a lowfrequency. B3-b/2E is spread throughout Oceania but rare on the Asian continent.In contrast, SC-f/7A is spread out though Southeast Asia (including neighboringOceanic islands) but rare in remote Oceania. The present findings thus suggest thatMamanwa group was formed by early colonization by people carrying B3-b/2Efollowed by an admixture of more recent immigrants carrying SC-f/7A. As theindigenous group (the Chamorro) in the Mariana Islands has essentially the sameJCV genotype profile as the Mamanwa, other indigenous groups in Southeast Asian,Oceanic islands may have a population history analogous to that suggested for theMamanwa. Based on Population Genetic Studies of the Philippine Negritos,(Omoto, III.Identification of the Carbonic Anhydrase-1 Variant, 1981) investigation of bloodsamples from 277 Mamanwas of northeastern Mindanao, Philippines, confirmed theconcentration of the variant carbonic anhydrase-1 (CA1 3N) in this group. This alsooccurred in Manobos but in a low frequency.Survey of samples were also done in
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 32Aeta and Ifugao of Luzon. The finding suggested that Aeta and Mamanwa havedifferent origins although both are usally referred to as Negritos. The mentionedabove variant was also recorded in Chamorros of Guam and Saipan, MarianaIslanders, Filipinos in United States and probably Malaysians and Indonesians aswell. In conclusion of results, the frequency found in the Mamanwas is by far thehighest among the values thus far obtained. This suggests that this variant wasonce common in an aboriginal population of the Western Pacific from which wasscattered by gene flow. This variant was also absent in Aeta, suggesting that theyhave different origins with Mamanwa representing distinct migrations to thePhilippines. Later on, on Keiichi Omoto‘s several genetic studies, it is concluded thatMamanuas of Agusan came to the islands around 49,000 years ago predating theoccurence of Aetas. ConclusionSalient Points on Findings on the Great Wave Migration and the Negrito Race Human race has been a relentless and sought-after discourse for our notableanthropologists; and by far, they admit that the more evidences they are able togather, the more questions arise and the more gaps to fill with explanations. On theother hand, they seem to be confident with their findings at least since the GreatWave Migration which started 100,000 years ago, but earlier than that, questions areyet to be answered by our children. Also, due to fossils unraveled from differentparts of the world which date back earlier than 100,000 years ago, it is speculatedthat there could have been earlier migrations before the Pleistocene period, beforeHomo sapiens started to appear. It is also thought that modern humans and pre-modern humans lived side by side with each other. The question now is left on the
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 33case of Neanderthals, who happen to have been never found in Africa albeit theconsistently assumed idea that all homo and pre-homo species came from thiscontinent. Nevertheless, the found Mousterian and Levalloisian stone tools byNeanderthals in Africa helped patching the disparity; but of course, only concreteevidences would ultimately solve the case. We have been studying and tracing the origins of human race, however wespend little time on discussing the reasons behind human expansion, migration andultimately conquering lands. As mentioned earlier, according to Weber‘shypothetical idea, it must have been the advancement of technology whichencouraged people to look for bigger and better hunting grounds. It is because theyknew better that they wanted change, development and expansion. This idea wastaken from the event wherein due to the ‗Bantu Explosion‘, (when the Bantu learneda more advanced tool technology) Khoisanids were pushed down south of Africa, forthey have a more primitive technology and that they were inferior, population wise.In any case, this might not be applied in general terms since based from Dr. JesusPeralta‘s studies, at least what is evident in the Philippines, modern human and pre-modern human settlers in the archipelago have been using the same stone tooltechnology when they came, although modifications were applied in between of theirarrivals. The Austronesians are said to be an offshoot of both southern and northernmigration. During the southern migration, it is noted that some groups of peoplehave also travelled at the fringes of south China, which explains the Negrito-likegroups of people in the country. Also, China had been a major part of the northernmigration wherein first Mongolids occurred or developed. Overtime, there couldhave been a mingling between people from northern and southern migration before
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 34the advent of Austronesians coming from Taiwan around 12,000 years ago. Withregards to the origin of Austronesian speaking people, Solheim‘s Nusantao MaritimeTrading Theory postulated a different claim. He proposed that there had been atrading originally between Austronesian and non-Austronesian speaking people inthe Asia Pacific. Instead of Taiwan, he said that Austronesian language spread firstin the ‗Early Central Lobe‘ in Eastern Coastal Vietnam at around 9000 B.C andcontinued to extend in the ‗Late Central Lobe‘ around 5000 B.C. in southern China,Taiwan, Philippines reaching southwards and eventually westwards to the rest ofOceania. Another interesting point is that according to traces on genetics, it is possiblethat there had been two separate migrations into the Andaman Islands – an earliercolonization which might have happened as early as 70,000 years ago, before itsinitially known isolation since around 2200 years ago. This finding greatly supportsthe early southern migration and thus, the dispersal of Negrito groups. TheAndamanese are undoubtedly related and are of one kind as of the Semang inMalaysia and Aeta in the Philippines. As per studies on blood frequencies, all Negrito, Muruts of North Borneo, thePapuans of Schouten and Halmahera, the Bagobos, the Igorots of the Philippines aswell as the Angami Naga of north-east India, the Sakay of Malaya, the Mois of Indo-China are all related and represent an ancient element of population distantlyconnected from the Australian aborigines. The Mamanwa in the Philippines on theother hand was found out with a variant carbonic anhydrase-1 (CA1 3N) wherein it issaid that this variant was once common in an aboriginal population of the WesternPacific from which was scattered by gene flow. This variant was also absent in Aeta,suggesting that they have different origins with Mamanwa representing distinct
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 35migrations to the Philippines. The Mamanwas are concluded to have occured in thecountry about 49,000 years ago predating the Aetas.Negrito Race: The Ultimate Link of Filipinos to the World Clearly, Filipino Negritos deserve respect and recognition just like the othergroups in the country. Technically, as one of the earliest modern human inhabitantsand extant species of Philippine Islands, next to Mamanuas, they have the rights andauthority to freely utilize its natural resources, live just like the Malay-Filipinos and betreated equally. Just because they are technologically primitive and inferior, doesnot mean they should be ‗left behind‘. How dare we marginalize these people whenin fact, Austronesians (Malays) are also thought to have come or atleast having anadmixture with a Negrito blood. Our Negrito neighbors could give so much answersto our questions. Also, if proven that the Andamanese (from where Negrito Filipinosbelieved to have come from) had an earlier colonization dating back to 70,000 yearsago, we may speculate that the Negrito bloodline can be traced from the originalstock who first inhabited Asia. Everyone is a part of each other. We should focus more on seeking ofsimilarities and not on exploiting of differences to achieve a clear understanding ofour culural identity, thus to a live a peaceful, more accepting and harmonious life.Genes may mutate, develop and evolve; anthropologists may explore andunderstand the tiniest of things possibe; Science may branch into even morecomplex disciplines; and technology may soon discover bending time and space, butat the end of the day, what is important is that we understand that in order to survive,we should and we will always depend on one another. And for the record, we studyhuman race not to be discriminated on how people are divided, but to be enlightenedon how unified we are – for we all are one.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 36 Acknowledgement I would like to give thanks to the following: Mr. Artemio Barbosa, our Curator IIhead of Anthropology department, for giving me this opportunity to practice myprofession in a manner that is well-supported and guided by him and my colleagues;to Dr. Jesus Peralta who screened this paper along with Mr. Barbosa and gavesubstantial commentaries and advice; to Ms. Cyril Santos who kindly lent almostsixty percent of my references which made my life so much easier; to Mrs. MaritessTauro who is always willing to help whenever available and possible; lastly to Ms.Gladys Mateo, Mr. Nicolas Cuadra, Mr. Jonathan Faustino, Mr. Roger Benitez, Mr.Donato Zapata, Mr.Jason Tio and Mr. Totong Sotto who due to their presence,created a cheerful and lively ambience conducive for work less the stress.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 37 ReferencesAguilar, F. V. 2005 Tracing Origins: "Ilustrado" Nationalism and the Racial Science of Migration Waves. Retrieved 09 15, 2010, from The Association for Asian Studies: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25075827Amos, L. 2003 Cultural Integrity: Promoting Cultural Survival and Decentralizing Good Forest Governance in Ancestral Domains: The Agta-Dumagat People: Province of Aurora, Philippines. In J. F. Krisnawati Suryanata (Ed.), East-West Center on Community Management of Forestlands, (pp. 110-121).Barrows, D. P. 1910 The Negrito and the Allied Types in the Philippines. American Anthropologist, 12 No. 3), 358-376.Bean, R. B. 1913 Notes on the Hairy Men of the Philippine Islands. American Anthropologist , 415-424.Fox, R. B. 1974 The Filipino People: Differentiation and Distribution Based on Linguistic, Cultural and Racial Criteria. Manila: National Museum of the Philippines Manila.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 38Headland, T. N. 1975 The Casiguran Dumagats Today and in 1936. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society , 245-257. 1983 An Ethnobotanical Anomaly: The Dearth of Binomial Specifics in a Folk Taxonomy of a Negrito Hunter-Gatherer Society in the Philippines. J. Ethnobiology , 109-120.Hoechegger, H. 1964 Camps and Dwellings. In J. m. Garvan, The Negritos of the Philippines (pp. 27-33). Verlag Ferdinand Berger F. Horn.Kashyap, V. 2003 Molecular Relatedness of the Aboriginal Groups of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with Similar Ethnic Populations. International Journal on Human Genetics , 5-11.Lynch, F. X. 1948 Some Notes on a Brief Field Survey of the Hill People of Mt. Iriga, Camarines Sur Philippines. Primitive Man , 21, 65-73.Minter, T. 2009 Contemporary Relations between Agta and Their Farming. In H. O. K. Ikeya, Interactions between Hunter-Gatherers and farmers: from Prehistory to Present (pp. 205-228). Leiden: Senri Ethnological Studies 73.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 39Mirandai, J. J. 2004 JC virus genotype profile in the Mamanwa, a Philippine Negrito tribe, and implications for its population history. Anthropological Science , 173-178.Noval-Morales, D. Y. 1979 In A Primer on the Negritos of the Philippines (pp. 5-7). Manila: Philippine Business for Social Progress.Omoto, K. 1981 III. Identification of the Carbonic Anhydrase-1 Variant. In Population Genetic Studies of the Philippine Negritos (pp. 105-110). American Society of Human Genetics. 1985 The Negritos: Genetic Origins and Microevolution. The Journal of Pacific History , 123-131.Padilla, S. G. 2000 Mula sa Viewfinder: Ang mga Agta ng Silangang Sierra Madre. The Journal of History , XLVI, Numbers 1-4.Peralta, J. T. 1996 Ethnography Field Manual. Manila: The National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 2011 Glances: Prehistory of the Philippines. Retrieved 2012 28, June, from National Commission for Culture and the Arts.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 40Rahmann, R. 1975 The Philippine Negritos in the Context of Research on Food-Gatherers During This Century. In Philippine Quarterly of the Culture and Society (pp. 204-236).Reed, W. A. 1904 Negritos of Zambales. 5-12. Manila: Manila Bureau of Public Printing.Reid, L. A. 2007 Historical Linguistics and Philippine Hunter-Gatherers. International Institute of Asian Studies, University of Leiden.Weber, G. 2006 Prehistory and Theories. Retrieved June 11, 2012, from Lonely Island: The Negrito People and Out-of-Africa Story of the Human Race The Andamanese: Genetics and Possible Relations. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from Lonely Islands: The Negrito People and the Out-of- Africa Story of the Human Race. 2009 The Andaman Association. Retrieved June 21, 2012, from Lonely Islands The Subjects of this Web-site. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from Lonely Islands: The Negrito People and the Out-of-Africa Story of the Human Race.
NEGRITO RACE: THE ULTIMATE LINK OF FILIPINOS TO THE WORLD 41Wikipedia 2012 Prehistory of the Philippines. Retrieved May 28, 2012, from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Models of Migration to the Philippines. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia.Wordpress 2010 A Gene Story: the Negritos Early Southern Migration. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Wordpress.com.