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  1. 1. Author: Claro M. Recto Sponsored the Bill in the Senate: Jose P. Laurel Signed: June 12, 1956
  2. 2. An act to include in the curricula of all public and private schools, colleges and universities courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, authorizing the printing and distribution thereof, and for other purposes. Full name of the Law
  3. 3. - mandates all educational institutions in the Philippines to offer courses about Jose Rizal
  4. 4. • Re-dedication of the ideals of freedom and nationalism • Honoring the national hero and patriot, Jose Rizal-remember with special fondness and devotion the lives and works that have shaped the national character Important points from RA 1425:
  5. 5. • Life, works and writings of Jose Rizal particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, should be a constant and inspiring source of patriotism Important points from RA 1425:
  6. 6. • Instill values of moral character, civic conscience, personal discipline and duties of citizenship Important points from RA 1425:
  7. 7. • Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo - shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities - public or private Section 1:
  8. 8. • Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo - In the collegiate courses, the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo shall be used as basic texts. Section 1:
  9. 9. • It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in their libraries an adequate number of copies of the original and expurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo • Also Rizal’s other works and biography. Section 2:
  10. 10. • The said unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their translations in English as well as other writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for required reading in all public or private schools, colleges and universities. Section 2:
  11. 11. • All schools, colleges and universities are obligated to have adequate number of copies of Rizal’s two novels and his other literacy pieces. Section 2:
  12. 12. • The National Board of Education is assigned to translate Rizal’s writings into English, Tagalog and other principal Philippine dialects. Section 3:
  13. 13. - cause them to be printed in cheap, popular editions - cause them to be distributed, free of charge, to persons desiring to read them, through the Purok organizations and the Barrio Councils throughout the country. Section 3:
  14. 14. • Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amendment or repealing section nine hundred twenty-seven of the Administrative Code Section 4:
  15. 15. - prohibits the discussion of religious doctrines by public school teachers and other person engaged in any public school Section 4:
  16. 16. • A fine of three hundred pesos is issued if the act was violated. Section 5:
  17. 17. • It arouse Filipino nationalism • Makes the Filipino people remember who they are and that they have their own identity as a nation Significance
  18. 18. • The concepts of “hero” and “heroism” seem to have existed in all cultures on earth, in many forms and varieties • The word itself has probably appeared first in ancient Greece, where it was combined in the name of one of the greatest heroes of all times: Heracles. CONCEPT OF A HERO
  19. 19. • According to Robert Graves, - an authority on Greek culture - the name Hero is derived from that of the great goddess Hera so Hero means “Hera’s Glory.” • Heracles, then, lived, acted and died in the name and for the glory of that goddess. Ancient Greece CONCEPT OF A HERO
  20. 20. •  One of the most famous Greek heroes was the Athenian Theseus, who sailed from his city to Crete to fight against the Minotaur and save his young countrymen and women, who were supposed to be sacrificed to a monster.  Ancient Greece CONCEPT OF A HERO
  21. 21. •  In a book Graves describes important feature of life of a hero - dies not just to glorify his Mother goddess but to save his people — the tribe of which he is chief — from all their yearly sins and all possible punishments. Ancient Greece CONCEPT OF A HERO
  22. 22. • Japanese Yamato Take, who was the son of a king was accredited with slaying a dangerous serpent of Omi.  - Similar deeds were performed by Heracles. Japan CONCEPT OF A HERO
  23. 23. • Jesus’ heroism was not apparent in his physical powers but in doing miracles. His death in agony on the cross presents him as a classic hero. Jesus was a classic victim - like Heracles, he went up after his death to heaven, to become a proper deity. Christians CONCEPT OF A HERO
  24. 24. • The Hero then possessed the three main characteristics of heroism: 1. They performed outstanding deeds 2. They risked their very being for the sake of others rather than for their own glory 3. They were all victims CONCEPT OF A HERO
  25. 25. Rizal as a hero CONCEPT OF A HERO 1. Performed outstanding deeds - used the pen to fight 2. Risked his very being for the sake of his countrymen - he waged a non-violent crusade against the oppressors of his countrymen 3. He is a victim - suffered political martyrdom
  26. 26. • The Spaniards, the Filipinos and the Americans raised Rizal to the rank of supremacy among our heroes. - Thus Rizal’s life, works and martyrdom raised him to the highest place in the pantheon of our revolutionary heroes WAS RIZAL AN AMERICAN SPONSORED HERO?
  27. 27. • His supremacy was acknowledge by his contemporaries(Aguinaldo, Bonifacio, etc.) - Spanish writers acknowledge his fame - American colonial legislators who came to admire our people through his history acknowledge him as well WAS RIZAL AN AMERICAN SPONSORED HERO?
  28. 28. • It is simply not true that there was ever any colonialists’ meeting or plot to impose Rizal as the National Hero of the Philippines. • The decision to honor him in this way was made by the Filipinos, for the Filipinos. WAS RIZAL AN AMERICAN SPONSORED HERO?
  29. 29. 1. The doctrines of Rizal are not for one epoch but for all epochs. They are as valid today as they were yesterday. It cannot be said that because the political ideals of Rizal have been achieved, because of the change in the institutions, the wisdom of his counsels or the value of his doctrines have ceased to be opportune. They have not.“ - Rafael Palma
  30. 30. 2. As a towering figure in the Propaganda Campaign, he took an "admirable part" in that movement w/c roughly covered the period from 1882-1896.
  31. 31. 3. Blumentritt, after reading Rizal’s Noli, wrote & congratulated its author, saying among other things: "Your work, as we Germans say, has been written w/ the blood of the heart...
  32. 32. 4. If Rizal’s friends & admirers praised w/ justifiable pride the Noli & its author, his enemies were equally loud & bitter in attacking & condemning the same.
  33. 33. 5. The proponents & opponents of the Rizal Law engaged themselves in a bitter & long drawn-out debate the finally resulted in the enactment of a compromise measure, now known as RA 1425.
  34. 34. 6. Cong. Henry Allen Cooper of Wisconsin delivered an eulogy of Rizal & even recited the martyr’s Ultimo Pensamiento on the floor of the U. S. House of Representatives in order to prove the capacity of the Filipinos for self- government.
  35. 35. 7. No Filipino has yet been born who could equal or surpass Rizal as a "person of distinguished valor/enterprise in danger, fortitude in suffering.”
  36. 36. 8. Dr. Frank C. Laubach, an American biographer of Rizal, spoke of the hero’s great courage.
  37. 37. 9. To the bigoted Spaniards in Spain & in the Philippines, Rizal was the most intelligent, most courageous, & most dangerous enemy of the reactionaries & the tyrants
  38. 38. 10. Fernando Acevedo, who called Rizal his distinguido amigo, compañero y paisano", wrote the letter from Zaragoza, Spain, on 25 Oct 1889: "I see in you the model Filipino; your application to study & you talents have placed on a height w/c I revere & admire."
  39. 39. 11. The Bicolano Dr. Tomas Arejola wrote Rizal in Madrid, 9 Feb 1891, saying: "Your moral influence over us is indisputable." 
  40. 40. 12. Guillermo Puatu of Bulacan wrote this tribute to Rizal: Among the foreigners who recognized Rizal as the leading Filipino of his time were Blumentritt, Napoleon M. Kheil, Dr. Rheinhold Rost, & Vicente Barrantes. Prof. Blumentritt told Dr. Maximo Viola in May 1887 that "Rizal was the greatest product of the Philippines & that his coming to the world was like the appearance of a rare comet, whose rare brilliance appears only every other century." 
  41. 41. 13. Napoleon Kheil of Prague, Austria, wrote to Rizal & said: Dr. Rost, distinguished Malayologist & librarian of the India office of London, called Rizal "una perla hombre" 
  42. 42. 14. Don Vicente Barrantes admitted that Rizal was ‘the first among the Filipinos"
  43. 43. 15. Even before the outbreak of the revolution against Spain in 1896, many instances can be cited to prove that his country here & abroad recognized Rizal’s leadership. In the early part of 1899 he was unanimously elected by the Filipinos in Barcelona & Madrid as honorary pres. of la Solidaridad.
  44. 44. 16. In the early part of 1899 he was unanimously elected by the Filipinos in Barcelona & Madrid as honorary pres.
  45. 45. 17. In Paris, he organized & became chief of the Indios Bravos. In Jan 1891, Rizal was again unanimously chosen Responsable (chief) of the Spanish-Filipino Association. 
  46. 46. 18. He was also the founder & moving spirit in the founding of  la Liga Filipina on Manila in 3 Jul 1892.
  47. 47. 19. A year after Rizal’s execution, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo & the other revolutionary chiefs exiled to Hong Kong held a commemorative program there on 29 Dec 1897 on the occasion of the 1st anniversary of the hero’s execution & martyrdom.
  48. 48. 20. Of utmost significance in the public’s appreciation for Rizal’s patriotic labors in behalf of his people were the tributes paid by the revolutionary government to his memory.
  49. 49. 21. On 20 Dec 1898 at the revolutionary capital of Malolos, Pres. Aguinaldo issued the 1st official proclamation making 30 Dec of that year as "Rizal Day".
  50. 50. 22. It should be further noted that both the La Independencia, edited by Gen. Antonio Luna, & the El Heraldo de la Revolucion, official organ of the revolutionary government, issued a special supplement in honor of Rizal in one of their December issues in1898.
  51. 51. 23 . Cecilio Apostol, on 30 Dec of the same year, wrote these lines: "!Duerme en paz las sombras de la nada, Redentor de una Patria esclavizada! !No llores de la tumba en el misterio Del español el triunfo momentaneo: Que si Una bala destrozo tu craneo, Tambien tu idea destrozo un emperio! 
  52. 52. 24. The Filipinos were not alone in grieving the untimely death of their hero & idol, for the intellectual & scientific circles of the world felt keenly the loss of Rizal, who was their esteemed colleague & friend.
  53. 53. 25. Among the scientific neurological services held especially to honor Rizal, the one sponsored by the Anthropological Society of Berlin in 20 Nov 1897 at the initiative of Dr. Rudolph Virchow, its president, was the most important & significant. Dr. Ed Seler recited the German translation of Rizal’s "My Last Farewell" on that occasion. 
  54. 54. 26. The newspapers, magazines, & other periodicals throughout the civilized world – in Germany, Austria, France, Holland, London, the US, Japan, Hong Kong & Macao, Singapore, Switzerland, & in Latin American countries— published accounts of Rizal’s martyrdom in order to render homage to his greatness.
  55. 55. 27. Beyond the shadow of a doubt that the Great Malayan, by his own efforts & sacrifices for his oppressed countrymen, had projected himself as the foremost leader of the Philippines until the moment of his immolation.
  56. 56. 28 . The idea of naming the district of Morong after Rizal came from Dr. Pardo de Tavera, a Filipino, & not from Judge Taft, an American.
  57. 57. 29. Dr. Laubach’s view about the question is as follows: The tradition that every American hears when he reaches the Philippine Islands is that W. H. Taft, feeling that the Filipinos needed a hero, made one out of Rizal. We trust this book (Rizal: Man & Martyr—O.) will serve to show how empty that statement is. it speaks well for Taft that he was sufficiently free from racial prejudice to appreciate in some measure the stature of a great Filipino. It was a Spaniard who did more than any other to save Rizal for posterity—Retaña whose work (Vida Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907), is by far the most complete & scholarly than we have(in1936—O.). like Rizal, he lost all his money in the cause of the Filipinos, & died a poor man. 
  58. 58. 30. Granting that Taft commission chose Rizal out of several great Filipinos as the No. 1 hero of his people, still we can say that what the commission did was merely to confirm a sort of fait accompli, & that was that Jose Rizal had already been acclaimed by his countrymen & the scientific world as the foremost hero & martyr of the land of his birth.
  59. 59. 31. William Cameron Forbes, an ardent admirer of Rizal & the governor-general of the Philippines during the construction of the Rizal Mausoleum on the Luneta, is appropriate at the point of acknowledging Rizal as national hero through placing his picture on the postage stamp and currency, naming Land marks after him etc.
  60. 60. 32. While the foremost national heroes of other countries are soldier-generals, like George Washington of US, Napoleon I & Joan of Arc of France, simon Bolivar of Venezuela, Jose de San Martin of Argentina, Bernardo O’Higgins of Chile, Jimmu Tenno of Japan, etc., our greatest hero was a pacifist & a civilian whose weapon was his quill.
  61. 61. 33. Great men said about the pen being mightier & more powerful than the sword. Napoleon I himself, who was a great conqueror & ruler, said: "There are only two powers in the world; the sword & the pen; and in the end the former is always conquered by the latter". 
  62. 62. 34. The following statement of Sir Thomas Browne is more applicable to the role played by Rizal in our libertarian struggle: "Scholars are men of peace; they bear no arms; but their tongues are sharper than the sword; their pens carry further & give a louder report than thunder. I had rather stand in the shock of a basilisk
  63. 63. 35. Quoted from Bulwer: "take away the sword; states can be saved w/o it; bring the pen!
  64. 64. 36. The Austrian savant Prof. Blumentritt judged him as "the most prominent man of his own people" and "the greatest man the Malayan race has produced".
  65. 65. 36. The Austrian savant Prof. Blumentritt judged him as "the most prominent man of his own people" and "the greatest man the Malayan race has produced".
  66. 66. 36. The Austrian savant Prof. Blumentritt judged him as "the most prominent man of his own people" and "the greatest man the Malayan race has produced".
  67. 67. Presented by: 555 TUNA