1. POLITICAL HISTORY of the
GAUDENCIO “YARI” N. ANDAYA JR. BSN, MPA
DPA 102 Philippine Administrative System
2nd Semester 2011-2012
Professor : Jo B. Bitonio, DPA
Lyceum Northwestern University
10. Fifth Republic of the Philippines
Benigno Aquino III
11. Philippine System of
Government and Politics
From the time when the Philippines declared itself a sovereign state
in 1898, the nation has had four major constitutions:
(1) the 1899constitution, which established the first republic in
(2) the 1935constitution, which served as the basic law during the
period of self-government while the Philippines was still under
American rule and after it became independent in 1946;
(3) the 1973 constitution, which allowed Ferdinand Marcos to
continue to hold office as president; and
(4) the 1987 constitution, upon which the present government is
based, which essentially restored institutions and processes
dismantled by Marcos during his regime
12. The Executive Branch
As chief executive, the president has the power to execute
The president is assisted by a cabinet, which currently
comprises twenty-three departments.
Among the more important departments are Foreign Affairs,
National Defense, Finance, Interior and Local Government,
Justice, and Trade and Industry.
Both president and vice president are elected at large for a
six-year term with no possibility of reelection.
The executive branch consists of the President and his Cabinet. The Senate and
the House of Representatives make up the bicameral legislature. The Supreme
Court heads the systems of courts under the judicial branch.
13. The Legislative Branch
The Philippine Congress is a bicameral body, the upper house being
the Senate and the lower house being the House of Representatives.
These two houses possess equal power, although budgetary bills
must originate in the lower house, while treaty ratification rests
exclusively with the upper house.
Congress consists of a 24-member Senate and a 250-member House of Representatives.
The voters of the entire nation elect senators to six-year terms.
Voters from different districts elect 200 of the representatives to three-year terms. The
remaining 50 representatives are selected from lists drawn up by the political parties to
ensure representation of women, ethnic minorities, and certain economic and
The number selected from each party's list is about one-fourth of the number of the
party's elected representatives. All Philippine citizens who are at least 18 years old may
14. The Judiciary
Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court and in the
Members of the judiciary are chosen by the president from a
list of nominees provided by the Judicial and Bar Council, a
constitutional body composed of representatives from the
executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government,
the legal profession, and the private sector.
Once appointed, judges have secure tenure and can serve
until the age of seventy or until they become incapacitated.
16. Local Governments
The lowest political unit in the Philippines is
the barangay (village).
The barangay is administered by a council headed by a punong
Several barangays make up a city or municipality.
17. Administrative subdivisions
The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of local
government units (LGUs) with the province as the
primary unit. As of 2007, there are 81 provinces in the
International organization participation
The Philippines is a founding and active member of
the UN since its inception on October 24, 1945 and is a
founding member of the ASEAN.
18. Islam Influence on the Political
Islam has a great influence on the political system of the natives in
the Southern Philippines. The sultan of the Muslim community is
still the sultan of Muslim provinces.
19. The Philippine Administrative
The administrative system of the Republic of the Philippines
is comprised of a central government and its territorial and
political subdivisions, which enjoy local autonomy: the
provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays