POLITICAL HISTORY of the PHILIPPINESGAUDENCIO “YARI” N. ANDAYA JR. BSN, MPA DPA 102 Philippine Administrative System 2nd Semester 2011-2012 Professor : Jo B. Bitonio, DPA Lyceum Northwestern University Dagupan City
Philippine RevolutionLa Liga Filipina Jose Rizal Marcelo H. del Pilar Graciano López Jaena Mariano Ponce La Solidaridad
KatipunanAndres BonifacioGregorio del PilarMelchora Aquino
Spanish-American War First Philippine Republic Emilio Aguinaldo Apolinario Mabini Pedro Paterno Mariano Trias
Philippine-American War American territoryUS Military Governor: Arthur MacArthur, Jr.
Commonwealth of the Philippines Quezon, Manuel L.
Republic of the PhilippinesThird Republic of the Philippines Manuel Roxas Elpidio Quirino Ramon Magsaysay Carlos P. Garcia Diosdado Macapagal
Martial Law EraFerdinand MarcosBenigno Aquino, Jr.EDSA Revolution
Fifth Republic of the Philippines Corazon Aquino Fidel Ramos Joseph Estrada EDSA II Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Benigno Aquino III
Philippine System of Government and PoliticsFrom the time when the Philippines declared itself a sovereign statein 1898, the nation has had four major constitutions:(1) the 1899constitution, which established the first republic inAsia;(2) the 1935constitution, which served as the basic law during theperiod of self-government while the Philippines was still underAmerican rule and after it became independent in 1946;(3) the 1973 constitution, which allowed Ferdinand Marcos tocontinue to hold office as president; and(4) the 1987 constitution, upon which the present government isbased, which essentially restored institutions and processesdismantled by Marcos during his regime
The Executive Branch As chief executive, the president has the power to execute laws. The president is assisted by a cabinet, which currently comprises twenty-three departments. Among the more important departments are Foreign Affairs, National Defense, Finance, Interior and Local Government, Justice, and Trade and Industry. Both president and vice president are elected at large for a six-year term with no possibility of reelection. The executive branch consists of the President and his Cabinet. The Senate and the House of Representatives make up the bicameral legislature. The Supreme Court heads the systems of courts under the judicial branch.
The Legislative Branch The Philippine Congress is a bicameral body, the upper house being the Senate and the lower house being the House of Representatives. These two houses possess equal power, although budgetary bills must originate in the lower house, while treaty ratification rests exclusively with the upper house. Congress consists of a 24-member Senate and a 250-member House of Representatives. The voters of the entire nation elect senators to six-year terms. Voters from different districts elect 200 of the representatives to three-year terms. The remaining 50 representatives are selected from lists drawn up by the political parties to ensure representation of women, ethnic minorities, and certain economic and occupational groups. The number selected from each partys list is about one-fourth of the number of the partys elected representatives. All Philippine citizens who are at least 18 years old may vote.
The Judiciary Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court and in the lower courts. Members of the judiciary are chosen by the president from a list of nominees provided by the Judicial and Bar Council, a constitutional body composed of representatives from the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, the legal profession, and the private sector. Once appointed, judges have secure tenure and can serve until the age of seventy or until they become incapacitated.
Constitutional Commissions The constitution also provides for independent constitutional commissions, namely, the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit.
Local Governments The lowest political unit in the Philippines isthe barangay (village). The barangay is administered by a council headed by a punongbarangay (chairperson).Several barangays make up a city or municipality.
Administrative subdivisions The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of local government units (LGUs) with the province as the primary unit. As of 2007, there are 81 provinces in the country.International organization participation The Philippines is a founding and active member of the UN since its inception on October 24, 1945 and is a founding member of the ASEAN.
Islam Influence on the PoliticalSystem Islam has a great influence on the political system of the natives in the Southern Philippines. The sultan of the Muslim community is still the sultan of Muslim provinces.
The Philippine AdministrativeSystem The administrative system of the Republic of the Philippines is comprised of a central government and its territorial and political subdivisions, which enjoy local autonomy: the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays