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Translation Module 1.pdf

  1. 1. Translation Jerrylyn Bacroya-Magbuo, Ph.D College of Education SY 2020-2021
  2. 2. ENGEL1 - Translation (3 units) This course provides the application of rules of discourse and rhetoric in translation of various types of written material in consideration with the principles and strategies in translating texts of various types from English to Filipino Language. To accomplish that, it will tackle fundamental notions, theories and empirical groundings of the translation studies. Course Credits : 3 Contact Hours : 3 hours/week Pre - Req. : None
  3. 3. Grading system Individual Outputs– 25% Group Outputs – 25% Term Project/Major exam – 50%
  4. 4. Prelims: A Brief Introduction to Translation This module discusses why translation matters, what is translation, and what is good translation. It also gives an overview of the content of the entire course. • Why Translate • What Is Translation • What Is Good Translation
  5. 5. Prelims: The Process of Translation This module discusses the four-step process of translation. Each step is discussed in detail. • Four-Step Translation Process • Gathering Background Information • Deciding on the Word Meaning • Looking for Appropriate Expressions
  6. 6. Midterms: Understanding and Expressing Word Meaning This module discusses how to understand word meaning in the source language and how to express word meaning in the target language. • Identifying Specialized Vocabulary • Analyzing Grammar and Logic • Making Conversions • Adding or Omitting Words, Phrases, Clauses • Considering Connotations and Tones • Being Flexible
  7. 7. Finals: Sentence Translation: Word Order, Division, and Combination This module discusses the techniques often used in the translation of sentences: keeping/changing the original word order and dividing/combining sentences. • Changing the Word Order • Keeping the Word Order • Dividing a Sentence • Combining Sentences
  8. 8. What will happen to human life without translation? Group yourself into 4. Draw the world without translation using Jamboard. Be ready to present in class.
  9. 9. Introduction to Translation Module 1
  10. 10. Why do we need to learn translation? Because translation matters. Why do translation matters?
  11. 11. Without translation, what would happen to our life, to the technologies we're so use to, to literature and arts that we enjoy? To our religious and spiritual experiences, to our political, social, professional, and personal life?
  12. 12. • There are more than 6,000 human languages in the world • Without translation, it would be impossible for even the most gifted linguists who read, and through reading, to learn any facts, thoughts, feelings, written in any language they don't know.
  13. 13. Results of academic's research in one language and made available to researchers of other languages through translation, who may then advance the study.
  14. 14. Without that translation, the English-speaking people would not have had the opportunity to bathe in the light or to come by the water. Similarly, Martin Luther's translation of the Bible into German in the 16th century, brought about not only the religious reform in Germany, but also the revival of the German language and even the German nation.
  15. 15. What is Translation? • What is Translation? • What does translation mean to you now? • Do you think your definition of translation affects how you translate the meaning of texts?
  16. 16. Without translation, we cannot be inspired and touched by the thoughts, perspectives, experiences and feelings in them. To become ever more open- minded, learned, sympathetic, to know the world and ourselves better.
  17. 17. Today’s life is run by translation • for nations to interact.. • for companies to operate.. • for students and teachers to learn the latest development in their fields of study.. • For everyone of us to be informed about the news in the world.. • to travel.. • to read.. • to watch films.. • To be come better humans
  18. 18. But even with the importance of translation, translators are just waste of space.
  19. 19. beautiful but unfaithful woman…
  20. 20. The translator in whole words is a servant who serves both the original work and the reader at the same time.. And is expected to be faithful to both.
  21. 21. In other words, the job of the translator is to accelerate and deeply understand the meaning of the original work, faithfully express the meaning of the target language and express it in such a way that a target readers would feel as if that were really a work written in their native language.
  22. 22. "I like to think of the original work as an ice cube. During the process of translation the Cube is melted. While in its liquid state, every molecule changes place; none remains in its original relationship to the others. Then begins the process of forming the work in a second language. Molecules escape, new molecules are poured in to fill in the spaces, but the lines of molding and mending are virtually invisible. The work exists in a second language as a new ice cube- different, but to all appearances the same.” - - Margaret Sayers Peden
  23. 23. What is the role of a translator? What do you think are your responsibilities as future translators? Group your self into 4 groups. Create a list of answers to these questions. Be ready to present this in class next week (ppt, 5 mins per group).
  24. 24. The Good Translation Week 3
  25. 25. Either @google hates Greece or Greeks hate games... #GoogleTranslateFails
  26. 26. That time you laughed and it was really awkward.
  27. 27. Source Language Thought Feelings Experiences Perspectives c Target Language Thought Feelings Experiences Perspectives c
  28. 28. Good translation is You choose your philosophy of translation just as you choose how to live: the free adaptation that sacrifices detail to meaning, the strict crib that sacrifices meaning to exactitude -Anne Michaels, Canadian Writer FAITHFUL but easy to understand. FAITHFUL but expressive.
  29. 29. It will be great if the translation can be truthful and expressive, but in reality, it's very difficult to be both. When we do translations, we may not consciously think about making a choice between the two. But when we are in difficulty or dilemma, we realize that we have to make a choice. Are we going to be faithful to the original text or to the reader? Are we going to create a beautiful but unfaithful translation? Or are we going to create a faithful but not beautiful translation? If we want our translation to be exactly the same as the original text, we may cause barriers in understanding to the readers. If we want the readers to enjoy reading, we may take the risk of misrepresenting the original text.
  30. 30. Source Language Thought Feelings Experiences Perspectives Target Language Thought Feelings Experiences Perspectives The Translator’s Subjectivity Translator’s Knowledge Experiences Values (Time, Society, Culture)
  31. 31. Cocktail lounge, Norway: “Ladies are Requested Not to have Children in the Bar” At a Budapest zoo: “PLEASE DO NOT FEED THE ANIMALS. If you have any suitable food, give it to the guard on duty” Hotel in Acapulco: “The Manager has Personally Passed All the Water Served Here” Car rental brochure, Tokyo: “When passenger of foot heave in sight, tootle the horn. Trumpet him melodiously at first, but if he still obstacles your passage then tootle him with vigor.” On an Athi River highway: “TAKE NOTICE: When this sign is under water, this road is impassable.” Tokyo hotel’s rules and regulations: “Guests are requested NOT to smoke or do other disgusting behaviors in bed.” In an East African newspaper: “A new swimming pool is rapidly taking shape since the contractors have thrown in the bulk of their workers.” Hotel lobby, Bucharest: “The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that time we regret that you will be unbearable. In Nairobi restaurant: “Customers who find our waitresses rude ought to see the manager.”
  32. 32. A sign on a car in Manila, Philippines: “Car and owner for sale.” Hotel in Zurich: “Because of the impropriety of entertaining guests of the opposite sex in the bedroom, is it suggested that the lobby be used for this purpose.” Airline ticket office, Copenhagen: “We take your bags and send them in all directions.” War museum on the River Kwai, Thailand: “The Museum is building now — sorry for the visitor” In a Bangkok dry cleaner’s: “Drop your trousers here for best results.” In an advertisement by a Hong Kong dentist: “Teeth extracted by the latest Methodists.” Instructions for a soap bubble gun: “While solution is not toxic it will not make child edible.” Detour sign in Kyushu, Japan: “Stop: Drive Sideways.” Sign at Mexican disco: “Members and non-members only.” A sign posted in Germany’s Black Forest: “It is strictly forbidden on our black forest camping site that people of different sex, for instance, men and women, live together in one tent unless they are married with each other for that purpose.” Japanese hotel room: “Please to bathe inside the tub.” On a South African building: “Mental health prevention centre.”
  33. 33. The Translation Process
  34. 34. THE PRE-TRANSLATION PROCESS – what is it and why is it useful? • There is a lot more to translation than meets the eye. The essence of the translation process is to transform a piece of text from one language, the source language (SL), into another, the target language (TL). However, there is far more to consider than many people realize: there is so much to contemplate and decide before the actual ‘translation process’ can begin. • There is an entire process to consider first. With multiple factors to contemplate and points to clarify, the following pre-translation steps are essential for ensuring a smooth translation process, avoiding delays and producing an accurate end result.
  35. 35. Read the whole ST through • Although seemingly obvious, this is a step that is often skipped either due to laziness or over-eagerness to start translating. Without reading the entire text through first, it would be all too easy to misinterpret the meaning in the beginning and thus make inaccurate translations. To fully understand and grasp the significance of what is written, you need to first asses the text as one whole entity before breaking it down into smaller portions.
  36. 36. Do your research • Having the ability to speak two languages does not mean the translator can understand everything in either language, even their native language. English is my native language, yet if I was given a medical document to read in English, I know there is a high probability that I would fail to understand everything because I have no complex understanding of medical terms. Therefore, if given a text to translate on a subject which you are not an expert in, it is crucial to conduct thorough research of the domain and any complex terms. Failure to do this would result in inaccurate work
  37. 37. Who and what is the text for? • Rarely is the target audience (TA) of the target text (TT) the same as that of the source text (ST). There are nearly always differences between them, such as a different culture, age or level of domain knowledge. Depending on the differences of the TA, the translator will then have to adjust and be mindful of the register, tone and complexity of the text. Equally so these things will also need to be considered when assessing the purposes of the TT. If the translated text will be used for a purpose different from that of the original text, it again may be necessary to adjust the text’s register, tone or complexity.
  38. 38. Assess what changes to make • Now, based on the research carried out and on the text assessment the translator can be clear on what strategy to take when translating. Understanding the changes that need to be made helps to construct a consistent and focused final translation. •
  39. 39. Now we translate! • Only after all these stages have been thoroughly conducted can the translator begin the process of translating the text. Having a meticulous pre-translation ritual prepares the translator for any potential difficulties and ensures the best possible quality result.
  40. 40. Task qForm a group with three members. Meet and record your meeting. qTranslate the poem of Lang leav. qPresent your answer in class. J
  41. 41. The first step in translation, is to understand the source language. This is the key to good translation. If we do not understand the source language, or if we do not understand it deeply and thoroughly, our translation will be dissatisfactory. To understand a source language text means to understand, first of all of course, the language. Including not only the surface meaning, the underlying meaning, the implications, and the overtones. But also the structures of the sentences, and the logical relationship between sentences and paragraphs.
  42. 42. Over tones vs Undertones What was said and how it is said. “Leave me. Yes. Its fine.”
  43. 43. Searching for Background Information:
  44. 44. Translate the script of the video and deliver your Filipino lines: • Create two groups. Follow our Pre-translation steps and translate the script from this award winning movie: Memoirs of a Geisha. Deliver your lines in a video recording of the scene. • Purpose: This is a lesson to Grade 89students • Objectives: Introduce Japan, Japanese culture and beliefs
  45. 45. General Translation Principles
  46. 46. There are some general translation principles which are relevant to all types of translation. 1) Meaning : The translation should reflect accurately the meaning of the original text. Nothing should be arbitrarily added or removed, though occsionally part of the meaning can be transposed.
  47. 47. 2) Form : The ordering of words and ideas in the translation should match the original as closely as possible. This is particularly important in translating legal documents, guarantees, contracts, etc. But differences in language structure often require changes in the form and order of words. When in doubt, underline in the original text the words on which the main stress falls.
  48. 48. 3) Register : Languages often differ greatly in their levels of formality in a given context, for example, the business letter. To resolve these differences, the translator must distinguish between formal or fixed expressions and personal expressions, in which the writer or speaker sets the tone.
  49. 49. 4) Source language influence One of the most frequent criticism of translation is that it does not sound natural. This is because the translator's thoughts and choice of words are too strongly molded by the original text. A good way of shaking off the source language influence is to set the text aside and translate a few sentences aloud, from memory. This will suggest natural patterns of thought in the first language, which may not come to mind when the eye is fixed on the source language text.
  50. 50. 5) Style and clarity : The translator should not change the style of the original. But if the text is sloppily written, or full of tedious repetitions, the translator may, for the reader's sake, correct the defects.
  51. 51. 6) Idiom: Idiomatic expressions are notoriously untranslatable. These include similes, metaphors, proverbs and sayings, jargon, slang, and colloquialisms and ( in English ) phrasal verbs. If the expressions cannot be directly translated, try any of the following : a. retain the original word, in inverted commas. b. retain the original expression, with a literal explanation in brackets. c. use a close equivalent. d. use a non-idiomatic or plain prose translation.
  52. 52. The golden rule is : if the idiom does not work in the L1, do not force it into the translation.