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  2. 2. Four years of basic education result in 8% increase in farm production (low income countries). Every extra year of primary education increases a person’s productivity by 10 to 30%. 10% increase in girl’s primary enrolment decrease infant mortality by 4.1 deaths/ 1000. In Latin America during 1980s, the average duration for completing one grade was 1.7 years, 32 million repeated grades causing a wastage of $5.2 billion. PSEUDO WASTAGE Only 40% of the teachers are provided with in- service Teacher Education once over a period of four to five years To meet its target of increasing enrolment levels to 15 per cent in 2012, the Eleventh Plan estimates that India needs to invest ₹ 2,26,410 crore. Yet it has set aside only ₹ 77,933 crore-just a fourth of the total needed. Almost half of the country’s population is below 25 years. Almost 10 per cent of them or 12 crore are between the ages of 18 and 23. If they are equipped with both knowledge and skills, they could drive India’s entrepreneurial and Competitive spirit and make it into global power. Sixty-five out of 100 schools have common toilets in India; however only one out of four schools in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Orissa and Rajasthan have this facility. A study found that 65% of schoolchildren in Hyderabad slums attend private schools. This proves the fact that even the poorest in India go to private schools in spite of the free education in government schools.
  4. 4. • The pupil to teacher ratio in primary school stands for 40.2 and ranked 27th in the world (higher the ratio lower the rank), fairing lower than countries like China, Iraq, Iran, Sri Lanka, France • Nearly 25% of primary teachers skip their work with only 50% of teachers are actually engaged in the act of teaching while at work. Lack in quantity and quality of teachers for elementary and primary schools • The total expenditure on primary education by the government stands for USD 57,233,500,000 which turns out to be 3.2% of the total GNI, which below the countries like France, China, Brazil and Russia. • Only 68.43% of schools received school development grants (SDG) which accounts for about 10 percent of the total Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan budget. Poor policies implementation and less importance given to primary education • Outdated teaching methodology and lack of proper motivation for students lead to dropout rates as high as 28.86%. • Only 68.88% of Teaching Learning Material (TLM) Grant reaches to the teacher in primary education sector. Negligence towards teaching methodology and curriculum. • Only 51.5% of total primary schools registered has conducted a routine medical check-up for the students. • Various cases of cast based discrimination arises while distribution of mid day meal. Less importance given to social and mental aspect in the education system
  6. 6. Quality we need.Knowledge Imparters •Whole and sole we require quantity of teachers with quality. •Quantity because the pupil to teacher ratio need to be brought down to near 30:1, from whopping 40:1 (all over India), the situation is more worse in rural India (around 60:1). •Quality because what they impart is what children are going to learn. An essential.Infrastructure •As better the infrastructure will be, convenient and lucrative the education. •Concentration should be more on rural infrastructure for schools as 70% of total population resides in rural area. •In urban areas there is availability of large number of schools which are run by private organization but they show less interest in rural India. A Hawk’s eye.Monitoring •To check whether the projects initiated, funds released or programme launched by the Government is being implemented in a proper manner or not. •It will be responsible to check and prevent any corrupt or illegal activities taking place under the cover. •Team should be made on District level, so that a good and efficient functioning can take place. •A common database with daily or weekly update by the concerned official should be made for better tracking of activities and events, based on which the Annual or Bi- Annual Action Plan can be recommended. “Imparting knowledge to a new generation is not just a job, it’s a responsibility.”
  7. 7. Need to be revivedCurriculum •It should be made more and more student centered. •Emphasis should be given on “Learning by applying.” •Life skills and peace education should be introduced as a non- evaluating subject. •Should be designed in such a way that it inculcates the numeracy skills, along with literacy. A changeoverEvaluation Process •A strong assessment and grading system need to be developed. •Under this teacher/ evaluator’s job will not be limited to giving the marks. •It will be extended to telling what they have done wrong and it’s correct procedure. •“Graphical Grading Analysis” should be introduced, in which every student’s performance is not marks based but it will be shown in terms of graph. Rise above allSocial Structure •There has been instances where student in primary schools often become the victim of discrimination either on basis of caste, religion or sex. •Stringent action should be taken against the officials involved in such activities, on the other hand student should be given “Value education” to rise above all. •Concerned higher authority should take care that feeling of discrimination should not get spread among students. Literacy is the ability to read and write one's own name and further for knowledge write coherently, and think critically about the written word. “Don’t tell they have done it wrong, tell them why & what is wrong.” “Roots should not be fed with poison of discrimination.”
  8. 8. Everyone respire.Awareness •Government has taken some really good initiative by launching programmes like ‘Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan’, ‘Mid- Day Meal’ and the recent one ‘Right to Education’. But the problem that occurred in most of the plans that it didn’t went straight to people for whom it was meant. •Hence instead of only restricting up to advertisements on television and banners in cities, there exists a more cost effective and better way. •Involve the parents , not only for Parent teacher meeting but also to take part in decisions of local development and action plans. Agenda for ages.Health & Facilities •According to UNICEF, India is in the list of those countries which are unable to develop a strong nexus between health and education. •Health and education are directly proportional to each other. •Every school should have a clean environment to study, a regular health check up system. •The nutrition value of the Mid Day Meal should be as per the minimum value required to develop a healthy child. •Separate toilets for girls and boys should be made; this will allow girl child to come up and pursue primary education at least. •Development of good health facilities in schools at primary level will give satisfaction to parent, hence they will be more willing to send their children. “There can never be a better advertiser than parents. ” “A healthy mind always ready to find. ”
  10. 10. CLUSTER SYSTEM OF EDUCATION PROLEMS ADDRESSED BY THE SYSTEM •Need of infrastructure to be developed at a fast rate. •Lack of proper monitoring system causing a lot of wastage/ concentration in hands of few. •Lack of Community Development Programme. •Lack of proper distribution of human resource. ABOUT THE SYSTEM •Group of schools that are geographically as close and accessible to each other as possible. •Consisting of between five and seven schools. •One school in each group is selected to serve as the cluster centre. •Cluster centre should be as central and accessible as possible to its satellite schools, it should have adequate facilities and ideally be situated at a development centre where other social and commercial services are available. ADVANTAGES OF THE SYSTEM •Greater equity are achieved between schools. •Better channeling of inputs from advisory board to teachers. •All learners will be exposed to similar level of testing. •Teacher absenteeism is reduced. •Stationery and textbook distribution needn’t follow a long route. •Easy collection of statistics. •Access to schools for every child. •Each cluster school can work for community development. 1 Head Office 6 to 8 Regional Offices 5 to 8 Circuits per region 5 to 7 Clusters per circuit 5 to 7 Schools per cluster “Schools are managed more as networks rather than as individual empires’.”
  11. 11. Quality Teachers & Trainers (Knowledge Imparters) •To develop teaching as one of the main stream career goal, world class institutions has to be made where ‘Teaching’ is a core subject/ branch. •Young unemployed/willing students should be given internship opportunity to teach at various cluster school and share their ideas/ culture with new generation. •To set up proper channel to provide in-service training to teachers periodically to update them with current scenario. •Common portal or webinars, where teachers from all over the country should come together to discuss and share their problems and experience Curriculum •An advisory board should be set up and the entire curriculum will be given a changeover. In this emphasis will be given on displaying data in graphical way, introduction of quotes regarding morals and values in header and footer of the book page. •A good space of time will be made available for sports, life skills, value and peace education. •For making student aware about day to day happenings and building an interest in it, student newspaper will be brought in role. •Introduction of modern tools and teaching aids such as small scale models and animation/ videos, accordingly fund should be released. •Subjects till 3rd grade should be at most 3 i.e. Elementary Science, one language, Elementary Mathematics.
  13. 13. ● Increase in national literacy rate. ● Decrease in the number of dropouts. ● Quality students with strong roots, leading to improvement in quality of human resource. ● Decrease in child labor. ● Decrease in amount of crime. ● Decrease in poverty. ● Decrease in infant mortality rate, yielding better life expectancy. ● Increase in national income and GDP.
  15. 15. • The very first challenge will be the participation of parents. • One of the major problem (social) which lead to many potential children being underdeveloped. • What stops them? • Economic condition of family. • Old family tradition/ custom especially in case of girl child. • Lack of awareness about importance of education in life. • From economic point of view the problem is about sharing the pie. • It’s not that India is “SUFFERING” with only problem of Quality Primary Education, it has many other un developed sectors. • The question arises to develop such a large amount of infrastructure at a quick rate, How much share should be given? • Finally it all come downs to politics and politicians, as they are the decision makers. • It’s a high time that they should think critically and take some bold step in regard of this. • As this is something which creates base of every thing, whether it’s corruption, poverty, crime, child labour, etc. The ultimate onus lies on ‘We the people of India’. Things are simple as follows: Bring in power by electing the one who work for betterment of all not yours. An able leader, will understand the need, act and bring changes accordingly and to everyone’s surprise the situation will be much better to speak off.
  17. 17. • A healthy, well nourished and free from exploitation violence. • Awareness about their rights and equal opportunity to realize. • Being able to protect themselves and develop to their full potential. • Respect diversity, practice equality and resolve differences with non- violence. • Learn what they need to learn – for learning throughout life. “Support them, they will support you.”
  18. 18. REFERENCES & ANNEXURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Report of UNICEF on Quality of Primary Education(Global): The Potential to Transform Society into Single Generation. 12. Farm productivity and efficiency in rural Bangladesh: The role of education revisited* by M Niaz Asadullah. 13. School Clusters in the Third World: Making Them Work – UNESCO, UNICEF Co-operative Programme Paris 1987. 14. School Clusters and Teachers Resource Centres by Elizabeth A. Giordano. 15. Primary Education in India by Ajay Deshpande & Sayan Mitra. 16. DISE Analytical Table 2010-’11 by Arun C Kumar. 17. Annual Status of Education Report-Rural 2012 by Pratham. 18. Human Development Report 2010 by United Nations Development Programme. 19. Chapter 2, India Infrastructure Report 2012.