Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Primary Education Systen India BY:- Public-izer
  2. 2. Summary • Primary education is a fundamental right in India, and at the international level an important Millennium Development Goal to which India and the Bank are totally committed. • GOI and States increasingly recognize education as a critical input for human capital development, employment/ jobs, and economic growth, and are putting major financial and technical resources into this effort. • Nevertheless, demand for education far exceeds supply, in terms of both access and quality, at all levels. • Anxious to get YOUR views as to how the Bank can improve its impact on access, learning outcomes and reducing skills shortages. 2
  3. 3. Basic Education • Two decades of focused programs in basic education have reduced out-of-school youth to about 10 M (down from 25 M in 2003), most from marginalized social groups. Net enrollment rate is 85%, with social disparities. • Key challenge is to finish the “access agenda” and dramatically increase focus on quality, with more attention to classroom processes, basic reading skills in early grades, teacher quality and accountability, community/parent oversight, evaluation/assessment. 3
  4. 4. • A strong education system is the cornerstone of any country's growth and prosperity. Over the last • decade, India has made great strides in strengthening its primary education system. The District • Information System for Education (DISE) reported in 2012 that 95% of India's rural populations are • within one kilometer of primary schools. The 2011 Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), which • tracks trends in rural education, indicated that enrollment rates among primary-school-aged children • were about 93%, with little difference by gender. 4
  5. 5. GOI Education Strategy • Unprecedented priority to universal elementary education. • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: aims to universalize elementary education by 2010, and improve learning outcomes. • Education cess of 3% on income tax, corporation tax, excise and customs duties generates necessary resources • Cost-Share: was 50/50 (2007), moving to 65/35 Center/State • Estimate: 11th Plan: ’07-’12: 60,000- 70,000 crores (US$17 billion) • Increased focus on quality and upper primary in phase II. 5
  6. 6. GOI Strategy (continued) • National Mission for Skills is being set up, looking at both VET and secondary education • New centrally sponsored scheme to update all industrial training institutes (ITIs) • Significant investments in higher education (including reforms and expansion) are expected 6
  7. 7. Bank Strategy and Support • IDA Lending: 0%, 35 years to repay with first 10 years “grace” (no repayment) • Since FY00: over US$ 1 Billion (Rupees 40 billion) committed to sector. • Over last 10 years: eight State-level District Primary Education Projects • US$ 500 M for SSA I; Additional US$500 M in November 2007 for SSA II ▫ Increased focus on quality in SSA II ▫ Partner with European Commission and UK DFID ▫ Still a small player: Bank $ is less than 10% of GOI $ 7
  8. 8. Collaboration with Civil Society • Over 7,000 NGOs participating as partners in SSA ▫ Alternative education programs: “bridge courses” ▫ Monitoring of quality ▫ Capacity-building of VECs ▫ Reference Groups advising States, Districts and Blocs ▫ Contracting (e.g. MP with Pratham) • Not surprisingly, varies greatly by State 8
  9. 9. Bank Research • Elementary Education ▫ Impact evaluation regarding:  Incentive payments and schooling inputs on student learning  Dissemination of education information on school governance and student outcomes  School characteristics and student outcomes  Instructional time on task survey 9
  10. 10. Bank Research • Early Childhood Development – focus on integrated (health/nutrition/education) approaches ▫ Will feed into US$ 450 M Integrated Child Development Services Project 10
  11. 11. • So, let‟s see which are the states in India that has most number of educated people, that is • percentage of the number of people who have at least attained primary education. • #13. Manipur – 70.4% • It is noted that the state is significantly improving over the years • #12. Nagaland – 71.9% • Primary, elementary, and secondary education is taken care of by the state government. Children • of 14 years and below are entitled to “free and compulsory education” in the state. • #11. West Bengal – 74.4% • Kolkata being a metropolitan city, it‟s a shame that West Bengal has just reached number 11 in • this list. Other than Delhi and West Bengal, both the other states with metro cities have featured • among the top 10. It seems that people are over-complacent about importance of education here, • but less complacent than those in Delhi. The new CM should start compulsory primary education • here. 11 Most educated states – India,2013
  12. 12. • #9. Gujarat – 76.7% • Though one of the earliest-formed states of India, it keeps itself to one of the top 10. • #9. Uttarakhand – 76.7% • A comparatively new state, and with this much of literacy rate, it‟s worth take note of. • #8. Tamil Nadu – 77.3% • A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states • with about 100 percent Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. • #7. Sikkim – 77.9% • There are a total of 1157 schools, together with 765 schools run by the State government, 7 • central government schools and 385 private schools. Sikkim has many prominent educational • institutes and it also runs a host of distance education programs in diverse fields. Sikkim is also • known to be one of the fastest growing states in the country. Moreover, it is seen that with 38 • percent of the population below the age of 15, the number of young people entering theworkforce and looking for jobs in industry and services will increase in coming years. This is a • healthy trend that shows that the state is fast moving from the status of „developing‟ to • „developed‟. 12
  13. 13. • #6. Maharashtra – 80.3% • The male and female literacy rate in the state is 89.82 percent and 75.48 percent respectively. • #5. Tripura – 81% • As per the Economic Review of Tripura 2010–11, Tripura has a total of 4,455 schools. • #4. Himachal Pradesh – 82.6% • Himachal Pradesh was under the direct control of the British colonial rule in the mid 19th • century and therefore the standard of education provided in the state has reached to a • considerably high level. The state has numerous highly reputed educational institutions for • higher studies. • #3. Mizoram – 83.8% • Years ago, Mizoram was not in the map, and its inhabitants were all illiterate as they were • confined to the limits of tribal village. But today, Mizoram has become the third most-literate • State of India. • #2. Goa – 85.4% • Apart from being one of the major tourist destinations, Goa also houses some of the best • educational institutes of the nation. The scenario of education in Goa is comparatively • better than many other states. The quality of the state-run schools and low level of • corruption has further added to the betterment of school education in Goa. The Goa • University is the premier centre of higher studies in the state and the majority of the • colleges are affiliated to it. • #1. Kerala – 96.9% 13
  14. 14. • • Children at Madanpur Khadar primary school in a district of New Delhi • where the three primary schools are woefully short of teachers. • Photograph: David Levene • India is in a state of poor ? India Don’t wont to Rise ? • NO, according to the surveys around 60-65 % of children drop • their primary education just because of two problems • 1. Due to lack of money problems in the family. • 2. or they don’t have a chance to explore the world ( they die ) • just because of hunger , weakness, and stride to depression. 14 Why girls in India are still missing out on the education they need
  15. 15. WHAT SHOULD BE THE AGENDA OFF THIS TOPIC ? • 1.This system, certainly not a socialistic one, guarantees that • the school administration and techers don't become • complacent and ignore their primary duty. • 2. This kind of a system may not be feasible, or even desirable, • for India. However, any solution has to account for the fact that • competition is • required for continued improvement and innovation. • Government should regulate the playing field for fair • competition but not eliminate competition altogether. The way • I read Mr. Sen's conclusions, it appears that he is arguing for • removing private tuition as a mechanism to improve • government schools. A better solution would be create an • instituitional framework where these two compete, with • adequate rewards for the winner. As of now, the government • schools and teachers have little to lose even if they don't • perform. • US government schools compete for a better ranking, • administered by the state. Better ranked schools drive property • prices higher in a locality as only residents of that locality are 15
  16. 16. • allowed enrollment and parents are willing to pay more for • better education. Higher property prices mean more local taxes • and hence more money to the school and hence, even better • performance. This is indeed a vicious circle, favouring the rich • and promoting inequity. In fact, schools who are not able to • improve their performance face cut in state funding as well. A picture telling the STATE of EDUCATION In india. 16
  17. 17. • MAIN REASONS ARE : • 1. Inadequate Teacher Qualification and Support • 2. Low Teacher Motivation and High Absenteeism • 3. Flawed Teaching Methodology • 4. Linguistic Diversity • 5. Government-school-educated children from rural India • struggle to speak even basic sentences in English. 17
  18. 18. • Governmental Efforts • The Indian government at every level recognizes the need for • educational reform and has made a conscientious effort to • achieve it. • The midday-meal plan, for example, is a highly publicized • nationwide program through which government school children • across India are provided with a midday meal every day of the • school week. The program is largely considered a success. A • study in 2011 by Rajshri Jayaraman and Dora Simroth found • that grade one enrollment increased by 20.8% simply if a • midday meal was offered. • According to Behar, "The Indian government has worked very • hard to provide rural schools with adequate infrastructure, • something that was critically lacking a few decades ago." For • instance, DISE reported in 2012 that more than 91% of primary • schools have drinking-water facilities and 86% of schools built • in the last 10 years have a school building. However, there is • still a long way to go: Only 52% of primary schools have a girls' • toilet, and just 32% are connected to the electricity grid. • In 2012, the Central Government enacted the Right to Education • (RTE) Act, under which every child between the ages of six and • 14 receives a free and compulsory education. In addition to • regulating access to education, the act contains certain • provisions that could positively impact the quality of education. • According to Jhingran, one of its major achievements has been • "the dramatic reduction of non-teaching duties assigned to • government school teachers, freeing up valuable time and • lowering absenteeism." 18 WHAT STEPS SHOULD BE TAKEN TO ELIMINATE IT ?
  19. 19. • Partnering with the Government • Over the past few decades, many organizations have begun • working with government schools and teachers to improve • learning outcomes. • Pratham, a joint venture between UNICEF and the Municipal • Corporation of Mumbai, runs multiple programs to supplement • school education, such as learning support classes, libraries and • additional learning resources. A hallmark of these initiatives is • that Pratham engages volunteers from local communities and • trains them to run these programs. Another important initiative • that has resulted from Pratham is the annual ASER, an • assessment that measures reading and arithmetic abilities by • surveying more than 600,000 children across 16,000 villages in • India. This remarkable exercise in data-gathering constitutes the • foundation for informed decision-making and benchmarking. • Other initiatives address teaching quality by placing specially • trained teachers in government schools. Teach for India, • modeled after the Teach for America program, was introduced • in 2006. Young, motivated Indian college graduates and • professionals apply for two-year fellowships to teach at • government-run and low-income private schools that lack • sufficient resources. An important distinction of Teach for India • is that instruction is, by design, always in English. As Mohit • Arora, fellowship recruitment manager for Teach for India, • noted, the organization's philosophy on this point is that • "learning English is essential to future success, as English in 19
  20. 20. • today's world is more than just a language. It is a skill set." • Students who do not speak English may have some difficulty • initially, but the organization has made learning at these schools • experiential and therefore engaging. The dynamics of one • particular grade 3 Teach for India classroom were in stark • contrast to other classrooms at the same school -- students were • listening intently, contributing in class, answering questions • beyond the textbook and demonstrating a strong command over • English. The challenge is scaling this model to rural India. • Still other organizations focus on capacity development of • teachers in government schools, such as the Azim Premji • Foundation. As CEO, Behar is categorical in his view that the • foundation "works in partnership with the government," and that • it "does not believe in supplanting the government school • system." The foundation has established scores of institutes at • the district level that provide in-service education and also • empower teachers to learn from each other. For example, Behar • described a voluntary teacher forum in a district of Rajasthan, • initially organized by the Azim Premji Foundation, but now • being run increasingly independently by teachers in the district. 20
  21. 21. • The Future of Primary Education in India • Education in India has improved dramatically over the last three • decades. Schools are accessible to most children, both student • enrollment and attendance are at their highest level, and teachers • are adequately remunerated. The RTE Act guarantees a quality • education to a wider range of students than ever before. • However, challenges in implementing and monitoring high • standards in teaching and learning outcomes across regional, • cultural and socioeconomic subsets prevent India from fully • achieving this goal. In addition, teacher support and scalability • of high-performing teaching professionals in disparate areas, • funding allocation for schools in remote districts and limited use • of technology in the classroom remain barriers to reforming • primary education. • India's growth story remains one of the most anticipated global • economic trends, and its fulfillment relies on a well-educated • and skilled workforce. Improving education is a critical area of • investment and focus if the country wants to sustain economic • growth and harness its young workforce. A weak foundation in • primary education can derail the lives, careers and productivity • of tens of millions of its citizens. Already, a significant • proportion of the adult workforce in India is severely underequipped • to perform skilled and semi-skilled jobs. As Rajesh • Sawhney, former president of Reliance Entertainment and • founder of GSF Superangels, noted, "No one is unemployed in • India; there are just a lot of people who are unemployable." • Furthermore, in order to develop India as a consumer market of • global standards, it is imperative that all of its children reap the • full benefits of a high-quality education. Otherwise, large • segments of the population in rural India will continue to have • low purchasing power, find themselves in highly leveraged • scenarios and, more often than not, continue to make a living • through agricultural means. While some of this can be attributed • to deficiencies in secondary and tertiary education, the root of • these issues lies in low-quality primary education 21