Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 4 - davide neri

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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 4 - davide neri

  1. 1. MARCHE POLYTECHNICS UNIVERSITY Specific Objectives Ancona, Italy Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Science • To understand root growth – Root cycle (lifetime, renovation, death, new formation)University Spin-off – Root absorption – Root ecology • Sustainability through organic matter (root and plant residues) – To increase nutrient availability Root growth and interaction – To reduce leakage and soil erosion with crop residues – To reduce disease sensibility (suppressiveness) – To improve humus formation (carbon cycle) Davide Neri, PhD 1 2 Bolzano, 16 November 2012 Roots Root growth and absorption use up to 40% of total photosynthesis (Zucconi 1996) 1 – root skeleton 4 – sustain root micromigration 2 – transport and sustain 5 – absorbtion (micromigration)Root apex 3 – macro migration 6 - mycorrhizae 3 4 Root function PEACH Allelopathy Assimilation Allelopathy Absorption Synthesis Transport Root Support type If the roots of adult trees are maintained in monospecific orchards there isTransmigrant a toxic reactionAbsorbentSupportSkeleton (Zucconi 1996) (Baldini 1986 5 6 Zucconi 1996)
  2. 2. Fefa farm, Desert Road, Cairo Egypt OLIVE cavity (Zucconi 1996) 7 Compost in trenches in two sides 8 Roots Empty niche with nutrients ZUCCONI-BRUNZINI-96SL053 ROOT PLASTICITY 9 10 (Zucconi 1996)Olea europaea: pomace fitotoxicity Giorgi, Neri, Lodolini, Savini 2008 Giorgi, Neri, Lodolini, Savini 2008 S* C pomace control pomace S C* Allelopathic sensitivity 11 12
  3. 3. Olea europaea: pomace fitotoxicity Giorgi, Neri, Lodolini, Savini 2008 Olea europaea: pomace fitotoxicity Giorgi, Neri, Lodolini, Savini 2008 Two factors experiment Two factors experiment whole pot (1) whole pot (1) • Substrate compost • Substrate pomace (olive husk) compost hay pomace (olive husk) hay plus pomace hay hay plus pomace • Location: whole pot (1) • Location: half pot (0.5) whole pot (1) half pot (0.5) (8 replicates) 13 •half pot (0.5) 14 (8 replicates)Olea europaea: pomace fitotoxicity Giorgi, Neri, Lodolini, Savini 2008 To observe root Glass windows 0.8 Whole pot 1 (3 mm) interaction with controllo Cider wood (2 cm) 0.6 S1 F1 organic residues SF 1 0.4 Shoot growth rateRGR 0.2 compost 15 cm 0.0 Half pot 0,5 0, 3, 10, 30, 100 % -0.2 0.8 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 controllo oven dried residues 3 cm giorni dopo trapianto 0.7 S 0.5 strawberry plants F 0.5 0.6 SF 0.5 (ground to 1mm) 0.5 compost 0.4 10 cm RGR RGR = relative growth rate 0.3 0.2 RGR = (L2 – L1) / L1 2 cm 0.1 Five boxes per 20 cm 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 treatment 15 16 giorni dopo trapianto (Neri, Sugiyama, Inujima, 2002) epidermis cortex endodermis pericycle protoxylem metaxylem phloem Lateral root formation 24 hours after root tip cut. Neri et al. 2011 17 18 (Neri, Sugiyama, Inujima, 2002)
  4. 4. Neri et al. 201148 hours 19 20 (Neri, Sugiyama, Inujima, 2002) 21 22 (Neri, Sugiyama, Inujima, 2002) (Neri, Sugiyama, Inujima, 2002) Savini, Neri 2004Trial 1 Four replications Materials and MethodsTreatment1 – control2 – strawberry residues 2%3 – strawberry residues 4% strawberry eluates4 – strawberry residues 2% + eluates 2% dry matter, aerobic5 – strawberry eluates ToxicityTrial 2 Four replications evaluation, bioassayTreatment1 – control2 – strawberry residues 30% Bench rhizotrons3 – strawberry eluates4 – broad bean and barley residues 30% 1.2 litres Toxic layer5 – broad bean and barley residues 30% + strawberry eluates 20°leaning 24 Savini, Neri 2004
  5. 5. 30-09-02 02-10-02 09-10-02 14-10-02 Layer with soluble eluates from strawberry residues 2 cm Absorbing zone Expanding zone Side view 25 26 Savini, Neri 2004 28-10-02 16-10-02 21-10-02 Absorbing zone - micromigration Expanding zone - macromigration Exhausted zone 27 28 Savini, Neri 2004 Savini, Neri 2004 04-11-02 16 days after transplantingTrial 1 Allelopathic Inhibited Zone 29 Savini, Neri 2004 control Strawberry eluates 30
  6. 6. Broad bean and Broad beansbarley (c) and barley, strawberry Neri, Mascanzoni,, Sabbatini, Zucconi, Flore, 2006 eluates (d) 31 32 16 days after transplanting Apple M9 at the end of the 2°year Apple M9at the end of the 2°year without residues 33 Apple residues <1mm at the end of the 2°year 34 35 36M9 at the end of the 2°year with apple residues in the t op layer M9 at the end of the 2°year with apple residues in the t op layer
  7. 7. Without residues with residuesM9 at the end of the 2°year with apple residues in the b ottom 37 M106 at the end of the 2°year 38 39 40 M9 at the end of the 2°year with peach residues M9 at the end of the 2°year with peach residues 1°year 1°year M9 M106 M9 M106 41 42 Apple rootstocks without residues Apple rootstocks with apple residues
  8. 8. Environmental mitigation of organic waste Organic alternatives to soil disinfection in apple replant (CRESO 2012) NOT TREATED CONTROL GREEN COMPOST GREEN COMPOST Bovine mannure Davide Neri, January 2012 43 44 (Mascanzoni, Zucconi, Neri 1996)Organic alternatives to soil disinfection in apple replant (CRESO 2012) Organic alternatives to soil disinfection in apple replant (CRESO 2012) Treatment microbic C (mg/kgFRUIT PRODUCTION PER TREE AT THE SECOND YEAR 10 d.m.) ** ** GREEN COMPOST 688,3 (±58,0) GREEN COMPOST 8 DAZOMET 6KG / TREE kg/pianta 4 8,38 8,27 DAZOMET 386,1 (±52,0) 6,82 6,59 5,47 5,38 4,74 2 3,96 NOT TREATED 347,1 (±19,1) 0 Radici micorrizate e Trichoderma spp. Amm. Amm. Calciocianamide Dazomet + Fertirrigazione Testimone compostato compostato fertirrigazione CONTROL funghi verde misto 45 46Organic alternatives to soil disinfection in apple replant (CRESO 2012) HEALTHY TREES AT THE SECOND YEAR (%) HEALTHY DEAD Sana Sintomi iniziali Inzio avvizzimento Deperiente 100% 90% GREEN COMPOST 80% DAZOMET 70% 60% 100,0% 50% ++ 91,7% 40% 81,3% 78,1% 65,6% 68,8% 30% 62,5% 20% 31,3% -- 10% 0% Radici Trichoderma Amm. Amm. Calciocianamide Dazomet + Fertirrigazione Testimone micorrizate e spp. compostato compostato fertirrigazione funghi verde misto 47 48
  9. 9. Study of the root growth in apple organic farming 10cm 20cm A. Perilli, M. Kelderer, A. Rainer, S. Polverigiani, F. 30cm Massetani, D. Neri, 2012 40cm Centro per la Sperimentazione Agraria e Forestale Laimburg, BZ - Italy Observation box and Università Politecnica delle Marche Ancona, Italy 49 50 100 cm Methods 50 cm Root trace (ogni 15-30 gg) 32 cm Observation point Dati output Tracciato delle radici a video coibentazione Elaborazione 51 52 cm DigiRoot 60Root growth along the season Apple root diameter (mm) Superficie 09-06-2010 25-02-2011 23-06-2010 31-05-2011 5 depth 10 cm bc c 20 cm Mixed grass Compost 30 cm Festuca Tillage 40 cm 53 54 50 cm
  10. 10. Apple root growth (mm / d m2) Azienda agraria didattico sperimentale “P.Rosati” Festuca Compost Tillage Mixed grass Cherry production in organic farming in Gallignano (Ancona) 55 56 Neri, Polverigiani, Massetani, Pica, 2011 Fig.3 Crescita radicale di melo nei quattroRoot observation points Under tree soil management Clean soil Permanent grasses rhizotron 7 rhizotrons per trt 110 cm 110 cm 60 cm Poly specific permanent 57 soil cover vegetation 58set: 13 May 2010 Hand weeding Mineral nutrients Root distribution along the profile (% of the total roots) Root entry Niche abandon Time 59 60 (Zucconi 1996)
  11. 11. Mineral nutrients incrementMineral nutrients Ciclic root entry Niche abandon Time 61 Davide Neri, January 2012 62 (Zucconi 1996) GRAZIE PER L’ATTENZIONE 63

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