KJC 353  BASIC WATER & WASTEWATER         ENGINEERINGPART 2 : WATER SUPPLY & SEWERAGE  Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pin...
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION TO WATER       SUPPLYUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang                     ©Caroline MarajanKJC...
Factors Affecting Water Uses         Factors Affecting Water Demand     Historical Development Of Water SupplyEnvironmenta...
WATER SUPPLY                            INTRODUCTIONImportance of water supply system Water Crisis - water supply can be d...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY                   Factor Affecting Water UsesCategory                  RemarksHousehold      ...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY                    Factor Affecting Water UsesCategory                   Remarks             ...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY            Factor Affecting Water Demands                                                  PO...
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND                                 Population Size Water demand directly related to the popula...
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND                 Characteristics of Population Composition of the population in terms of eco...
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND           Industrial & Commercial Activities Large number and high intensity of industrial ...
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND           Industrial & Commercial ActivitiesSteel Manufacturing Plant   Exert large demand ...
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND                              Weather & ClimateHot climate and dry season would inducehigher...
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMANDMonitoring & Maintenance Water Supply System To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyEarly civilisation – rivers main watersupplyCities are b...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyRomans build aquaduct to bring water toseveral location ...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyAs population grows – amount of wasteincreased   Leads t...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyFound that cities with sand filters – lesssusceptible to...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyWater supply objectives not only to providesufficient am...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyProperly designed and managed watersupply schemes – trem...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyProperly designed and managed watersupply schemes – trem...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY  Historical Development Of Water Supply                                                      ...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY  Environmental Issues in Planning for               Water SupplyLack of space for Industrial ...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY   Environmental Issues in Planning for             Water SupplyShut down of WTP   Increase in...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY   Environmental Issues in Planning for                 Water SupplyIntensive agricultural act...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY   Environmental Issues in Planning for             Water SupplyDeteriorating quality of raw w...
INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYAgencies of Water Supply in MalaysiaInstitutional & Organizational aspects of watersupply in M...
AGENCIES OF WATER SUPPLY               State Government AgenciesStates                                             Water A...
AGENCIES OF WATER SUPPLY                              Federal AgenciesFederal Agency                   RolePublic Works   ...
AGENCIES OF WATER SUPPLY                              Federal AgenciesFederal Agency                   RoleMinistry of Hum...
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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

  1. 1. KJC 353 BASIC WATER & WASTEWATER ENGINEERINGPART 2 : WATER SUPPLY & SEWERAGE Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester January 2007 – April 2007 Semester January 2007 –
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester January 2007 – April 2007 Semester January 2007 –
  3. 3. Factors Affecting Water Uses Factors Affecting Water Demand Historical Development Of Water SupplyEnvironmental Issues in Planning For Water Supply Agencies for Water Supply in Malaysia Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester January 2007 – April 2007 Semester January 2007 –
  4. 4. WATER SUPPLY INTRODUCTIONImportance of water supply system Water Crisis - water supply can be disrupted due to drought Drought can lead to severely polluted water sources beyond handling capacity of the treatment plants Poor monitoring and maintenance in the distribution of water supply – large amount of losses and waste in distribution system Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Factor Affecting Water UsesCategory RemarksHousehold Water used for cooking, drinking, general(Domestic) cleaning, sanitation and garden watering Used in industries – process water which end up in products or water used for cooling,Industrial diluting, mixing, quenching, rinsing, backwashing and scrubbing to control emissions Include water in shops, shopping centre,Commercial hotels, recreational facilities such as theme parks, restaurants and private offices. Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Factor Affecting Water UsesCategory Remarks Water used in public buildings such as gov.Institutional offices, schools and universities, hospitals and correctional facilities (jail, drugs, etc) Water used for irrigation system for padiAgricultural planting, water used at livestock farm Water used to water public parks, fire fighting, general cleaning of public areas and municipalOthers facilities and water losses due to leakages and illegal tapings Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Factor Affecting Water Demands POPULATION SIZE CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION INDUSTRIAL & COMMERCIAL ACT. WEATHER & CLIMATE MONITORING & MAINTENANCE OF WATER SUPPLY Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  8. 8. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Population Size Water demand directly related to the population size Large city like KL – have higher water demand Permatang Pauh – smaller water demand Population density affect the design of the distribution system - the dictate the size of storage tanks & mains size of distribution Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  9. 9. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Characteristics of Population Composition of the population in terms of economic well being will influence the daily activities Affluence (wealth) of the population and social norm with regards to water uses also have bearing on the amount of water used High incomes households – demand higher – uses of washing machines, dishwashers, swimming pools, garden watering, car washing Low income – only for cooking and washing clothes and dishes Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  10. 10. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Industrial & Commercial Activities Large number and high intensity of industrial activities would demand more water compared to cities which are residential and commercial Shah Alam or Mak Mandin in Penang – exert higher water demand compared to towns in Alor Setar and Kapit, Sarawak Water demand (industry) depend on the type of industry, product, plant size and level of water quality required Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  11. 11. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Industrial & Commercial ActivitiesSteel Manufacturing Plant Exert large demand for water, used as cooling water compared to electronic equipment assembling plantWater Quality Impact on the design of water treatment plants Quality of cooling water in power generation plant need not to be the same quality of water used in domestic Sultan Salahuddin power plant in Kapar – uses sea water for cooling – not necessary for authorities to consider this in the design of public water supply system Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  12. 12. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Weather & ClimateHot climate and dry season would inducehigher water demand for waterDomestic water use in tropical countriesmore than cold temperate climate like UK,Germany, Canada, etc Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  13. 13. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMANDMonitoring & Maintenance Water Supply System To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the system Scheduled monitoring and regular inspection of distribution system – can reduced water losses due to pipe breaks and illegal tapping Repair of broken pipes – help reduce amount of unaccounted and non revenue water Non revenue water – 45% of total water produced at treatment plants If the these losses – can be made available to consumers Reduce the pressure of finding new sources or need to adopt basin transfer in event of water shortage due to prolonged drought Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyEarly civilisation – rivers main watersupplyCities are build near rivers KL – communities evolved near rivers for water Population increases and river bank are overcrowded, people start moving to larger place This creates the need or water to transfer from source to usersUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyRomans build aquaduct to bring water toseveral location in cities Collect water from these locations and carry back to their homes Supply individual homes – must have invention of pipes But water treatment did not go for any water treatmentUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyAs population grows – amount of wasteincreased Leads to contamination of water supply Earliest treatment – filtration and sedimentation – improves the appearance But not the disease carrier – water borne diseases – cholera, typhoid, dysentry and viral hepatitisUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyFound that cities with sand filters – lesssusceptible to these diseasesEarly 1900s – UK & USA – used sandfilters as part as their treatmentSand filters removed most of MO fromwaterThen chlorination was incorporated bywater authorities – remains until todayUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyWater supply objectives not only to providesufficient amount of waterWater supply objectives also to ensure watersupplied follows the quality characteristics; Clear & free from suspended matter Palatable – colorless, odorless and free of unpleasant taste Safe & free from disease carriers or harmful chemicals Reasonably soft – no excessive concentration of soap consuming mineral saltsUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyProperly designed and managed watersupply schemes – tremendous benefitsWell engineered water supply schemes tocontrol of many diseases, increasedagricultural production and greatlyimproved the quality of human livesUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyProperly designed and managed watersupply schemes – tremendous benefitsWell engineered water supply schemes tocontrol of many diseases, increasedagricultural production and greatlyimproved the quality of human livesUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Historical Development Of Water Supply Dams & Reservoirs Or/and Wells Water intake Points Conduits Pumping Plants Treatment Plants Storage ReservoirsDistribution mains and fittings Pumping Stations User Storage Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  22. 22. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Environmental Issues in Planning for Water SupplyLack of space for Industrial areas Located upstream of water intake points of water treatment plants Effluents treated and untreated found their way into rivers Effluent contains Viruses Bacteria Dissolved minerals Organic & Inorganics suspended solidsUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  23. 23. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Environmental Issues in Planning for Water SupplyShut down of WTP Increase in pollution level in the river Shut down due to spillage of diesel oil originating from a quarry On some plants were shut down because the concentration of ammonia in river was too highUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  24. 24. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Environmental Issues in Planning for Water SupplyIntensive agricultural activities – use chemicalfertilizers and poorly organized and managedlivestock farms – caused uncontrollablepollution in riversPoor air quality Result in contaminated rainfalls and runoffs to river systems Increase in green house gases due to emissions from industries and vehicles has led to more heat trapped in earth’s atmosphere – global warmingUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Environmental Issues in Planning for Water SupplyDeteriorating quality of raw water, muchmore effort and capital need to beinvested into water treatment plant toensure that consumers receive watercomplies to the Standard (WHO) andMinistry of Health, M’siaUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  26. 26. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYAgencies of Water Supply in MalaysiaInstitutional & Organizational aspects of watersupply in Malaysia – complex with variousGovernment AgenciesState Water Authority carries the followingfunctions Secure budget to finance new water supply projects and to maintain the existing water supply works Setting appropriate tariff for water supplied to consumers To comply with standards & monitor water quality To study & authorize privatization of projects relatedUniversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline MarajanKJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  27. 27. AGENCIES OF WATER SUPPLY State Government AgenciesStates Water AuthorityMelaka, Pulau Pinang, Perak & Water BoardsSarawak (Kuching & Sibu)Selangor, Wilayah Persekutuan, State Water SupplyKuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, DepartmentsJohor & TerengganuKedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perlis & State Public WorksSarawak DepartmentWilayah Persekutuan Labuan Malaysian Public Works Department Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  28. 28. AGENCIES OF WATER SUPPLY Federal AgenciesFederal Agency RolePublic Works Responsible for the technical development ofDepartment – Water water supply industrySupply SectionDrainage & Irrigation Responsible for Urban Drainage, AgriculturalDepartment Irrigation and drainage, Coastal Protection, River Engineering and monitoring of hydrological data.Ministry of Health Responsible for monitoring potable water quality, monitoring outbreak of water borne diseases and the provision of safe drinking water in remote rural areas Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –
  29. 29. AGENCIES OF WATER SUPPLY Federal AgenciesFederal Agency RoleMinistry of Human To ensure water supplies at estate plantation areResources adequateMinistry of Land & Responsible for water provision to FeldaCooperatives schemes and other regional development areasPrime Ministers Responsible for medium and long term planningDepartment – and controlling the allocations of fund for theEconomic Planning water supply sectorUnit Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang ©Caroline Marajan KJC 353 Basic Water & Wastewater Engineering  Semester July 2006 – November 2006 Semester July 2006 –

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