water efficient,water appliance and fixture


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water efficient,water appliance and fixture

  1. 1. water efficiency
  2. 2. Issues*Over-emphasis on water supply managementThe water management system in Malaysia employs and depends heavily onthe water supply management approach to cater to demand. This approach isunsustainable in the long run as water demand will eventually overtake watersupply.*Institutional issuesMalaysia lacks a central agency to manage the overall aspects of waterresources management. Too many agencies have jurisdiction over differentaspects of water management, leading to sectional management of water andconflicting or competing objectives.
  3. 3. *High rates of water wastageRates of water wastage in domestic, industrial and agricultural use are veryhigh and this is unsustainable in the long term. Compared to othercountries, Malaysia uses and wastes too much water.*Changing weather patternsGlobally and locally, the climate and weather are changing and this is affectingwater resources. For example, the 1997/98 El Nino brought severe droughtresulting in water crises in many parts of Malaysia. Water planning in Malaysiadoes not adequately take into account changes in weather patterns..Per Capita Water Withdrawal for Domestic Use in Southeast Asia, 2002 (cubic metre)
  4. 4. *High rates of Non-revenue Water (NRW)Rates of NRW in Malaysia are much too high with the national average being40%. This equals a loss of 40 litres out of every 100 litres of treated water.*Privatization of the water sectorseveral water privatisation schemes have not produced desirable results.*Destruction and degradation of water catchmentsMany water catchments in the country have yet to be gazetted and protected.*LegislationMost legislation relating to water is outdated and needs to be reviewed intoday’s context.
  5. 5. *Water pollutionWater pollution is a serious problem in Malaysia and impacts negatively on thesustainability of water resources.*Inefficient agricultural water useAgriculture uses about 68% of total water consumption in Malaysia but irrigationefficiency is 50% at best in the larger irrigation schemes and less than 40% inthe smaller ones.
  6. 6. Rainwater Harvesting System in Buildings(case study) Putra jaya
  7. 7.  Despite the non-mandatory requirement of thenational Rainwater Guidelines 1999, Putra jayaCorporation has made an effort in encouragingthe developer to build the rainwater harvestingsystem if it is found to be commercially viable inthe planning submission for buildings andresidential houses in Putra jaya. When the systemis installed in the new development in thefuture, it will reduce the dependency over pipedwater and may reduce the need for interstatewater transfer. This, together with the lake andwetland, will ensure the sustainability of watermanagement in Putra jaya.
  8. 8.  [1] Keyes, A. M., M. Schmitt, and J. L. Hinkle. 2004. Critical Components of Conservation Programs that Get Results: A National Analysis. American Water Works Association, Water Conference Proceedings. (cited in Terrebonne, R.P., 2005. Residential Water Demand Management Programs: A Selected Review of the Literature. Water Policy Working Paper # 2005-002.) [2] Butler, D. & Memon, F.A., 2006. Water Demand Management. [3] Laman Rasmi Kementerian Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air. Kempen Kesedaran Penjimatan Air Kebangsaan. Accessible from http://www.kttha.gov.my/bm/template01.asp?contentid=237 [4] Tay, T. K. (2008). Singapore’s Experience in Water Demand Management. [5] Koh, M., 2009. Personal correspondence Koh, M. (Sr. Manager Network Services, PUB) to Phong, G. (MNS Selangor Branch Chair). [6] Malaysian Water Association, 2008. Malaysia Water Industry Guide 2007. [7] Lee, P. O., 2005. Water Management Issues in Singapore. (Paper presented at Water in Mainland Southeast Asia 29 Nov – 2 Dec 2005, Siem Reap.) [8] Federal Dept. of Town and Country Planning, 2005. National Physical Plan.