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Composite Materials for Magnetic Field Control in EPM

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Composite Materials for Magnetic Field Control in EPM

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Composite Materials for Magnetic Field Control in EPM

  1. 1. Composite Materials for Magnetic Field Control in EM Processing of Materials V. Nemkov, R. Ruffini (Fluxtrol Inc., USA) A. Kolesnichenko (Net Shape Cast, USA)
  2. 2. Effects of Magnetic Flux Controllers• Field Pattern Control• Better Power Utilization in the Part (mainly in heating processes)• Coil Efficiency Improvement• Coil Power Factor Improvement• Reduced Coil Current Demand• Loss Reduction in Power Supplying Circuitry Effect of magnetic flux concentrator made of Fluxtrol A• Shielding
  3. 3. Materials for Magnetic Flux ControlAvailable materials belong to threemajor groups:• Soft Magnetic Composites (SMC) or Magnetodielectrics (MD)• Laminations• FerritesFluxtrol Inc. produces 3 primaryMD materials:• Fluxtrol A• Fluxtrol 50• Ferrotron 559 H
  4. 4. Primary Fluxtrol ProductsNote: frequency ranges and resistivity values are only for reference
  5. 5. Magnetic Properties of Fluxtrol ProductsCompared to laminations and Flux Density vs Magnetic Field Strengthferrites, Fluxtrol materials are 14000 12000almost linear. Flux Density, Gs 10000 Fluxtrol A 8000Fluxtrol A material can support 6000 Fluxtrol 50 Ferrotron 559 Hpermeability above 50 at high 4000 2000magnetic loading (flux density 0 0 50 100 150 200up to 14000 Gs), which is Field Strength, A/cmimportant for high power and Permeability vs Flux Densitylow frequency applications. 125Relatively low permeability of 100 Permeability Ferrotron 559MDM compared to laminations 75 Fluxtrol 50 50does not influence their Fluxtrol A 25performance in non-closed 0magnetic circuits. 0 3000 6000 Flux Density, Gs 9000 12000
  6. 6. Comparison of Laminations and MDM PropertiesCharacteristics Laminations Ferrotron/FluxtrolFrequency, kHz up to 20 kHz AnyEffective saturation, T 1.5 – 1.6 1.2 – 1.5Initial permeability Above 1000 18 - 63Max permeability Around 5000 20 - 120Permeability grades No 4 gradesAnisotropy Very strong Low to MiddleTemperature resistance, C Probably 300 – 400 C Long – 250 CPerformance in 3D field Very bad GoodComplex geometry Difficult EasyInstallation Laborious EasyCooling Difficult Easy – many methodsIn-field adjustment Difficult EasyUse as construction part Problematic Good
  7. 7. Fluxtrol Material Blocks for Large Installations Fluxtrol MDM for magnetic flux concentration and shielding. Self-gluing film insulation may be applied to the blocks if required. Largest plates at present time are 6” x 8.5” x 2”
  8. 8. Copper Tubes with Matching Netshape LRM ConcentratorsAdvantages:1. More effective copper and Fluxtrol cooling2. Higher mechanical strength3. Minimized manufacturing costs4. Possibility to work effectively in 3D magnetic fields
  9. 9. Selected Material Processing Technologies Frequency Power Magnetic core material Technology range, range, kW Existing Proposed Lams + MDM inInduction melting 50 -10000 Hz 50 -10000 Air or Lams 3D areaCold-crucible melting of 500 – 5000 Hz 50 - 2000 Air MDM shuntsmetalsEM pouring control 50 – 150 kHz 25 – 100 Ferrite MDMVacuum or controlled MDM or MDM + 50-3000 100 -10000 No or lamsatmosphere furnaces LamsLiquid coating wiping 100-200 kHz 25-50 Lams or air MDMSemi-levitation and 50 – 10000 Hz 50 - 500 Air MDMlevitationPulse treatment in 1-2 Hz 100 - 200 Lams Lams + MDMcasting Ferrite orEFG Crystal growth 10-30 kHz 10 - 30 MDM MDMMonocrystal growth 10-500 kHz 10 - 30 Air MDM
  10. 10. Magnetic Control in Cold Crucible Melting Furnace With No controller With Fluxtrol controllerAdvantages:• Improvement of coil efficiency and power factor• Reduction of losses in the furnace chamber and othercomponents• Possibility to use smaller chamber
  11. 11. Melting Inductor for Glove Box Environment Induction coil for melting of radioactive materials in protective atmosphere Example of shielding effect and efficiency improvement Fluxtrol A shields on the side and Fluxtrol bottom coil surfaces allowed to: plates •Strongly reduce losses in the chamber walls and bottom plate •Increase the furnace volume in Glove Box walls the same chamber •Increase coil efficiency from 23 to Fluxtrol plates 63% due to reduced losses in chamber walls, bottom plate and in the coil Molten metal Magnetic field lines and color map of power density in a shielded coil
  12. 12. Shielding in Furnaces with Special AtmosphereDue to the magnetic fieldshielding it is possible:• reduce the furnace sizeorincrease the furnaceloading• improve efficiency andpower factor of theinductors, especially forthe bottom ones• Fluxtrol Inc. has very goodexperience in such designs
  13. 13. Possible Combinations of Lams and MDMDue to machinability, ability to work in 3D areas and serve as structuralcomponents, MDM may be effectively used in combination with laminations 3D areaUse of MDM in combination with MDM inserts in magnetic core for gradientlaminations in 3D areas of shunts field formation in pulse magnetic device for steel stirring in continuous slab casting
  14. 14. Magnetic “Wiper” ConceptElectrodynamic forces created by magnetic field help to “blow out” excess ofcoating material (Zn or other) from the surface of wire (left) or strip (right).Required frequency is usually high (up to 200 kHz) and MDM material is theonly choice for magnetic material

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