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Presentation on Effect of Spray Quenching Rate on Distortion and Residual Stresses during Induction Hardening of a Full-Float Truck Axle

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http://fluxtrol.com

Computer simulation is used to predict the residual stresses and distortion of a full-float truck axle that has been
induction scan hardened. Flux2D® is used to model the electromagnetic behavior and the power distributions inside
the axle in terms of time. The power distributions are imported and mapped into DANTE® model for thermal, phase
transformation and stress analysis. The truck axle has three main geometrical regions: the flange/fillet, the shaft, and the spline. Both induction heating and spray quenching processes have significant effect on the quenching results:
distortion and residual stress distributions. In this study, the effects of spray quenching severity on residual stresses and distortion are investigated using modeling. The spray quenching rate can be adjusted by spray nozzle design, ratio of polymer solution and quenchant flow rate. Different quenching rates are modeled by assigning different heat transfer coefficients as thermal boundary conditions during spray quenching.

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Presentation on Effect of Spray Quenching Rate on Distortion and Residual Stresses during Induction Hardening of a Full-Float Truck Axle

  1. 1. Effect of Spray Quenching Rate on Distortion and Residual Stresses during Induction Hardening of a Full-Float truck Axle Zhichao (Charlie) Li, and B. Lynn Ferguson DANTE SOFTWARE, Cleveland, OH 44130, USA Valentin Nemkov, Robert Goldstein, and John Jackowski Fluxtrol, Inc. 1399 Atlantic Blvd, Auburn Hills, MI 28326, USA Greg Fett Dana Corporation, 3939 Technology Drive, Maumee, OH43537, USA ASM HTS 2013, 27th Conference and Exposition 15 September – 18 September 2013, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  2. 2. Introduction  Induction hardening involves multiple phenomena, including: electromagnetic, thermal, metallurgical, stress and deformation.  Flux software (electromagnetic and thermal capabilities) is coupled with DANTE (thermal, phase transformation, stress and distortion capabilities).  Case chosen for study is a full-float axle, dimensions typical for axles manufactured and hardened by Dana Corporation.  This study is a follow-up of the work presented at HES 2013, Padua, Italy.  Effect of spray quenching rate on residual stresses and distortion. Slide 2
  3. 3. Mutually Coupled Phenomena in Induction Heating Process Slide 3
  4. 4. Axle Geometry and FEA Model  Material: AISI 1541.  Shaft dimension: • • • Length: 1008 mm. Diameter: 34.93mm. 35 spline teeth.  Single tooth model with cyclic symmetry BC.  FEA Meshing. • • 47746 hexahedral elements. 16038 tetrahedral elements. Slide 4
  5. 5. Phase Transformation  Diffusive transformation  Martensitic transformation Material: AISI 1541 Slide 5
  6. 6. Two-Turn Inductor Coil Design and Flux2d Modeling Full assembly of a two-turn axle scan coil with quench body Fillet area of axle modelled with Flux 2D, mesh elements Slide 6
  7. 7. Process Cycle  Spray quench is 25.4 mm below the inductor.  Spray quenchant: 6% polymer solution.  Severity of spray quench (heat transfer coefficient): • Aggressive: 25,000 (W/m2C). • Medium:12,000 (W/m2C). • Mild: 5,000 (W/m2C). Slide 7
  8. 8. Power Distribution in Three Regions Modeled by Flux2D Fillet Shaft Spline Slide 8
  9. 9. Power Mapping from Flux2D to DANTE  Good agreement on the temperature distributions predicted by Flux2D and DANTE. • The power mapping from Flux2D to DANTE is valid. Temperature Predicted by Flux2D Temperature Predicted by DANTE Slide 9
  10. 10. DANTE Results in Radius and Flange At the End of 9 Second Dwell Temperature Austenite Hoop Stress Radial Disp. Axial Disp. Slide 10
  11. 11. DANTE Results in Radius and Flange At 16.5 Second during IH Process Temperature Austenite Hoop Stress Radial Disp. Axial Disp. Slide 11
  12. 12. DANTE Results in Radius and Flange At 130.15 Second during IH Process Temperature Austenite Martensite Hoop Stress Axial Disp. Slide 12
  13. 13. Animation: IH Process HTC=12,000 W/m2C 13
  14. 14. Animation: IH Process HTC=5,000 W/m2C 14
  15. 15. Animation: IH Process HTC=25,000 W/m2C 15
  16. 16. Axial Residual Stresses Effect of Spray Quenching Rate Unit: MPa Slide 16
  17. 17. Hoop Residual Stresses Effect of Spray Quenching Rate Unit: MPa Slide 17
  18. 18. Axial Displacements Effect of Spray Quenching Rate Unit: mm Slide 18
  19. 19. Evolution Plots at the Cross Section Effect of Spray Quenching Rate  The cross section selected is 614.15 mm from the flange end.  Four points are selected to plot the process evolution. • • Temperature, phase, stress, and displacement. Depth of the four points: 0.0mm, 3.99mm, 8.12mm, 17.47mm. Slide 19
  20. 20. Temperature and Phase Plots Heat Transfer Coefficient (12,000 W/m2C) 20
  21. 21. Axial Stress and Displacement Plots Heat Transfer Coefficient (12,000 W/m2C) 21
  22. 22. Temperature and Phase Plots Effect of Cooling Rate 22
  23. 23. Axial Stress and Displacement Plots Effect of Cooling Rate 23
  24. 24. Summary  Electromagnetic modeling by Flux and thermal/stress modeling by DANTE were successfully coupled.  The effect of spray quenching severity on residual stresses and distortion are predicted.  Higher spray rate increases the magnitudes of surface compression, core tension, as well as the length growth.  The modelling procedure developed in this study is promising for design optimization, in-process failure prevention, and service property prediction.  Next step: tempering process modeling; loading model with residual stresses; comparing with low cycle and high cycle fatigue life experiments. 24

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