Proceedings of a Workshop on Hydraulic Ram Pump Technology - International Development Research Centre
International Development Research CentreARC HIV67459I February 1986- .:-a Workshop onm Pump (Hydram).. --? -IDRC-MRI O2eR:------i- -$.!.-:.-0jUOPMFyLICANADA
The International Development Research Centre is a public corporationcreated by the Parliament of Canada in 1970 to support research designedto adapt science and technology to the needs of developing countries. TheCentres activity is concentrated in five sectors: agriculture, food and nutri-(ion sciences; health sciences; information sciences; social sciences; andcommunications. IDRC is financed solely by the Parliament of Canada;its policies, however, are set by an international Board of Governors. TheCentres headquarters are in Ottawa, Canada. Regional offices are locatedin Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.IDRC Manuscript ReportThis series includes meeting documents, internal reports, and preliminarytechnical documents that may later form the basis of a formal publication.A Manuscript Report is given a small distribution to a highly specializedaudience.
ORGAN IZERS:CENTRE FOR AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATIONAND RURAL TECHNOLOGY (CMARTECARUSHA, TANZANIAINTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE (IDRC)OTTAWA, CANADATechnical Editor: Eric J. Schiller2 F((jMaterial contained in this report is produced as submittedand has not been subjected to peer review or riqorousediting by IDRC Communications Division staff.Mention of proprietary names does not constitute endorsementof the product and is qiven oniy for information.HYDRAULIC RAM PUMP (HYDRAM TECHNOLOGHELD AT ARUSHi, TANZANIAMAY 29 - JUNE 1, 1984IDRC -MR1O2eRPROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP ONIDC UBRARY;.BUOTHEQUE DJ CD
FOREWORDWORKSHOP CIHIUSIONS API) RECOI4ENIYTIUNS FOR ACTIONOPENING AIJ)RESSINTRODUCTIONThe Hydraulic Ram Pump (Hydram):Its History, Operatir Characteristics-2-CONTENTS PA(and Potential Use E.J. Schiller 11COONTRY PAPERSThe Application of Hydrem Pumps in Rural Wateripp1y Schemes in Tanzania A. Mzee 24The te of Hydrams for Water Pumpinq in Tanzania IL Tulapona 28The Hydraulic Ram Punp in Kenya Oyuko 0. Ileche 34The Hydraulic Rain Pump Technoloqy W.T. Weerakoon &and Practice in Zambia V. Liyanaqe 37NANJACTIRE, OPERATION MI) MAINTENAMEPractical Aspects of Hydram Operation E.i. Schiller 54The Manufacture of Hydrinas S.S. JancluCG4ILIUTY PARTICIPATIONCommunity Participation and the Ivelopnent ofHydrams in Rural Water Schemes LG. Msimhe 62A.B. Redekopp 46E.M. Ngaiza 9
-3-CONTENTS (Ibntind)Socio-economic Considerations in R.jraiWater 1ljpply Developnent W. it 66RESEARCH MEEThe Theory and tsiqn of the kitomaticHydraulic Rain Punp P. 0. Kahamire 71Hydraulic Ims as btential Pumpingthits for Rural Water ipply Schanes T.S.A. btte andin Tan7ania E.Th.P. Prot7en 100LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 120
FOREWORDProviding adequate domestic water supplies for scattered rural populations poses a majorproblem to many developing countries. Sparsely populated settlements cannot be easily served byconventional piped water systems. In addition, the fuel and maintenance costs of operating aconventional pumping system using diesel or gasoline engines are becoming prohibitive for manydeveloping countries. The hydraulic ram pump (hydram) is a simple technology that uses readilyavailable, renewable energy (a drop in water level of at least 1-2 meters in a flowing stream)and has only two moving parts that can be manufactured and maintained by local personnel.In the context of the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade, hydram technologyhas not received the attention it deserves as a potentially useful component in national ruralwater supply programs. Widely used in the 19th and the early 20th centuries, hydrams have beeninstalled throughout the world for water supply to villages and farms and for small scaleirrigation. In India, they supplied water to the famous fountains in front of the Taj Mahal. Inrecent years the lack of emphasis placed on hydram technology by international agencies is due tothe preference of groundwater over surface water as a source of domestic water supplies.However, in many regions of the world potable ground water is not readily available.Until recently, research on operating characteristics and standardized designs for hydramshave been lacking. Recently, research has been conducted by the University of Ottawa, theUniversity of Dar es Salaam and elsewhere on commercially-available hydrams as well as simplelocally-made models. These tests have determined the characteristics of some commercially-madehydrams with the objective of designing simple locally-made pumps with comparable operatingcharacteristics.This research needs to be continued in order to improve the design and durability oflocally-made hydrams. Locally-made pumps need to be field-tested to determine their performancecharacteristics and durability under operating conditions in village settings. The socialacceptance of these pumping devices will need to be established to determine if and how thesedevices fit into the existing social patterns of supplyinq water. These pumps will have to bemaintained by the local community which will involve close cooperation, and communityparticipation of local users. Socio-cultural studies will need to be conducted in thisconnection. Having developed a locally-made, economical, durable and socially acceptable pump,the final step will be to assist in the planning of an indigenous production capacity.
-5-IDRC recently sponsored a workshop held in Arusha, Tanzania to eddress the ove issues andto look carefully at various aspect8 of the implementation of these systems at the village levelwithin the context of East Africa. The workshop also included a visit to Jandu Plumbers (Arusha)who are manufacturers of hydrams and field trips to observe pumps installed in the vicinity ofArusha. The work8hop provided an opportuiity for participants to share information on hydramtechnology and plan for future development of this technology. Research priorities for Africawere discussed and research protocols prepared.Acknowledgement aMr. D. Tulapona of CAMARTEC and Mr. A. Redekopp of IDRC, served as acbsinistrative organizersfor this workshop. The foilowinq assisted in the research proposal writing process at the end ofthe workshop. A. Redekopp and J. Chauvin, IDRC, E.J. Schiller, Lb,iversity of Ottawa, E. Protzen,University of Oar em Salaam, and P. Kahangire of the Water Department of Uganda. Finally, E.J.Schiller served as technical editor in the pthlication of the proceedings.
-6--WOISHQP CONCLUSIONS AI RECO*EPI)ATIONS FOR ACTIONCemclusionsConventional pimping methods are becoming more and more difficult to maintain in developingcountries. The need to use renewable energy technologies in rural areas has increased. Theuse of the hydraulic rem punp (hydrem) is an exanple.ie of the problems with hydram technology is that a majority of potential users are notaware of these pumping devices. Therefore, promotion and dissemination of information ofhydram technology should be increaaed. Hydrans are commercially available and technicaldrawings of working devices airealy exist. These must be male available to users. Evenmore detailed technical information must be generated and disseminated.Training of users, water engineers and technicians in installation, operation andmaintenance shnuld be stressed.It seems that at present a predominant problem is that most durable hydrmns areprohibitively expensive. There is a need to develop low cost, locally manufact&redlightweight versions.The first step in such a development is a good evaluation of existing analytical models as adesii aid. All interested groups should be involved in this process.Each country should identify all potential hydram sites including hydrological,topographical, geoqraphical, water-quality and population data.Each country slould make a thnrough survey of existing operating arid non-operating hydransfor technical and mociological information.A designed lightweight version should be installed in selected sites and field-tested. Tofacilitate this, complete operating charateristics must be developed with the aid of acomputerized analytical model. Field tests could indicate the need for future design andmanufacturing improvements.
-7-There is a need to interest manufacturers in the lightweight, low-cost version and improvefiscal benefits by more cooperation between users, design engineers and manufacturers.Though the hydrom is a low maintenance device, it is still important to plan for adequatemaintenance and spare parts supplies. When schemes are commissioned beneficiaries shouldfeel responsible to protect, operate and maintain the system.Lack of health education makes the commi.i,ity less aware of the importance of improved watersupply systems. Also cultural beliefs in some instances may not favour the use of hydrass.Recondat ions for Action1. Cointriea planning to promote hydrse, technology should begin with a thorough survey andinventory of potential sites and existing installations. This should include a study of thetechnical, social and economic potential of hydrous.2. A common East African computerized hydron model should be completed immediately th:generate operating characteristics of all existing hydrous; andto assist in the design of new low-cost versions of the hydran.3. Local manufacture of low-cost, sufficiently durthle hydrous should be tzidertaken.4. The new versions of the hydras should be installed and field-tested.5. Health education progronmes should be implemented to improve water use hthits.6. Hydran operator-caretakers should be chosen from anong the villages and properly trained.
Research NeedsGiven the above recommendations, there is a needsocial and economic potential of hydrams. Dernonstrattheir technical performance and social acceptability,of village level operator caretakers.Some delegates at the Workshop on Hydram Technologyto conduct research on the technical,ion schemes should also be set up to assessand to train and monitor the effectiveness
-9-OP(NING NORESSE.M. PiqaizaI take this opportuiity to welcome participants of this Workshop to Tanzania and Arusha inparticular. It is my hope that you had a pleasant trip here. Welcome to Tanzania and pleasefeel at home during your stay.I would like, at this jt.ricture, to thank IDRC for convening this Workshop in Tanzania andespecially in Arusha where CNIARTEC is located. I feel we are very much honoured to haveCAMARTEC as co-organizers of the Workshop. We will do our best to make the Workshop a success.Also, we will do our best to make your stay as comfortthle as possible.The theme of the Workshop is of great importance. You all know the current socio-economicproblems facing many commuiities of the developing cot.xitries. This has prompted manyresearchers, social and natural scientists, to explore various alternative means of solving ourdevelopment problems. Among the eocio-econamic problems, which is of great importance to ourdevelopment, is water supply. The question of water supply and sanitation is crucial. We needwater for domestic use, for irrigation, and for producing power. This Workshop focuses on theuse of water energy to supply water, that is, the hydraulic ran technology.The use of hydraulic rans to pump water for domestic use and irrigation is not as widespreadas the use of other water lifting devices. Many factors are involved but I will make referenceto a few. You will have time during the sessions to discuss them in detail Technical andsocial barriers affect the widespread use of hydraulic rans. Technically, in each cotntry therehave been engineering design problems. In Tanzania, for example, the manufacturers of hydraulicrans are Jandu Plunbers Ltd. of Arusha who have been working on hydraulic rans in East Africa forthe last fifty years. The engineering design in use in Tanzania has not changed much and has notbeen given serious study by experts other than those working with Jandu Pluthers Ltd. It shouldbe possible to modify the design to make it more attractive and less costly.Socially, the widespread use of the hydraulic rans is affected by the different ways ofintroducing the technology to the end users. A lack of exposure and knowledge of the technologyto the users and potential manufacturers is one of the major factors. The end-users need to beaware of the advantages of using hydraulic rans for domestic and farm water supply. Costs of thepumps should be within the limit of the users purchasing power.
- 10 -I hope the participants will have time to consider the problems mentioned above and willfinally come out with well considered projects for implementation.I, therefore, declare this Workshop open and wish you all the best.
THE HYDRAULIC RN4 PtM (HYCRNI):ITS HISTORY, OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Nil) POTENTIAL IJSAE.3. bi11erATRACTThe hydram is introduced as one of a series of renewable energy techooloqies in rural watersupply. The operating principles of the hydran are outlined. A short history of hydrandevelopment is given. Present day usage is surveyed. The main opmrating characteristics ofhydrans are described. Present and future research tivities are noted.INTR000CT IONThe hydraulic ram pump (hydram) is one of a group of renewable energy techoologiea that usethe energy of the sum or an energy from that is directly derived from the sum. In the case ofthe hydram, the energy source is a small drop in elevation in a flowing stream.The hydram shares several characteristics in common with other renewable energy technoloqiesused in the water supply sector such as windpower pumping, handpumps, stream-driven turbines andsolar driven devices. Many of these devices have the capability of being manufactured locallyusing local skills and materials. These technoloqies are relatively simple compared to fossilfuel devices that require heat resistant metals, and electrical devices that require anelectrical network or an electrical generator. Most renewable energy devices can be operatedindependently with minimal spare parts needed for regular maintenance. They can thereforeftnction reasonably well even if the transportation and canrnu,ications network in a country isnot highly developed. This factor makes these devices well suited to rural populations that arewidely scattered.THE OPERATION (F THE HYORMThe hydram makes use of the sudden stoppage of flow in a pipe to create a high pressuresurge. This is commonly known as water hammer. This high pressure wave is utilized to pump
some of the water to a higher elevation or to a location that is displaced Iurizontally from thepump. If the flow in an inelastic pipe is stopped instantaneously, the theoretical pressure risethat can be obtained is= - Vcqwhere H pressure rise (m)V the original velocity in the pipe (mis)c = the speed of an acoustic wave in the fluidg acceleration due to gravity (9.8 nVs2)The thove represents the maximum pressure rise possible. The actual value will be lowersince all pipes have some elasticity, and it is impossible to instantaneously stop the flow in apipe.To make use of the thove principle, a typical hydras is constructed as in the diagras below.HEADERTANKTSUPPLYSTRAINER-I-h- 12 -AIRV AL V EAIRCHAMBERFFiqure 1: A TYPICAL ARRAN(NT IN A HYORAM INSTALLATIONH WASTEVALVEDELIVERYVALVEHd
- 13 -The hydran is simple in construction. It contains only two moving parts, the waste valveand the delivery valve. There are two pipes, the drive pipe lending the water into the pump andthe delivery pipe directing the water to the place where it will be stored and subsequantlyused. An air chamber and air valve are the other two components in the body of the hydran.The pumping cycle of the hydram begins with the waste valve open. In a natural stream, thesupply is taken from upstream, perhaps from a small dan created in the stream. Because of theheal created, water accelerates in the drive pipe and leaves through the waste valve. Theequation for this acceleration is well known in fluid mechanics and can be given as,H - H V2 L dV (1)2g gdtwhere MV2 expresses the total fiction losses2gL length of the driveand V velocity of flow in the pipet timeEventually this flow will accelerate enough to begin to close the waste valve. This occurswhen the drag and pressure forces in the water equal the weiqht of the waste valve. For thepurpose of analysis, the force on the valve can be represented as a dr force, Fd, given by theequation.Cd A !!2g (2)where Av cross sectional area of the waste valve= specific weight of waterCd drag coefficient of the waste valveFor optimun operation, the closing of the valve should be as fast as possible. thisbasis alone a light valve with a short stroke length is best. However, if a valve is too lightit will not open soon enough later in the cycle; on the other hand, if the stroke is too short,not enough water can escape out of the waste valve opening, this limiting pipe velocities andthus reducing water hammer pressures. The proper design of the waste valve must therefore be anoptimal balance between all the various factors involved.
The sudden closing of the waste valve creates a high pressure surge as explainedpreviously. This surge is great enough to open the delivery valve and release some of the waterinto the delivery pipe. With the release of this water, the high pressure surge in the drivepipe collapses and slight negative pressure recoil occurs.Three significant things occur when the pressure wave collapses in the drive pipe. Firstly,the delivery valve closes thus ending the pressure surge that is sent to the delivery pipe. Theair chather cushions the pressure pulse so that a reasonably continuous flow is sent to thedelivery pipe. In this cushioning process the air-water interface is continually agitated andmoving. This tends to dissolve the air into the water. The air supply is replenished by asecond phenomenon that occurs at this time. The slight negative pressure pulse enables air to besucked into the air valve. Later in the de1ivery phase, this air passes the delivery valve andgoes to the air chamber. This air valve can be a one-way air valve or it can be a very smalldrilled hole (1mm) which releases water during the pressure surge and sucks in air during thecollapse of the pressure wave.The third event that occurs at the end of the pressure pumping phase is that the waste valveopens, either by the action of its own weight or by means of an activating spring. When thishappens, the flow is ready to begin again. The hydram cycle thus repeats itself continually, ata frequency between 40 to 200 beats per minute. The fact that this pump operates 24 hours perday with only minimal maintenance is one of its main advantages.TIE HISTURY OF TIE HYDRNIThe history of the hydram goes back more than 200 years. We are, therefore, not discussinga new technology, but an old technology that is experiencing a renaissance, brought about by thefossil fuel crisis and energy shortages in general. The hydram shares this characteristic withother renewable energy technologies such as windmills, handpumps and various solar devices.The first person 8pparently to try to use a water hammer pressure in a pipe for pumping wasJohn Whitehurst, an Englishman in 1775. His hydram was not automatic, but the operation wascontrolled manually by opening and closing a stop-cock. Although Whitehurst installed a few ofthese devices, the apparatus was difficult to operate and did not become very popular.The inventor of the automatic hydram as we know it today was a Frenchman, JosephMontgolfier, who patented the device in 1797. He introducted the waste valve that opened andclosed automatically and gave us the name "hydraulic ram" pump. This creative Frenchman also
- 15 -invented the hot air balloon, which in the French language is named after him. I-bwever, thehydram of Montqolfier suffered from a defect. The air in his air chamber eventually dissolved,causing intense banging in the mechanism which was especially serious with the larger models. Itwas his son, Pierre François 14:rntgolfier, who designed the air or snifter valve to introdtce airinto the air chawher. This made possible the design and construction of large hydrans and madeit possible to pump water to higher delivery heads.During the nineteenth century there was intense activity in the design and construction ofhydrams often on a very large scale. This activity, which originated in Europe, includingBritain, spread to North America. Very large hydrams are reported in the U.S.A. from the end ofthe nineteenth century (Mead, 1901) with a 10-inch (250mm) diameter intake pipe capthle ofpumping 870 1/mm. to a height of 25m in Illinois and an even larger 12-inch (300mm) diameterhydran in Seattle which is reported to have puiiped 1700 L/min. to a height of 43m (Carver, 1918;Mead, 1933). These hydrans were enormous in size and the drive pipe walls had to be made verythick to withstand the water hammer pressures.With the advent of steam power, fossil fuel driven engines and electrification, this periodof hydran manufacture began to decline. Although same few companies have continued tomanufacture hydrans, it is only in the last two decades that a renewed interest in hydrans hasoccurred as the world-wide energy shortage has begn to change our energy patterns. Companiesare now developing smaller, lighter hydrans suitle for use in scattered areas.A list of present day manufacturers and distributers in North America and England is asfollows:- Berry Hill Limited (Davey hydrans)75 Burwell RoadSt. Thomas, (kitario N5P 3R5CANADA- Rife Hydraulic Engine Manufacturing Company (Rife hydrams)132 Main StreetAndover, New Jersey 07821USA
- 16 -- C.W. Pipe Inc. (Fleming hydra-ram)P.O. Box 698Amherst, Virginia 24521USA- John Blake Limited (Blake hydrama)Hydraulic EngineersP.O. Box 43Royal Works, LancashireENGLAND B85 5LP- Green and Carter Ltd. (Vulcan hydran)Vulcan WorksWinchesterENGLANDPI1ESENT DAY IJSAII IF HYORAMSThe hydran is employed in many scattered areas of the world, although not in great nuners.They are still employed throughout Europe, England North America although their period of peakusage there dates back to the last century. The famous fountains of Indias Taj Mahal werepowered by hydrans and they are used in rural areas in Russia.However, the main area of interest for present-day hydran application is in the countrie8 ofthe developing world. They are used throughout East Africa. They are most appropriate withstreams in hilly terrains, and it is in etch rions ere hydrans tend to be concentrated.It is the role of women to carry water in most developing countries, and carrying water inhilly country is especially arduous. Therefore, women have the most to gain by the developmentof pumping technology (Madeley, 1981).HYORNI tPERATINC cHARACTERISTICSIt is standard engineering practice to depict the performance of water pumps by giving theiroperating characteristics. For the hydran there are two sets of characteristic curves that areespecially useful.
- 17 -The first is a plot of head ratio (h/Il) versus flow ratio (Q/Qw). For definitions of thesymbols see Figure 1. This is a dimensionless curve that illustrates hydran performance for agiven supply head. For high head ratios the curves tend to be similar but some divergence isnoted for the lower head ratios. Kahangire (1984) found this trend to be true for most of thehydrans that he tested.In general, these curves si-ow that hydrans can punp much water for low lifts, but as thelift increases the amount of water decreases.Another useful curve is the curve of efficiency, defined asQ.hHas a function of delivery flow. This tell8 how efficiently the hydran pumps the water. This isimportant where the driving source of water is limited and waste water must be kept to aminimum. Where the strean flow is whundant, the efficiency is not so important. Fwever,efficiency readings give us a good indication of the hydraulic performance of the hydram. Hiqhefficiency machines have low friction losses are hydrailically well designed. For a given head(H), the efficiency curves of different hydrans will indicate which type of hydran is mostsuitthle for the particular setting. Figure 3 shows the efficiency curves for various hydransoperating with a head of 2m.
0a00a000a0a-0aa00a0aSYMBOLS£ H. 1.1$+ H I.4SH. 0.150i.00 - 0.OI O.IS &.24 - O.32 0.40 0.4$ O.51 O.S4 0.72FLOW RATIOFigure 2: DAVY HYDRAM ILAD RATIO VS FLOW RATIO
C00>-C-).C)u-0LLcWor)- 19 -£ DAVEY HYDRAM+ RIFE HYORAMx BLAKE HYDRAMFLEMING HYDRAMITDG(SPRING) HYDRAMx ITDG(IMPULSE) HYDRAMI.0O 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00DELIVERY FLOW (L/MINUTE)Figure 3: EFFICIENCY VS [ELIVERY FLOWCOWUTER HWELLINC OF TIE HYDRNIThe purpose of computer modelling is to allow designers to predict the influence of givenfactors on hydram performance. Kahangire (1984) has developed a computer model for hydrams whichhas been produced in basic computer language for micro-computers. Data describing the proposedsite together with hydram dimensions and friction loss characteristics are inputted into theprograms. Operating characteristic curves are then produced by the computer program. Figures 4and 5 are curves plotted by the computer model. They indicate the kinds of analysis that can bedone with the use of this computer model. Figure 4 can be useful in assisting the desiqn of moreefficient waste values and Figure 5 can be used to help install hydrams in different sites withdifferent heads available.
8.00 .00 i.00 * .00 S .00 00 1.00 .00 4.30 3.00 ,.DEL.IYERY HEAD (11) DELIVERY FLOW (LflIINUTE)- 20 -Figie 4: EFFECT (F FRICTION Fiqs.re 5: EFFECT (F 91P9.Y HEAD ONHEAl) LOSS (F (HE HYIN4 EFFICIECYWASTE YN.VE ONCAPACITYAREAS IF HYORAM INVESTIGATION NI) OEVELOPINTBecause of increased interest in this renewthle energy technology, there are a nunter ofcentres where research has been done or is still continuing in hydrom pumps.Research tivity has been reported in Indonesia (Hanafie and de Longh, 1979) and theTechnische Hogfeschool Eindhoven and the Deift Hydraulic Lthoratories, both in Holland. TheIntermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) in England has published books in this area(Watt, 1978). In the USA, Voluiteers in Technical Assistance has published hydran manuals(Kindel 1975; Inversen, 1979) and the Peace Corps has published a "Training Manual in Conductinga Workshop in the Desi, Construction, Operation Maintenance and Repair of Hydrans" 1981.The University of Ottawa has completed extensive tests on hydrans in order to (1) determinethe operating charateristics of commercial hydrans, (2) compare these operating tharateristicswith those of a locally-made hydram, and (3) suggest design modifications for locally-madehydrams.
Finally, in Tanzania, the Institute for Productivity Innovation at the Ihiversity of Dar esSalaam lB corducting tests to model hydran performance with a goal to improve present designs.FUTURE IIYORPM IIVaUPPLNTThree main areas for future research are identified:Existing hydran designs, some of vtiich are very durthle have a price that makes itdifficult to be purchased in developing counties. Economic studies should be done todetermine trie hydran costs, spread over the lifetime of the hydram.Low priced hydran models need to be designed, manufactured and field-tested.ftn improved computerized hydran model needs to be developed and produced for computationwith microcomputers. This would enthle rapid comparis3ns to be made of existinghydrans. It would ala be a useful tool in future design modifications.
- 22 -REFEREPCESBehrends, F.G. (1926) "Use of the Hydraulic Ran". The Farm Water Supply (Part ii). CornellExtension Bulletin 145, New York State College of Agriculture, Cornell Lkiversity.Cthine, Charles (1937) "Joseph de Montgolfier et le Belier Hydraulique". Proceedings,In8titution of Civil Engineers, London.Carver, 1.11. (1918) "Hydraulic Ran Shows 91% Efficiency". Engineerirq News Record, Vol. 8t,No. 21, New York.Dickenson, H.W. (1937) "Early Years of the Hydraulic Ran". Proccedings of the Institutionof Civil Engineers, January, pp. 73-83, London.Hanafie, 3. and DeLonqh, H. (1979) "Teknologi Pompa Hidraulik Ran". Institut TelaiologiBand ulg.Inversin, A.R. (1979) "Hydraulic Ran for Tropical Climates". Vita Publication, Vita, Mt.Rainier, Maryland.Iversen, H.W. (1975) "An Analysis of the Hydraulic Ran". Journal of Fluids Engineering,AIE No. 75-FE-F, Transactions. Now York, A9IE, June, pp. 191-196.Kahangire, P.O. (1984) "An Experimental Investigation and Design of Hydraulic Ran Pumps",M.A.Sc. Thesis, Civil Engineering Department, thiversity of Ottawa.Kindel, E.W. (1975). A Hydraulic Ran for Village Use. A Vita Publication, Mt. Rainier,Maryland.Krol, J. (1952) "The Automatic Hydraulic Ran". Proceedings of the Institution of MechanicalEngineers, Vol. 165, pp. 53-65.Lansford, W.M. and Dugan, W.G. (1941) "An Analytical and Experimental Study of the HydraulicRam". Bulletin No. 326, Vol. 38. U,iversity of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station.Madeley, 3. (1981) "Ram Pumps and Kenyan Womens Water Trek", World Water, London, October,pp. 51-52.
Mead, D.W. (1933) "The Hydraulic Ram". Hydraulic Machinery. New York: pp. 358-383.Mead, D.W. (1901) "A Large Hydraulic Rae". The Engineering Record, Vol. 44, No. 8, NewYork: August.Peace Corps (1981). A Training Manual in Conducting a Workshop in the Design, Construction,Operation, Maintenance and Repair of Hydrams.Protzen, E.P. (1980) "A Proposal for Simple Performance Prediction of the Hydraulic Ram".(Unpublished Reserch results), Institute for Production Innovation. Ikiiversity of Oar emSalaam, Oar em Salaam.Schiller, E.J. (1982) "Development of a Locally Made Hydraulic Rem Pump". ENERGEX 82Conference Proceedings, Solar Energy Society of Canada. August, pp. 503-506.Schiller, E.J. (1982) "Renewthle Energy Pumping from Rivers and Stream". Water Supply andSanitation for Developing Countries. Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, pp. 53-64.Silver, Mitchell (1977), Use of Hydraulic Rams in Nepal. A guide to Manufacturing andInstallation, Kathumandu, Nepal: UNICEF, Septeither.Smallman, W.S. (1934) "The Hydraulic Ram, Its Construction and Use". Newcastle, Australia,Newcastle Division of the Engineers of Australia, paper No. 569, pp. 357-360.Stevens-Guille, P.E. (1970) "An Innovation in Water Ram Pumps for Domestic and IrrigationUse". London, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1.Stevens-CollIe, P.O. (1977) "How to Make and Install a Low-cost Water Rem Pump for Domesticand Irrigation Use". Cape Town: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of CapeTown, August.Watt, S.B. (1978) A Manual on the Hydraulic Ram for Pumping Water. London, IntermediateTechnology Limited.
IlL APPLICATION OF HYDRAN P1114S IN RURALWATER 9JPPLY SCWILS IN TANZANIAA. MzeeABSTRACTA survey of Tanzanias water development goals is given, together with the mix oftechnologies presently used in the water supply sector. A preliminary survey of hydrmn potentialis advocated, together with a field testing program. The propo8ed progran should determine indetail the potential for hydran development in Tanzania.INTIJO(JCT IONThe Tanzanian twenty-year (1971-1991) long-term water supply goals, in accordance with UNWater Supply and Sanitation Decade resolutions, plans to supply everyone with clean, potable andadequate water within easy reach by 1991.A major constraint in the implementation of the Rural Water Supply Programme is a lk ofadequate financial resources for construction of new projects as well as operation andmaintenance of the completed schemes. With the high cost of fuels and equipment, it is of utmostimportance to deploy technologies with less enerqy demand that can utilize available renewableenergy resources. It is equally important to fabricate and maintain locally-made appropriatedevices used in harne8 sing such resources. At present, most of water pumps in rural areas arerui on diesel. These punps and engines need a constant supply of fuel, skilled manpower, spares,equipment and transportation for their maintenance. These are scarce and costly commodities. Toreduce dependency on these items, the need for alternative methods is desirable.A water sector review in 1976 showed that water supply systems were being undertaken inaccordance with the following technology mix:
* Negligible populationCost analysis showed that it was necessary to adapt least cost, simple technology options ifthe programme goals were to be achieved. Further, the Government declared its intention to gofor options such as wood/bamboo, windmills, hydraulic rams, etc. Reporting to the party (CCM)conference in 1980 the Ministry of Water and Energy stated, "It is the Government s intention toencourage the use of hydraulic rams whenever it is difficult to convey water by gravity.Batteries of rams can be installed instead of diesel engines". The report was adopted by theparty. Hitherto, no serious consideration has been given to the field of hydrams in theprogram. The hydram potential has not been determined, although it is believed there issignificant potential in Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Iringa, P.beya, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Morogoro, Kigoma,Kagera and other hilly regions where perennial rivers are abundant. Further, the knowledgeavailable with regard to the development and operation of the schemes is too scarce to enableprovision of national guidelines. In order to popularize the option for wide-scale application,preliminary knowledge on limitations, co8t implication, acceptability, adaptability, reliabilityand maintainability is necessary. This would assist in making sound decisions on the applicationof hydrams. To avoid an ad hoc approach, the following research needs are considered necessary.PRELINIMRY SJIVEYThe main objective of the survey is to collect and compile relevant hydrolocical andtopographical data in order to determine water flows and topographic levels. This would form thebasis of selecting suitable sites for hydram schemes. Water Master Plan Studies already carriedout in many region8 would be the main source of information.- 25 -TECHNOLOGY USED AND UNIT COSTS OF EXISTING SYSTEMS (1976)TYPE OF SUPPLY% TOTALPOPULATIONSERVEDPER CAPITA COST (Shs)DESIGN PRESENTPOPULATION POPULATIONSurface gravity 28 230 345Surface diesel powered pump 41 250 375Surface hydram pump * * *Surface windmil pumped * * *Borehole diesel power pumped 22 300 450Borehole windmill pumped * * *Shallow wells hand pumped 9 80 120
A survey of village patterns including locations, size, population and water demand will becarried out to assess areas of use and relevant size of hydran project. This will help inknowing the extent to Ich the hydran technology will be used in comparison with othertechnology mixes. An idea of the most common size of a hydran pump likely obtained from suchinformation would further assist in fixing standards for the hydran designs.Upon selection of suitable project locations further preliminary surveys will be undertaInto investigate the economic factors, existing social conditions, attitude of villagers towardsscheme ownership, participation in construction and maintenance of the hydram water supplysystem.ORGANIZATION (F TIE HYORM FIELD TESTINGBased on the findings of the preliminary survey, hydran schemes will be constructed atselected villages Lnder normal project implementation procedures. jided by the input from thevillagers, the method of implementation shall be decided with emphasis of beneficiariesparticipation, self-help labour or otherwise. The installation of hydrans shall be done byproject personnel wto would continue to inspect and monitor its performance.During the course of the hydran operation, performance teats shall be carried out. Thiswill include collection of important information and taking measurements to verify designparameters and to assess durability of hydrans under field conditions. The behaviour of variouscomponents of the system such as valves, springs, air chambers and pipe fittings shall bemonitored. An analysis of hydran parts at the end of the project shall be necessary. Parameterssuch as volunetric efficiency, water heal, water output, frequency of use, stream flows shall berecorded. Suitable and reasonably accurate devices shall be used in taking measurements.Careful consideration shall be given to the location of the schemes. For ease andconvenience of construction and maintenance, inspection and monitoring the accessibility to thesite will be important. The scheme construction shall be as simple as possible. Locallyavailable materials such as burnt mud bricks or wood staves shall be used to construct the healpond and supply reservoirs. The piping material shall be determined by the drive, delivery andsupply heeds available for each scheme. For the purpose of comparing operating characteristics,it is proposed to install both locally and commercially made hydraulic ram punps.
- 27 -CONCLUSIONIn view of the high cost of fuels and lubricants, difficulties in transportation, shortageof skilled manpower and materials to maintain diesel engines, it is imperative to encourage useof indigenous renewable energy resources much as hydraulic ram pumps. The research proposed hereaims at understanding the suitility of such applications in Tanzania. At the end of theresearch, answers to the following questions should be found:Are hydraulic ram pump applications technically, economically and socially acceptable?What is the approximate cost and size of a village hydram scheme?What would be the most common size of a hydram to be used in the water programme?What is the unit cost of water production using hydrams as an optional technology?To what extent can hydrams be used in the water programme?What is the extent of energy saving using this option?What are the weak parts of the hydraulic ram as a pumping device?What level of reliability can be expected from a village hydram scheme?How comparable in performance and economy are locally fabricated hydrams?To what extent should beneficiaries participation be expected in construction, operationand maintenance of a hydraulic ram system?Who should be encouraged to own a hydraulic ram scheme - a public institution or a privateundert aking?Finally, it is hoped that the existence of such preliminary knowledge will assist planners,engineers and financiers in making sound decisions on the use of hydraulic ram pumping schemes inthe development of water schemes in the country.
- 28 -THE USE OF HYDRAP6 FOR WATER PWPINC IN TANZANIAby D. TulaponaABSTRACTThe need for more renew1e energy technologies in the rural water supply sector ishighlighted. Some design aspects are discussed and the outlook for local manufacture issurveyed.INTROO(CT IONIn Tanzania, as in most developing countries, the problem of water supply is not only itsgeneral scarcity, but also where it is plentiful there is the problem of getting it to where itis needed. In principle, there is water everywhere in Tanzania even in the drier centralplateau. The success of the Shallow Wells Project in the Lake Zone and Morogoro Region provesthe point. The southern and northern highlands are endowed with fast flowing rivers which haveenough water all the year round. The great lakes which almost surround half of the country andsmaller lakes scattered throughout the country are all cold water sources.In general, Tanzanias water sources can be utilized for domestic and irrigation purposes.The saline water of the sea has been left out of this discussion purposely as its use fordomestic or irrigation purposes requires techoologies not included in this Workshop. The threeforms in which cold water occurs are: running water (rivers, springs, streams), stegnant water(lakes, dams, ponds) and underground water. Being on the surface, the first two forms are easyto tap and reedy for use, provided health precautions are observed. lhderground water, on theother hand, has to be extracted by digging and drilling wells to bring water th the surface. Thewater tthle varies from place to place thus making the task of lifting the water even moredifficult.There are a nuwher of water-lifting devices with varying outputs and uses. There are thepumps which range from the simple low-output handpumps to the high-speed high-capacitycentrifugal punps. Others include Persian wheels, Archimedean screws, axial flow punps andhydraulic rams. Of course, there are also shedoofs, windlass and pail, trealmill and others lessfamiliar in this country.
- 29 -All these devices require energy to operate them. The energy required varies according tothe type of device and the amount of water to be lifted. The low-speed, low-output devices suchas handpumps, Persian wheels, shadoofs, windlass and pail, treadmill and Archimedean screw allutilize human or animal power. Windmills are also used to drive pumps which lift water from boreholes arid deep wells. The well-kno handpump and the windlass and pail are primarily forlifting water for domestic use and stock watering only. Due to their low output, they are notsuitle for lifting water for irrigation. In most cases, they are used to lift water fromwells. The Persian wheel lifts water from wells, the shadoof which lifts water from wells orrivers (canals) and the treadmill, which lifts water from rivers, are mostly found in Asia butcould be introduced in this country as well.The high-speed and high-output centrifugal pumps which supply water to urban areas or largescale irrigation farms are beyond the scope of this paper. But the medium capacity centrifugalor piston pumps driven by fuel engines and used to supply water to rural communities need specialmention. A nuther of these were installed in many villages in this country but unforti.natelymost of them are not working. There are many factors which have contributed to this problem.Lack of expertise in the villages to repair the engines and punps, shortage of spare parts andthe shortege and ever-rising prices of fuels are just a few of the factors.Hydraulic rams, which are not very numerous in this country, require neither fossil fuel,animal nor human power to punp water from running streams to very high levels. Although thetechnology for this device has been in existence for the last two centuries, its use in Tanzaniahas not been widespread. A few hydrams were installed and used in settler coffee and sisalestates around Arusha and Moshi thout forty to fifty years ego, but most of them are not workingnow due to neglect. In recent years, however, people have come to realize the usefulness ofhydrama, especially after engine operated pumps failed due to reasons mentioned thove. Duringthis period there have been efforts to continue production and supply of hydrans in Tanzania.Jandu Pluntera Ltd. of Arusha has been the only local manufacturer of hydrams.HYDRM PEIFOIINICEThe performance of a hydram is determined by the working fall down which the driving watertravels and also by the vertical height to which the pumped water must be raised. Thus, whenworking fall and vertical height are know, the output can easily be determined from operatingcharts or tles. The increase of vertical fall uaunlly increases the amount of drive water andthus increases the output of the hydram.
To calculate output of the hydram, some required information must be known. The verticalfall in meters, volume of drive water in litres per minute and the vertical delivery elevation inmeters must be measured accurately. A typical efficiency of hydrans is around 60%. The outputcan, therefore, be estimated according to the following simple formula:0=VxFx6E 10where 0 Output in litres per minuteV Volume of water flowing through drive pipe in litres per minuteF Vertical (working) in metersE Vertical elevation of delivery in metersAfter obtaining the D in litres per minute, hourly and daily outputs can be obtained bymultiplying it by 60 and 1,440 respectively.
SCSIt4 DlIGIRATIOIGOver the years mny researchers have been av per Iment i nq with new eaten s,a and new met hod.of menufscture in an attempt to design lightweight hydrmilic tea. Host of these lightweightdesigns have proven ssatisfactory the to the isaterlal not beira etrorq enough to .upxrt thePugh pressure. iEich develop within the hydrea. Although the hydreas have initially performedwell, it is not for Pow lorç they will continua to ftzct ion. It is doubtful iiether theywill be capeble of rtrnirs for fifty yesre or more, like the trelitional ones cede of heavy caststeel. -Voluiteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) and the Intermediate Iecfriology Development (oup(ITDC), to mention juat two organizations, have done research on simple hydrase ich have beenfield-t*ted with encoureira results. Th VITA hydras is constructed frcp available galvanizediron pipe tittiria acxi locslly-eeie valves. The construction req tea no special skill andminimus nuaber of tools. A drill press end sane hard tools are .11 that is required. Weldirg,brazira wxl e,lderir are not requited. The cost of the hydrea is very low aiipered to the castone but its durability is yet to be determined.The first consideration for hydras desiq is durability. The hydrea exploits thenon-canpreesibility of water. If water flowirç at a certain speed is abruptly stopped, a highpressure (water hsewaer) will develop. The hydrea utilizes this property by harneaeirs the waterheuser and any punp body with a tendency to expand truder pressure o, is cede of wesk materialmust not be used as it will break. Although rather expensive, it is necessary to use heavynon-elastic materials. Hoavy cast steel with parts of copper and brass hove proved most ideal.Another very impertant consideratioi is the internal contour of the hydren body, both franthe opint of view of frictional bases ich will prevent the maximun speed fran beirx achievedønd air peckets iuich will prevent ettairynent o meximtjs pressure. toas of speed and pressurewill seriously effect the efficiency of the puap.The st.ceaa of the hydren will be guaranteed f rigid materials are used, if it is correctlycede end installed end requires very little attention. The workir parts iich need charxingabouA once a year are the rubber valve di sea. Only simqle maintenance is requ1red to enaure thatthe waterways are clear and free-flowirx.
MNItWACUWt IrrLNGThe meri fact ure of hydr mae in Tan zen is t a not a. wide. pre ad as would have been ma pectpci,taking into consideration the acute .. obiem of water lifting. Ther. exists adequatemanufacturing facilities but the main constraint on widespread local manufacture of the piap. Isthat strict quehty control during mara.jfacture is essential if the rm. Is to opere effIcientlyfor a long period of time. Well made puapa have been Imown to rul contlnoueiy for mere thanfifty year. with only minimua maintenance but poorly engineered puapa breW down easily andquickly.During the era of chew oil of the 1950. and 1960., interest in the use and, therefore,the manufacture of the hydroniswand in Tanzania and eTaeere. Iwever, due to the fact thathydrses require no fuel to nfl thee, they are now back in favour. Becsose of this lae ininterest for they hydrass, many people do not know much thout them, but now that they have beenrediacovered, thef should be popularized And made avaiile.ri Europe and Aserica, a few firtas ar& st ill manufacturing hydrme, thouh not as a mainproduct line. John Blake Ltd..of Ennland and Rife Hydrilic Engine Wanufacturing Co-of-- NewJersey, U.S.A. are well knoi.ei and experienced tydrmn manufacturpre. Uiifortiriately, hydrmaa fnc.these long-standino manufacturers are not being imfxrted into Tapzania. The few imported hyoi ia,were inst ailed before the chei oil era. tke of the iiain ream,ne for the uideii.t iijzat ion ofis a lack of awareness of this echnolnoy among potential users.The sole manufacturer of hydrass in Tanzania is Jandu Plusders Ltd. of Arueha. A variety ofsizes are produced but the product ion rate is very small. (ly tout ten hydrasa are producedper month but the demand for them is increasing, both within the coisitry and in neiqNourirxjcoiz,tries. Jandu Plurrters could produce sore if the hydrass were made the main product line. Asmentioned earlier, there are a nunt,er of mcnufacturing firms in Tanzania with adequate facilitiesto produce hydrsms. These firms could be persuaded to include hydrame as a product line andwould be will,rt to do so if the marke.-could he nuaranteed. isll acale industries iiich aremtiahrnc,sinq all over the coti,try c0Uç be utilized to manufacture the hydrmas, especially at theassently stae. romplicated parts couØ be manufactured by medium or lange industries4ich have betterroduct ion facilities. small iwele industries could produce the simple partsand perform simpleoperatio and the final assertly.
- 34 -THE HYDRNJLIC RAM PUW IN KENYAOyuIa 0. etheABSTRACTThe present rural water supply structure in Kenya is outlined, and reference made to therole of hydrams. Community involvement, oroanizational financing, operation and maintenance andpublic health aspects of rural hydram development are surveyed.I F(1$IAT miReports from the Ministry of Water Development (frID) state that the socess of the ruralpopulation to improved water supplies varies widely from 13-15% as a national averoge to 3-4% insome districts. The Government, through the Ministry, has initiated four national Rural WaterSupply Programmes over the years involving some 280 schemes, half of which are operational, withthe other under design or construction.It is estimated that one-half to two-thirds of the rural population with sccess to animproved water supply is directly supplied through the MWD schemes. The rural water suppliesunder the MW!) are administered mainly through the following programmes:- Rural Water Supply Programmes (RWSI, RWSII, RWSIII and RWSIV) started in early 1970Self-help Schemes Programmes- Rehabilitation ProgrammeInternational agencies and bilateral donors, for example, the Government of Sweden throughSIDA and the World Bank, have over the years assisted the RWS in the country.Hydraulic ram pumps along with other types of pumps have been used in many Self-help SchemesProgramme following the 1976 International Womens Year - Harambee ya Wanawake Kwa Afya. In theearly 1950s and prior to 1980, British-made hydrams dominated the Kenyan market. Today in 1984,due to stringent controls on foreign exchange, the major firms who had been importing these andsimilar foreign-made hydrams, no longer stock them. The inexpensive Intermediate Technology
- 35 -Development Group (ITDG), U.K., and Volu,teers in Technical Assistance (VITA), USA, hydramsproduced at rural and village polytechnics in the country are now more popular among ruralcommunities.CIMIIJIITY INVOLVEWNT AND ORGANIZATIOML FINANCINGThe Kenya Government, through its Ministry of Water Development has been le to implementvarious water schemes in the country. The Ministry, however, has indicated that the problemexperienced in water supply is the difficulty in obtaining payment for the water supplied coupledwith the lack of community involvement. A water use study carried out by the Ministry hasrevealed that only thout 30-50% of water distributed and invoiced in the rural areas in Kenya arepaid for by the users. The reason is that due to culture and trajition, water is free and theidea of paying for water is altogether strange, if not repugoant. This defeats many self-helpefforts, such as the Rural Development Fund (RDF), by killing any forthcoming cash contributionsand possible lour input. Similarly, the use of communal water points have suffered setbacksdue to questions of revenue collection, responsibility and ownership.OPERATION NI) WIINTEMNCEDifferent types of ownership generate different management structures, due to the fact thatdifferent problems arise depending upon whether the structures are privately, institutionally orpiilically owned. The most difficult problems arise from types of ownership resulting inunfairness in distribution, such as the exclu8ion, restriction and interference in institutionalactivities. Other problems result from the general failure of water users, particularly incommunal government projects, to share responsibility for hygiene and cleanliness at the source.For example, sometimes coianuiities fail to contribute the ithour required to prevent the punpingsite from lapsing into a state of disrepair. Finally, for many government or donor projects inthe rural communities a common problem is one of a lack of follow-up with a relithle maintenancesystem. The ideal situation would occur if people at the communal or village level would be thleto buy, own, manage, maintain, repair, and overhaul or replace the pump, if and when the needarises. For every pump installation there is also a need for local organization within thecommunities with an elected and highly motivated management committee to insure a relithleprogram of future care and maintenance.
- 36 -PWUC HEALTHIt is a truism that a commLnity cannot exist without water. However, access to that waterhas direct and implicit costs to the commuiity. These costs vary with each canmiriity in terms oftime and energy spent in collecting water, ill-health due to lack of sufficient water, ill-healthdue to contaminated water, and in some cases, actual cash paid for water.At the outset, it is important to determine a ccnmuiitys health situation iich shouldinclude:the determination of the incidence of water-related diseases, such as skin diseases,trachoma, diarrhoeas, cholera, bilharzia, and others;the comminitys level of knowledge and awareness;the commuiitys practices and expectations; andthe cammuitya social and economic structure.After determining the camminities health status, a sustained programme of water and healtheducation should be developed to create an awareness and appreciation of clean, safe water inrural areas through cammtnity involvement and participation.
HVDRMLIC RAN PIJW TEDIIOLOCY AM) PRACTICE IN ZAIAW.T. Weercoon x1 V. UyanajeABSTRACtA hydran installation in the Western Province of Zambia is examined in detail. Its historyof usage, modifications and improvements are documented. Test results and analysis for thishydran installation are given.The rural water supply situation in Zambia is surveyed with mnphasis on comcntnityparticipation programs. Research on locally-male hydrans at the University of Zambia isdescribed and preliminary conclusions are drawn.INTRODUCTIONHistorical information reveals that hydraulic ran pumps have not been used in Zambia exceptin a few instances. This may be due to the fact that the full potential of this particulartechnology has not been exploited. I-bwever, it appears that windmills have been most popularamong farmers to lift water from boreholes. With the introduction of engine andelectrically-driven pumps, windmills too, got phased out of the system. The only kown hydran isinstalled at St. Marys Mission in Kawambwa (Luapula Province). This pump was installed in 1961and has a supply heal of 9 metres and delivery heal of 70 metres. The diameter of the drive pipeis 6 inches (15nm) and the capacity is 182m3/day. The main storage tank is situated at adistance of 3.5km away. After nearly fifteen years of use, this pump has hal to be repairedseveral times. Plain repairs were carried out on the delivery pipe and bronze impulse valveseat. Since 1976, this pump has not been operating properly. It was repaired once again by theTechnology Development and Advisory Unit (TDAU) and it is now in operation with an output of1 44m3/day.Due to the increased price in fuel and difficulty in obtaining foreign exchange, it hasbecome necessary to look at the possibility of reintroducing hydraulic ran pumps in Zambia. Atpresent, Zambia has to rely on engine- or electrically-driven pumps. The maintenance of thesepumps are now becoming expensive and difficult. The hydran because of its low cost, ease ofoperation, dependability, efficiency and simplicity in construction offers a better choice toZambia than other pumps. -bwever, these pumps will be restricted to specific areas where asufficient and stealy water supply is availthle with a minimum required water heal.
- 38 -Since hydrarns have not been widely used, it is not possible to provide comprehensiveinformation about their operation. f-k,wever, it can be concluded that dum to foreign exchangedifficulties and a lack of infrastructural facilities available, repairs and maintenance ofconventional pumping systems has become an extremely difficult task. It is in this context thathydrams can play an important role, both in the commtriity water supply and egriculturaldevelopment.THE HYDRAULIC WATER RN4 PUll IN THE WESTEI1 PROVItCEThe hydram at the Bubenshi River was installed by the manufacturer in 1961, when St. MarysMission was established in this region. The water is taken from the river at a spot of 9m abovethe hydram. It is led through a pipe to an open surge tank, 36m from the ram. From there, thewater goes through the drive pipe to the ran (8ee Figure 1). The breather pipe was not present.The ran pumped the water through a 3.5km long 2-inch (5(nm) delivery pipe to the main storagetanks, 7Dm above the ran. According to the manufacturers data, the ran capacity was 100m3/day.From the start, the ram installation experienced a technical fault: the drive pipe burst.A team from the manufacturing company (Blake) visited the site and suggested strengthening of thedrive pipe, especially at the elbow bend.The canmumity, using water from this installation, was expanding and after some time the ranwas considered to be too small. It was repisoed by a diesel pump and later by two electricpumps, all situated in a pumphouse near the inlet of the supply pipe of the surge tank. Theelectric pumps have a combined capacity of 290m3/day.Ewever, the maintenance of the diesel pump becaam increasingly troablesome, and the powersupply to the electric pumps was irregular, especially during the rainy season. An automaticon/off switching mechanism for the electric pumps failed to operate. This led to an erraticwater supply, sometimes interrupting the water supply to the users. To overcome these problems,it was decided to use the hydran installation again.During the initial use of the hydram, the bronze impulse valve seat had shattered. A newcast-iron valve seat was copied from the remainder of the old one and installed in 1975.Meanwhile, the delivery pipe of the rem was increased to 3-inches (75mm) and led from the hydranto the pumphouse, where it was connected to the pumps delivery pipe. According to Blakes data,the ram can pump up to 182m3/day under these circumstances. These flows have not been obtainedat this site. When the TDAU engineers visited the site, the hydran was pumping, but onlyoccasionally did this flow reach the tanks.
- 39 -MODIFICATIOI CARRIED Oil ON THE HYDRNThe interference of shock wave8 in the drive pipe caused an effective hydraulic blockage inthe pipe. It may have been contributing to the bursting of the drive pipe as well. To overcomethis interference, a breather pipe was welded on the drive pipe about 4m downstream of the elbow(see Figure 1).The rubber of the faulty non-return valve was cut to the appropriate size. The holes in theimpulse valve seat were cleaned. The diameter of the hole in the impulse valve rtbber wasincreased over a depth of 5mm to allow a greater valve opening. Provisions were made to have therubber move easily over the valve seat (see Figure 2).Finally, the valve rubber was secured by a tapered rubber washer in the lowest position.The diameter enlargement in the rubber had to extend over 10mm in length in this configuration(see Figure 3). Several other modifications have been tried out with different results. bne ofthese were finally incorporated and are therefore not included in this parmraph.RE9JLTS OF IlL H(I)IFICATIONSAfter the installation of the breather, it was found initially that the ram was stillbeating irregularly and weakly. The interference of shock waves in the drive pipe could nolonger be observed. After cleaning the holes in the impulse valve seat and the introduction ofthe cut-out in the valve rubber, the rem beat became strong and stealy. Systematic tests of thismodification - indicated as floating valve rubber - were carried out. The complete test resultsare presented in Tables 1 and figures 4 and 5. It was fouid that the hydrmn was pumping up to48m3/day with a high beating freqLncy.An attempt to increase the hydram performance by increasing the stro of the non-returnvalve failed completely. The hydran was only pumping air and the output in the tanks was nil.Blocking one of the four air vents did not alter this. Next, the impulse valve rubber wassecured in the lowest position by a tapered rubber washer. With this modification systematictests were carried out as well. The complete test results are presented in Table 2 and figures 4and 5.
- 40 -TABLE 1Hydram performance, measured at main store tanks, floating valve rubberTABLE 2Hydram performance, measure at main storage tanks, fixed valve rubberValve setting(revolutions)Pumped volume(m3/day)Ran speed(beats/mm)1 10 1142 39 1103 41 1084 45 1085 48 1066 48 106Valve setting(revolutions)Pumped volume(m3/day)Ran speed(beats/mm)2 51 1083 91 804 108 665 115 606 123 587 119 568 132 568+1 pump 290 --8 + level 123 56cant r ol
- 41 -The hydram performance increased dramatically while the beating frequency reduced. Themaximum pumping capacity was found to be 132m3/day. To reduce the chance of pumping air, thewater level in the surge tank of the ram was controlled by letting small amounts of air escapethrough a tap. This reduced the ram performance by 8%.Using a flat rubber washer instead of a tapered one increased the maximum measured remperformance by 8% to 1444n3/day. After fifteen hours pumping, however, the outer part of thiswasher was completely smashed. The surface of the valve seat was also damaged; small parts haddisappeared. It was also found that with the fixed valve rubber, the hydram could cooperate withone electric pump. The pumping capacity was then 290m3/day which is just as much as bothelectric pumps. A third pump further increased the pumped volume of water.DISCUSSION (IN THE TEST RESULTSIt can be seen clearly from figures 4 and 5 that the fixed valve rubber modification had thehighest pumping capacity and the lowest beating frequency. Reducing the maximum stroke of theimpul8e valve rubber reduced the pumped volume and increased the beating frequency.The largest measured volume of water being pumped was 75% of the manufacturers prediction.Unfortunately, only the diameter of the delivery pipe and the delivery height was stated, and itis not clear whether the friction of the 3.5km delivery pipe length was included as well. Bothfloating and fixed valve rubbers increa8ed the effective taper of the impulse valve. Fhwever,the required axial movement of the floating valve rubber was apparently much slower as comparedwith the elastic bending of the fixed rubber and reduced the magnitude of the waterhammer shockwave needed for pumping. Since it was observed that the beating frequency with the floatingrubber was higher and didnt vary very much with the valve setting, the conclusion may bejustified that the valve never opened completely. This would reduce the maximum waterflowthrough the impulse valve and therefore reduce the waterhamrner pressure. The damage of the8urface of the valve seat may have three causes:- Cavitation or surface fatigue- Corrosion of the valve seat during the six-year inactive period- Casting faults
- 42 -If the damage W85 caused by cavitation or surface fatigue, the damaged area will increase,eventually leading to failure of the valve seat. In this case, one may use a harder material forthe valve seat, like cast steel to delay or stop the phenomenon. It may be possible, and evenlikely that due to the waterflow and the impact of the valve ruber, corroded parts have beencleaned and small bits of material near shrinkage cracks or graphite inclusions have been thrnoff. In this case, the damaged area will not increase.COINJIITY PARTICIPATIONCommuity involvement and participation in water projects has been one of the built-infeatures in Zambia. According to the Third National Development Plan (TNDP), it is clearlystated that the Ministry of Health and all those working in the health field will redouble theirefforts in educating and mobilizing the people to take greater responsibility in promotion andpreservation of health and prevention of diseases. Since the Government alone cannot provideadequate water, refuse disposal and environmental health facilities for all, commu,ities willtherefore be encouraged to undertake these projects on a cormnuial basis, with the technicaladvice available from the Ministry of Health, Water Affairs and other agencies. An example ofsuch a commu,ity activity is the Public Stand Water Supply in Mwachisompola Health DemonstrationZone.Organization of public participation is usually encouraged through existing networks andgovernment agencies. Usually, project managers seconded from their respective duties for aspecific period in these projects are the key figures responsible for organizing publicparticipation. Financing comes from either the Government or outside agencies. For example,fuids for the above project came from the International Reference Centre for Commtriity WaterSupply (IRCCWS) in the Netherlands.In almost all projects, due to lack of technically qualified manpower, breakdowns occurwhich are not attended to immediately. Lack of spares and transport and preventive maintenanceprogrammes can be said to be the other features that aggravate this situation. Training ofmanpower and educating the commtiiities can go a long way to cope with this situation.RIIAL WATER JPF1Y SITUATION IN ZAMBIADuring the Second National Development Plan (1972-1976), about 1,531 wells, 342 well points,652 boreholes and 100 piped water supplies were completed trider the Village Cooperative and WaterSupplie8 Programme. Approximately 250,000 people benefited from these facilities, bringing the
total of rural population with hygienic water to 2.1 million. During the TNDP (1979-1983), someprogress was male, but due to increased fuel prices and erratic behaviour of the world econany,it was not possible to maintain the same speed of progress.Still, large nuthers of people have no access to clean water supply. Due to an absence ofadequate reliable water supply, many children is,der the age of six years die. Statisticalreports indicate that acre than 70% of the diseases are connected with u,clean water. An attenpthas been male by the (kveranent and local authorities to make available safe water to all ruralvillages. Although cities and urban areas usually have satisfactory water storage anddistributing facilities, still mtrh acre work is needed to make clean water available to therural population.RESEARCH NI) OEVELOPINT ACTIVITIESThe first research and development activities related to hydrmns started in 1975 by theMagoye Regional Research Station (Department of Agriculture) in Magoye. The second pump wasmanufactured by Jere (TDAU). Both these punps hal not been previously tested properly, so thatit was felt necessary to carry out tests to determine the operational viability of these pumps.Work reported here is a result of the extensive work carried out by Mwafulilwa of School ofEngineering. This project was jointly sponsored by the School of Engineering and TechnologyDevelopment and Advisory thit (DTAIJ).The purpose of the Lusaka project was to determine the performance of the TDAU and Magoyemanufactured hydrans in order to examine the effect of varying the supply heal, supply rate,drive pipe, impulse valve stroke and tension, the hydran beat frequencies, delivery height andthe delivery rate on the efficiency and performance of the hydran.The following conclusions were reached fran the tests carried out on the two pumps:An increase in number of cycles per minute decreases the efficiency. This can be seen forthe curves 5 and 6 (see Figure 6).The delivery rate increases with the increase in efficiency up to a certain point only (seeFigure 7).
- 44 -3. An increase in delivery head tend8 to decrease the overall efficiency of the pump. Themaximum delivery head seems to depend more on the supply head than the impulse valvesetting8 (see Figure 8).Finally, the Lusaka project indicated that these pumps can be easily used for active waterpumping, since they perform well tnder the envirorinent in tich they were tested. Ebwever, it isimportant to field-test them before any decision can be made to manufacture them locally. It isalso felt that some other designs should be introduced for field-testing to compare theefficiency of each desiqi and select the ones best suited to the local conditions.COICLL5IONThe Third National Development Plan clearly indicates the necessity to generate more andfuller employment as a major objective of development, and to that end, to adopt technlogy iichis lthour-intensive, paying due regard to the resources availthle and the social needs of theZwian economy. Further diversification of the economy from a copper base to riculture hasbeen emphasized by the Party and its Government in their efforts to reduce the economysdependence on copper. Besides these objectives, the basic need to supply clean water fordrinking is also an important factor in any rural development in Zambia. There is an urgent needto have an ective research progremme in hydraulic rem technology in Zembia and to uidertakeresearch and demonstrate the capability of this inexpensive tecluiology vich needs very littleskills to maintain. It is also important to train the local artisans to manufacture and maintainthese pumps at the village level.
- 45 -TABLE 3: NOTATION FOR CURVES ON FIGURES 6, 7 AM) 8a) SUPPLY HEAD = 3.205mCurve Number Valve Stroke Bolt TensionREFERENCES(mm) (no. of clock-wise turns)1 10 02 20 03 30 0b) SUPPLY HEAD = 4.22mCurve Number Valve Stroke Bolt TensionReport on Trouble Shooting Visit to Waterram in Kawambws, Luapula Province. Colijn, A;Hommerson, G.; Shouten, C.P.; and Viugman, A.A. 1982.The Hydraulic Analysis of Water Rams. afulilwa. 1983Public Standpost Water Supplies, Volume 13 and 14. IRCCWS Publication. 1979.Third National Development Plan, Zambia. 1979.Public Stand Water Supplies (PSWS) Project Lusaka. 1983.4 10 05 10 16 10 27 20 08 30 0
2zF500IMPULSE VALVE SETTING(No. OF REVOLUTIONS OF THE VALVE SPINDLE FROM FULLY CLOSED POSITION)FIG. 5: HYDRAM FREQUENCY AS A FUNCTIONOF IMPULSE VALVE SETTINGFLOATING VALVE RUBBERFIXED VALVE RUBBER)0 2 4 6
- 53 -0I IJO 20DELIVERY HEAD (M)FIG. 8: EFFICIENCY VS. DELIVERY HEAD30
hydram for a given site.ST RAIN ER- 54 -PRACTICAL ASPECTS (F FIVORNI (PERATIONE.J. SchillerABSTRACTSelection of the correct hydram for a given physical site is considered. The measurement offield parameters and site construction is outlined. Some key operation aid maintenance factorsare noted.INTRUIXJCTIONIn the following paper some practical aspects of hydran installation aid operation will bediacussed. The first question to be addressed is the selection of the hydran, in terms of typeaid size for a given site. Having correctly installed the hydram, questions of daily operationand maintenance need to be considered.SELECTING A HYDRNI FOR A GIVEN SITEIt was previously stwn that two characteristic curves eithody most of the operatingcharacteristics for a given hydrain. The correct use of these curves can aid in choosing the bestAIRCHAMBER4,AIR1WASTEVALVEf__I- - DELIVERY -.VALVEFIQEE 1: A TYPICAL ARRAN(FNT IN A HYORNI INSTALLATIONHEADERTANKIHdAh
SITE P*RNTERSA given site will have the followirij parsmeters iich will usually need to be measured inthe field.i) Stream Flow. Stream flows can be measured by various methods inc1udir the volumetricmethod for very small flows.Hl)Q.t.Ifr SriAL. F%e..).h MVPuLIJL, LP&LEit L%..)i1IM?O&At/ bAt-I tJrrH tJ8Th4.- 55 -PLpLr1E L&.Jel.t4rH J I,cTLi4V-UOTL.H IiJE.lt.QLQEI1ET F LATEP. PTH H iE?IE1Et. tiP,iR.PM FRz,i V- e-rc..t Watt (1 978)For even larger flows, velocity measuring meters (either the pygmy type or the large Priceand Ott current meters) can be used. Sufficient readings of the stream flow should be taIn in ayearly cycle to determine the minimum guaranteed flow available (qmin).and the temporary V-notch weir for larger flows. Watt (1978)
ii) The drop in the flowing stream fran the source to the site of the hydrmi is an importantparameter. The stream may have a natural drop or a drop can be created by means of asmall dam. The amount of this drop can usually be determined with a simple surveyinglevel or even with a carpenters level attsohed to a stick.- 56 -awe. lL4v ii4iaM!. Oifh4LA IOL(L0.consuaption in a rural setting, this can be approximated by:Water Demand Population x Per Capita Conaunption (1)A typical per capital consunption is 30-40 Lip/day. If animals are present, their waterconsumption should be included also.MATCHING PIJPF CHARACTERISTICS TO THE SITE AM) OEMAND CHARACTERISTICSGiven the water demand from equation (1) and the fact that hydrans operate twenty-four hoursper day, the required flow will be:Water Demand (litres) (2)24 x 60 (mm)S&t up &J(Oh S5I.tLI. £,lIt L:Qo0.HaWtt:2.k* S%TL.Watt (1978)The distance from the hydram site to the store point must be measured both in terms ofthe lift required (Hd, Figure 1) and in terms of the length of the delivery piperequired.An estimate of the water demand is required. If this is to be used for domestic£OJrLa. t*..3L1
- 57 -We next refer to curves of punp efficiency for the sane supply head, H, as was measured atthe site. We should select a pump that works near its maximtn efficiency at the flow given inequation (2). Curves derived by a computer model will greatly facilitate the punp selectionprocess.When a pump has been selected, the head ratio-flow ratio curves can be consulted. The pumpwill need to supply enough pressure head to lift the water to the storage tank ani to overcomeall friction losses in the delivery pipe. In general, this will be equal to:Delivery head Hd + (fL+ Ek) .Y!.D 2gwhere Hd = height to whith water is liftedf pipe friction factorL = delivery pipe lengthD = delivery pipe dianeterV = average velocity in delivery pipe= sum of various minor losses in delivery pipeg acceleration due to gravityOnce the required delivery head is determined, the head ratio can be determined. From thehead-ratio versus flow-ratio curve, the flow ratios can be determined. The sum of thedelivery flow and waste flow must be less than the minimun guaranteed strean flow, i.e.Q + Qw <On1 (3)Highly efficient punps reduce If the strean flow is thundant, the hydran choice mayemphasize durebility more than efficiency.HYORMI SITE CONSTRIETIONIn most cases a small dam will need to be built. The drive pipe must enter the dan highenough from the bottom to avoid settled debris that will accumulate at the bottom of theheadpond. The drive pipe should be fitted with a screen mesh to eliminate debris that wouldenter the drive pipe. This would tend to increase the wear of the waste valve and the deliveryvalve.
The drive pipe should be well braced, for it will have a high pressure wave travellinq upalong it. Care should be taken to ensure that pipes will not resonate with the imposed beatfrequency of the hydran. Finally, the hydrem itself should be well moiiited on a concrete pad,with provision made for proper drainage of the waste water away from the hydram and back to thestream source. This feature is essential, and any site that cannot allow proper drainnge frcsithe hydrani site should not be chosen.OPERATUJI Nil) WINTEPNCE- 58 -FL.bE.Q. 1PuJ(oL srA PPc:iøRLLotrrLf.m1tR.?i.pJ .,j IAA1,J.LpuwIMtAL1IP..1 tUm wMt-T0 cTbAA4E.Watt (1978)The hydran operates continuously with only two points of wear at the waste and deliveryvalves. Eventually, these valves will wear out and need replacement. Spare rubber disks shouldbe kept on hand to repair these two valves when this occurs.The drive pipe strainer should be checked periodically and cleaned as needed.The air valve should be kept clear and clean. If air ceases to enter the hydram, very noisyand irregular operation will result.Most hydrans can be tuned by varying the stroke of the waste valve. When hydrana are tunedthey should be locked and not altered.The ove represent the major areas of maintenance. As long as the water supply is assuredand the pump is kept free of debris, long periods of trouble-free operation can be obtained withhydraus.REFERENCESWatt, S.F. (1978). A Manual on the Hydraulic Ran for Pumping Water,Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd., London.
TI MANUFACTURE HYORISS.S. JarduABSTRACTUnrealistic approaches to local hydran design and manufacture are exanined. Some aspects ofthe manufacture of hydrans in Tanzania are considered.DITROOIJCT IONJandu Plumbers Ltd. first began installing hydraulic rans in East Africa fifty years ago atwhich time the technoloqy was already two huidred years old. The type of hydrans that Jandu hasinstalled had previously been in manufacture for over seventy years. Therefore, our initialreaction on receiving an invitation to a seminar on the design and use of hydralic rena was oneof surprise that it should be necessary to do research into such a long-eat ablished technology.We have seen hydraulic rena become beloved of the armchair Intermediate Technology (I.T.)and Appropriate Technology (A.T.) engineers for romantic rather than rational reasons. Indeed,it is party for similar reasons that we manufacture them ourselves rather than some mereprofitable line. However, as engineers, we now see that the problems of making this sort oftechnology available to the rural population as a whole, are mere social or even political thantechnical. We shall be happy to leave this aspect to the experts but would like to comment onone example of the naive application of the 1.1. attitude. You will all have seen the neathydran made from standard pipe fittings and adopted by VITA. How - this is very convenient forthe voluiteer with the VITA handbook working in a remote area and with access to those fittings,but do we foresee huidreds of villagers descending on their nearest town to purchase fittings andthen making and installing the ran in the village? We contend that it is much mere likely thatsuch technoloqy will spread if appropriate equipment is readily available at the local markettown at reasonable prices. Tanzania is, we believe, not intypical of many developing economiesin its lack of spare parts and equipment. If you were to set out to build the VITA ran here, youwould spend considerable time searching for the parts and should you be fortuiste enough to findthem, then the open market value of the components would be quite high since they will have beenimported into the couitry, and consequently be a foreign exchange cost to the couitry. If youadd this to the time and expense of searching and assembling, then the cost is considerable.Surely then, it is better to make available a commercially-built ran, or better still, toencouroge the local manufacture of a hydran.
We hear a great deal about the "transfer of technology". In our experience this is greatlyaided by having a foundry since this has enabled us to find equipment that has served its purposeand been well proven over the years and then, quite frankly, we copy the design.We have been tempted to search for the most "efficient" hydran but now realize that it ismore important that the machine selected should be cost-effective in terms of first cost andmaintenance and that it should tend to keep working even when the conditions are not optimal. Weselected our pattern of hydran because it is simple in having no metal moving parts, no bearingsand no springs.Our foundry has been built up over the last six years around the manufacture of the hydranbut has diversified into many other items in our line of water supply and pluntinq equipment.Our hydrams are made from locally-available scr which is selected into different grades fordifferent tasks and even the rubber valves are made locally by our supplier in Tanzania. .btonly the hydrans, but also the foundry is made from local materials with the exception only ofsome electric motors and fire cement. We would not expect a foundry to be supported by themanufacture of hydrans alone and it is a further advantage of foundry work that once the cost ofpatterns has been covered, it is not expensive to change from the manufacture of one item toanother to meet current demand.(ke of the greatest aids to our type of small scale manufacturing industry would be theability to buy secondhand machine tools from Europe where machinery that would be invaluable tous are frequently broken up for scrap. We have been lucky that through the good offices of theMinistry of Industry, we have been able to do this on one occasion and the machinery has been infull production ever since. The potential for industrial development by such means is huge, butthe restrictions on importation of secondhand machinery makes it extremely difficult.Our customers have included: aid aenciea working in rural development, mission hospitals,schools, agricultural research stations, and many farms and plantations. If financing werereadily available, villages would also buy direct. Incidentally, we know there is awell-developed demand for the hyrans - from the nuither of thefts that are reported to us.I invite you all to visit our workshop and also see some of the hydrans that we haveinstalled in the Arusha area. From this, you will have a better idea than I am able to convey ina speech, of the performance of the hydran and the problems we face in manufacture.
- 61 -Jandu hydra.s d a VITA hydram on display at Jandu Plters Ltd., Arusha, TanzaniaThe foundry at .]andu P1ters Ltd, Arusha, Tanzania
- 62 -COIJNITY PARTICIPATION IN THE O(VEL(PNT ND WdNTEMNCEOF HYIR4S IN RURAL WTER SCIEtCESL.G. iieAflS TRACTA historical review of the role of community participation in rural water supply in Tanzaniais given. Possible areas of local participation in a hydram development program are given.INTROD1JCTItIICommunity participation in the development and maintenance of hydrams in water schemes hasto be seen as an integral part of the beneficiaries involvement in the total development ofpublic services given to the rural populace, such as health centre8, schools, roads, waterschemes, etc. During the struggle for political independence, and as a result, in the earlyyears of independence, mass mobilization was quite high. As a result, in the early years ofindependence, peoples participation in what was then popularly known as self-help developmentprograms was remarkedly high. The success of the famous MTU NI AFYA (a per&n is his health)campaign in the sixties and the nuner of schools, dispensaries, and health centres built duringthat time on a self-help basis clearly demonstrated the spirit people had towards developmentprograms. In a nutshell, people had accepted that development was their own responsibility andthat there would be no outside group who would help them in the transformation of their lives.LOSS OF MOTIVATIONHowever, as years went by, that spirit progressively faded away. Although there are manyfactors which led to this change of attitude, the following are a few of the main ones:1. vernment involvement in the implementation of development schemes assumed apredominant role. The introduction of big development programs necessitatedinstitutional management, and involvement of beneficiairies was ignored under thepretext of achieving the objectives within a predetermined economic timeframe. Plannersfelt that involvement was a parameter that they could not control.
- 63 -The removal of local government authorities in the early seventies meant developmentproqrams would be more centrally planned and executed.Some of the political decisions were misi.nderstood by the general public to mean thegovernment was duty-bound to provide the basic public services free.The second half of the sixties and first half of the seventies were very rosy times andthe government seemed financially uble to assume the role of providing for the basic needsto its rural populsee.Some government decisions disturbed the order in society to the extent that people could notreally identify their role in the development of their cot.rtry.Some individuals misused the existing potential of commLnity participation for their oibenefits. Incidences are on record where people were persuaded to put effort into projectswhich later had to be thandoned.The present hard economic times charsoterized by ahortnges of many of the essentialcommodities has encouraged individualistic development.Public participation was done on a volumtary basis. There was no leqislation to enforce itand ensure its continuity as a necessary input in the development process.There was no assessment made to evaluate the social and economic impact of commtnitydevelopment on development prograns.RESTORATION EFFORTSIn the course of time, the government realized its limitations in terms of resources andimplementation capacity. More importantly, the government realized that development cannot beplanted. Beneficiaries involvement is a ncessary input if development proqrns are to be realand meaningful. Therefore, the government is now taking positive steps to restore the apparentlylost glamour of local participation. As a first step, the government encouraged formation ofvillage governments which will manaje fuids and provide public services. The process of villagelegislation has been regrettthly slow. The estlishment of local government in 1983 is alsoseen as a positive contribution towards reactivation of the self-help spirit, although it alsohas some undesir,le features like personal tax.
As evidence of a new trend, a department of community participation has been established inthe prime ministers officer.COPNIJIITY PARTICIPATION POTENTIAL IN HYDRAM HE)(SRegarding the development and maintenance of hydrams used in rural water schemes, thefollowing tables indicate areas of possible beneficiaries involvement.TABLE 1: (iJtGTRUCTIONTABLE 2: (PERATION NI) AIN1ENANCENOTE: + - implies participation possiblex - participation is not possible* - limited participationTable 2 clearly demonstrates that there is a large scope of community involvement,particularly in the operation and maintenance of hydrams.Activity Coinity Involve.ertSite identificationCommunity mobilizationSurveyDesignSupervision of construction workMaterials (local)Materials (foreign)Skilled labourUnskilled labourInstallationConstruction++xxx+xx+*+Activity Coinity InvolvemertProtect ionAttendance++Running expenses xRepairs +Reporting +Ownership +
CONCLUSIONS AND ILCIJIE*)AT IONSThe need for community participation in development programs cannot be overemphasized. Atpresent, it is difficult to organize community participation. Therefore, there is a need toconduct a study to ascertain the level of community participation that would be possible in thedevelopment and maintenance of hydrams. The main objectives of the study should be thefollowing:identification of options which will reactivate the spirit of community participation,particularly in the development and maintenance of hydrama;- determination of cultural influences on the acceptability of hydrams;- assessment of attitudes of people towards water supply services;assessment of local skills and their influence on the development and maintenance ofhydrams;- assessment of the level of need of service; and- determination of the influence of economic differences in the development andmaintenance of hydrams.
- 66 -SOCIO-ECON(MIC CONSIDERATIONS IN RtJN.. WATER SUPPLY DEVOPICNTW. BaynitARSTRATSome cultural constraints to hydran usage are noted. The difficulty with fossil-fuelpumping is enumerated and potential areas for hydras development in Tanzania are listed. Someaspects of a hydran feasibility study are given.INTRODUCTIONConstraints to the application of any technology should not neces8arily be confined totechnical aspects. Social and even political aspects may be crucial in constraining the demandfor a technology. This is true for hydrans as well as any other technology.SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS IN HYDRHI APPLICATIONWhen discussing the social constraints in the application of hydrans in Tanzania, a majorissue may be the potential users lack of awareness and exposure to hydran technology in areaswhere this technology could be used. Other social and economic barriers could include:excessively high capital costs, users cultural barriers and sensitivities, social structure ofthe users community-like settlement patterns, ownership pattern, government policies, andeconomic aspects such as inflation.One of the main cultural barriers and sensitivities of the rural canminities in Tanzania aswell as in most other African couitries, is superstition. The ulique sound that hydrans makewhile working could trigger some speculation among the villagers. Some hydrans are installed instrange-looking areas and left unattended. There are thus no visible paths leading to them andyet the sound reaches quite a distance. This may make the villagers suspicious and refuse toaccept the hydran as a useful tool. It is a commonly-held belief that the natural water sourceslike springs are holy places and should not be tampered with. Experience has shown that, in somecases, villagers will not only abandon the area in which the pump is installed but also the riverfrom which the hydrarn draws its water. Villagers would rather look for an alternative watersource which may be miles away than draw their water from a tampered-with or "bewitched" river orspring. This problem will be resolved through exposure to various working hydrans and education.
- 67 -POTENTIAL FOR WIIISPREN) t& IF HYORNISFollowing the campaign to settle peasants in Ujanaa (commumal) villages, a nuther of waterpumps were installed to supply water to these villages. Most of the pumps were driven byfossel-fuel engines and a few by windmills. The pumps were installed at a time when whe worldwas thout to bid farewell to the cheap fuel era. The villagers did not enjoy piped water forlong before the oil crisis struck. For sonic time sore pumps continued to be installed as theworld expected the crisis to be temporary but only recently has it been realized that the cheoil era is gone forever.With the ever rising prices of fossil-fuel and spares, the engines one by one ground to astop. Villagers who could afford the fuel and spares lacked the expertise to repair and maintainthe engines. The last blow came when fuel was in short supply and rationing was introduced. Itbecame very difficult for villagers to obtain tne fuel although some had the money to buy it.The pumps were thandoned with unservicethle engines and the villagers hat to revert to trekkingmiles in search of water. The situation is still the same today and there is no indication ofever reviving the engines again. In fact, some of the engines have been brought back to townswhere they are driving other machines, including grain mills.Windmills have been used to pump water in Tanzania but the initial costs of purchasing andinstalling them are out of reach of most villages. The few seen here and there in some parts ofthe coLntry were bought by the goverment and installed free-of-charge to the villages. Even agovernment cannot afford to supply a windmill free-of-charge to every village in the cointry.Even with the few windmills supplied by the government, most of them are either not working orthe pumps are not working due to lack of regular maintenance.The hydram, therefore, is the ideal alternative to the pumps mentioned ove. The fact thatit consumes no fossil-fuel, needs minimum maintensoce and can be reasonthly priced, weighsheavily in its favor. As mentioned earlier, the technology is quite simple and all the hydramswhich may be required can be manufactured locally. This will serve two purposes. Firstly,foreign currency can be saved, and secondly, the end users will have somewhere to turn in case ofproblems.There are many areas in Tanzania where hydrmns could be installed both for domestic andirrigation purposes. The Northern Highlands with fast-flowing rivers are quite ideal. It is inthis area that some of the oldest hydrmns were istalled many years ago; some of them can still befound in working condition. The Southern Highlands have numerous rivers runing in deep ravinesformed by low hills. Dwelling houses are built on the hills making it difficult to fetch waterup the hills. Some hydrans can be found in this area also.