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Hydraulic Ram Pump System Design Manual - US Peace Corps, Philippines

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Hydraulic Ram Pump System Design Manual - US Peace Corps, Philippines

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Hydraulic Ram Pump System Design Manual - US Peace Corps, Philippines

  1. 1. COVER PAGEVOLUNTEER GENERATED MATERIALEach material generated or authored by a Peace Corps Volunteer must include this cover page for ease in filingand retrieval of the resource material. The material will then be available as an IRC Resource for use bypresent and future volunteers.Title: Hydraulic Ram Pump System Design ManualAuthor(s): Page WeilBatch: 265 Date Submitted:Area/Topic (Check Only One):Education/ICT Health/HIV-AIDSSocial Work GAD WIDEnvironment Youth InitiativeBusiness MiscellaneousTarget Audience (Check Only One):Pre-School Service Providers : Water SystemDesign Engineers, Municipal Engineers,Peace Corps WatSan VolunteersElementary ParentsHigh School WomenCollege Community LeadersAt-Risk/Out-of-School Youth Other: _______________Type of Resource (Check All That Apply):Workshop Lesson PlanManual ModuleSmall Print (ie. Pamphlet) Funded ProjectReports Other: _______________Format (Check All That Apply):Electronic VersionDocumentPower Point PresentationMultimediaHardcopyPrintCD/DVDBrief Description of Content:The Hydraulic Ram Pump is a mechanical device that can pump water above the water sourceWITHOUT THE NEED FOR ELECTRICITY. This pump has many applications, especially in the rural,upland areas of the Philippines where water is difficult to access due to the need for electric pumping and thedistance and expense of an electrical power source. This manual is intended to provide a comprehensive guidefor site selection and Hydraulic Ram Pump system design.
  2. 2. Hydraulic Ram Pump SystemDesign ManualPage Weil, EITUS Peace Corps, Philippines (2006-2009)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................................. 11. THE BASICS................................................................................................................................................................................. 21.1. WHAT IS A HYDRAULIC RAM PUMP?...................................................................................................................................... 21.2. BASIC TERMS........................................................................................................................................................................ 21.3. HOW DOES A RAM PUMP WORK? ........................................................................................................................................ 41.4. SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS..................................................................................................................................................... 72. SITE SELECTION.......................................................................................................................................................................... 82.1. APPROPRIATE COMMUNITY SELECTION .................................................................................................................................. 82.2. SYSTEM ELEMENTS AND PROPER PLACEMENT .......................................................................................................................... 82.2.1. River Intake Examples......................................................................................................................................... 82.2.2. Spring intake tank placement........................................................................................................................ 103. DESIGNING A HYDRAULIC RAM PUMP SYSTEM............................................................................................................... 113.1. TOTAL WATER USAGE........................................................................................................................................................... 113.2. SITE SURVEYING.................................................................................................................................................................. 113.3. DRIVE PIPE ......................................................................................................................................................................... 113.4. LOCATE STANDPIPE OR DRIVE TANK ..................................................................................................................................... 114. SYSTEM EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................................................... 144.1. SITE VISIT AND SOURCE SELECTION ...................................................................................................................................... 144.2. SELECTION OF RAM PUMP SITE............................................................................................................................................ 144.3. CALCULATION OF REQUIRED FLOW AND STORAGE TANK SIZING ........................................................................................... 144.4. CALCULATION OF AVAILABLE WATER................................................................................................................................... 154.5. FIRST ITERATION OF DESIGN TO IMPROVE FEASIBILITY ........................................................................................................... 164.6. CHECK DRIVE PIPE LENGTH IF STANDPIPE IS NEEDED ............................................................................................................. 165. PUMP INSTALLATION.............................................................................................................................................................. 185.1. PUMP FABRICATION............................................................................................................................................................ 185.2. PUMP MOUNTING AND ALIGNMENT..................................................................................................................................... 185.3. PUMP AND VALVE ASSEMBLY ............................................................................................................................................. 195.3.1. Impulse Valve ..................................................................................................................................................... 195.3.2. Delivery Valve Assembly ................................................................................................................................. 215.4. STARTING THE PUMP ............................................................................................................................................................ 216. OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE..................................................................................................................................... 226.1. GROUP TO MAINTAIN SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................................. 226.2. COMMON RAM PUMP MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS .............................................................................................................. 226.3. OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE WEEKLY CHECKS ........................................................................................................... 227. BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................................................................ 248. APPENDIX................................................................................................................................................................................. 258.1. EXAMPLES OF RAM PUMP INSTALLATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 258.2. RAM PUMP EXAMPLE SYSTEM DETAILS ................................................................................................................................ 278.3. S-2 RAM PUMP DESIGN CHANGES .................................................................................................................................... 368.4. S-2 RAM PUMP FABRICATION INSTRUCTIONS...................................................................................................................... 39
  4. 4. TABLE LISTINGTABLE 1 – BASIC SYSTEM DATA.............................................................................................................................................................. 14TABLE 2 - DRIVE PIPE SIZING CHART ...................................................................................................................................................... 17TABLE OF FIGURESFIGURE 1 - RAM PUMP SYSTEM TERMS ..................................................................................................................................................... 2FIGURE 2 - S-2 RAM PUMP...................................................................................................................................................................... 3FIGURE 3 - STEP 1 OF RAM PUMP CYCLE ................................................................................................................................................ 4FIGURE 4 - STEP 2 OF RAM PUMP CYCLE ................................................................................................................................................ 5FIGURE 5 - STEP 3 OF RAM PUMP CYCLE ................................................................................................................................................ 6FIGURE 6 - STEP 4 OF RAM PUMP CYCLE ................................................................................................................................................ 6FIGURE 7 - STEP 5 OF RAM PUMP CYCLE ................................................................................................................................................ 7FIGURE 8 – RIVER INTAKE AND SETTLING TANK ......................................................................................................................................... 9FIGURE 9 - SECTION THROUGH SETTLING TANK ........................................................................................................................................ 9FIGURE 10 - (3) RAM PUMPS INSTALLED IN PARALLEL WITH A STREAM INTAKE .......................................................................................... 9FIGURE 11 - (2) RAM PUMPS INSTALLED IN SERIES.................................................................................................................................. 10FIGURE 12 - EXAMPLE SPRING INTAKE STRUCTURE.................................................................................................................................. 10FIGURE 13 - STANDPIPE/DRIVE TANK PLACEMENT ................................................................................................................................. 13FIGURE 14 - EXAMPLE OF STEEL RAM PUMP CRADLE USING 40MM STEEL ANGLE BARS ........................................................................ 19FIGURE 15 - “NORMAL” RAM PUMP INSTALLATION............................................................................................................................... 25FIGURE 16 - RAM PUMP SYSTEM WITH DRIVE TANK (OR STANDPIPE)...................................................................................................... 25FIGURE 17 - RAM PUMP SYSTEM WITH STANDPIPE .................................................................................................................................. 26
  5. 5. IntroductionAs the world’s population continues its precipitous rise, the world’s resources are subject toever increasing competition and price increases. Nations across the world are searchingfor alternative technologies that can move them towards energy independence. Whenthe cost of electricity rises, so does the cost of pumped water. Hydraulic Ram Pumps areone of the oldest appropriate technologies pertaining to water, they require no electricityto operate, and are relatively low-maintenance. Developed in France in 1796 by theMongolfier Brothers, the concept of the hydraulic Ram Pump has been applied worldwidein dozens of different configurations.This manual is intended to assist experienced design engineers attempting to identify andconstruct a Hydraulic Ram Pump system for potable water or irrigation use. The specificdevice in question is an S-2 Ram Pump designed and tested by the DevelopmentTechnologies Unit at the University of Warwick in the mid 1990’s. Inside are overviews of siteselection, system design, pump fabrication and cost estimation. With confidence, thereader should have no problem designing, constructing and maintaining a rural watersupply system. If this manual is found by a non-technical worker, they should seek theassistance of a design engineer in explaining and implementing the ideas within.The information contained within this manual should be credited to the variousdevelopment and extension departments at Clemson University in the USA, and theUniversity of Warwick in the UK; his manual is merely a compilation and clarification of theirwork. In the Philippines, the Ram Pump design research developed by these universitieswas tested in a rural setting. The following agencies must also be thanked for their fundingand support:US Peace CorpsThe Peace and Equity Foundation of the PhilippinesAquinas University of Legaspi, AlbayAlternative Systems for Community Development Foundation (ASCODE), inc.The Municipal Government of Jovellar, Albay, PhilippinesThe Philippine Department of Social Welfare and Development:Kalahi: CIDSS Program1
  6. 6. 1. The basics1.1. What is a hydraulic Ram Pump?A Hydraulic Ram Pump is a non-electric pump that uses the energy of a large amount ofwater falling to raise a small amount of water to a high elevation. Although originallydesigned for use in village water supply, Ram Pumps have been used successfully inagriculture as well. The Ram Pump is especially applicable for upland areas where watersources are strong but access is limited due to their distance from the users.Ram Pumps have been used in both developed and developing countries worldwide forhundreds of years. The Ram Pump was invented in France in the 1700s and has seenwidespread acceptance due to its relatively low operation cost and non-electric nature.Dozens of Ram Pumps have been installed in the Philippines in Bohol, Palawan and, as of2008, Bikol.Included in this manual are fabrication instructions for the S-2 Ram Pump, designed by theDevelopment Technologies Unit of the University Of Warwick, England. The pump can bemade at any machine shop with access to a lathe, drill press and welding machine.1.2. Basic TermsFigure 1 - Ram Pump System Terms2
  7. 7. Figure 2 - S-2 Ram Pump3
  8. 8. 1.3. How does a Ram Pump Work?The concept behind the ram idea is a “water hammer” shock wave. Water has weight, soa volume of water moving through a pipe has momentum. If a car runs into a brick wallthe result is crumpled metal. If a moving water flow in a pipe encounters a suddenlyclosed valve, a pressure “spike” or increase suddenly appears due to all the water beingstopped abruptly (that’s what water hammer is - the pressure spike).Although this is a different model from the Ram Pump discussed in this manual, here’s howthe Ram Pump actually works, step-by-step:Figure 3 - Step 1 of Ram Pump CycleIn Figure 3, Water (blue arrows) starts flowing through the drive pipe and out of the “waste”valve (#4 on the diagram), which is open initially. Water flows faster and faster through thepipe and out of the valve4
  9. 9. Figure 4 - Step 2 of Ram Pump CycleFigure 4 - At some point, water is moving so quickly through the brass swing check “waste”valve (#4) that it grabs the swing check’s flapper, pulling it up and slamming it shut. Thewater in the pipe is moving quickly and doesn’t want to stop. All that water weight andmomentum is stopped, though, by the valve slamming shut. That makes a high pressurespike (red arrows) at the closed valve. The high pressure spike forces some water (bluearrows) through the spring check valve (#5 on the diagram) and into the pressurechamber. This increases the pressure in that chamber slightly. The pressure “spike” the pipehas nowhere else to go, so it begins moving away from the waste valve and back up thepipe (red arrows). It actually generates a very small velocity backward in the pipe.5
  10. 10. Figure 5 - Step 3 of Ram Pump CycleFigure 5 - As the pressure wave or spike (red arrows) moves back up the pipe, it creates alower pressure situation (green arrows) at the waste valve. The spring-loaded check valve(#5) closes as the pressure drops, retaining the pressure in the pressure chamber.Figure 6 - Step 4 of Ram Pump CycleFigure 6 - At some point this pressure (green arrows) becomes low enough that the flapperin the waste valve (#4) falls back down, opening the waste valve again.6
  11. 11. Figure 7 - Step 5 of Ram Pump CycleFigure 7 - Most of the water hammer high pressure shock wave (red arrows) will release atthe drive pipe inlet, which is open to the source water body. Some small portion may travelback down the drive pipe, but in any case after the shock wave has released, pressurebegins to build again at the waste valve (#4) simply due to the elevation of the sourcewater above the ram, and water begins to flow toward the hydraulic ram again.Water begins to flow out of the waste valve (#4), and the process starts over once again.The ram pump will usually go through this cycle about once a second, perhaps somewhatmore quickly or more slowly depending on the installation.1.4.System Design ProcessFor a Ram Pump system to function well, it must be designed with careful considerationof the surrounding area and water requirements of the users. This is the design processwe will follow in this manual:1) Community identification, site selection and source flow measurement2) Calculation of water requirements of community3) Topographic surveying of site4) Determining pump configuration5) Calculation of available supply by Ram Pump6) Pipe and tank sizing7) System detailing (tanks, pipes, access points)7
  12. 12. 2. Site selection2.1. Appropriate community selectionAs with any kind of infrastructure development, the community must be consulted first todetermine project feasibility. Residents of poor, rural barangays have a good idea of theirwater problems, local water sources, water quality and seasonal variations in source flow.Ram Pumps function by utilizing the energy of a large volume of falling water to pump asmaller volume of water far above the water source. In any site investigation for a RamPump installation, one should always be looking for water sources on steeply slopingground. The S-2 Ram Pump is designed to function with drive heights of 2 to 15 meters anddelivery heights of up to 100 meters. This Ram Pump design can use between 40 and 120liters/min minute of water; any less than 40 liters/min and the pump may not function.Ram Pumps can be powered by either flowing surface water (rivers and streams) or springwater. Spring sources usually have lower source flow, but the water will usually not needtreatment to make it potable. Rivers and streams have high flow rates but usually havesuspended sediments that will need to be settled out before the water can enter the RamPump. Water from rivers and streams is not potable, so a filtration or chlorination device willneed to be installed to ensure the health of the users. Streams have the added danger offlooding and the risk of damage to the system. In general, river or stream intakes are bestused for agricultural applications of Ram Pumps while spring sources are best for villagewater supply.Once a site has been identified, a topographic survey must be conducted to calculate theexact elevation differences and distances between the intake box, the drive tank, the RamPump and the storage tank. On that site visit, the source flow rate should be determinedas well.2.2. System elements and proper placementThe system intake can be from any kind of surface or ground water, so long as thetopography will allow for the vertical fall from the intake to the Ram Pump. The source flowshould be captured in a retention tank to maintain a constant depth of water above thedrive pipe intake. Also, a retention tank allows for the removal of trash and sediment fromthe system (Figure 8). More system installation examples can be found in Appendix 8.1.2.2.1. River Intake Examples8
  13. 13. Figure 8 – River Intake and Settling TankFigure 9 - Section Through Settling TankDepending on the available flow rate from the water source and the local topography,Ram Pump installations can be configured in many different ways:Figure 10 - (3) Ram Pumps Installed in Parallel with a Stream Intake9
  14. 14. Figure 11 - (2) Ram Pumps Installed in Series2.2.2. Spring intake tank placementSprings can be a good choice for a Ram Pump water source due to their potability andlack of silt.Water that will be pumped must be captured in a sealed spring intake box first and thenpiped into the system. Spring sources are usually free of sediment and, if protectedproperly from runoff, can maintain good water quality with minimal maintenance.Figure 12 - Example Spring Intake Structure10
  15. 15. 3. Designing A Hydraulic Ram Pump System3.1. Total water usageBefore any Ram Pump system can be designed, there are certain pieces of informationthat must be gathered:1. The difference in elevation between the water source and the proposed Ram Pumpsite.2. The difference in elevation between the Ram Pump and proposed storage tank.3. The available flow rate of water from the source.4. The required flow rate at the storage facility5. The distance from the source to the Ram Pump site6. The distance from the Ram Pump site to the storage facility.Calculation of available water is in section 4.4Note: This data gathered may be changed to increase Ram Pump output or decreasepiping costs. Engineering design is an iterative process and these numbers can change todecrease the cost of the system.3.2. Site SurveyingSince the initial guess for Ram Pump and storage tank location will not always be correct, itis very important to3.3. Drive PipeThe drive pipe runs from the water source directly into the Ram Pump. When the RamPump closes, the pressure wave disperses in this pipe, so it is important that this pipe berigid. The more rigid the drive pipe, the more efficient the pump will be (and the morewater that can be pumped to the storage facility).The length of the drive pipe is based on the location of installation. For the pump tofunction efficiently (or at all) the drive pipe must fall within certain limits. The maximum andminimum lengths of drive pipe are based on the drive pipe length (L) and the drive pipediameter (D). If the distance from the intake to the Ram Pump is longer than the maximumpipe length, a standpipe should be placed in the system.3.4. Locate standpipe or drive tankIf the distance from the intake to the pump is longer than the maximum drive pipe length,the system needs a standpipe. Stand pipes are only necessary if the drive pipe will belonger than the recommended maximum length (for instance, in the previous example astand pipe may be required if the drive pipe were to be 150 feet in length, but themaximum drive length was determined to be only 104 feet). The stand pipe - if needed - is11
  16. 16. generally placed in the line the same distance from the ram as the recommendedmaximum length indicated.The stand pipe must be vertical and extend vertically at least 1 foot (0.3 meter) higher thanthe elevation of the water source - no water should exit the pipe during operation (orperhaps only a few drops during each shock wave cycle at most). The standpipe shouldbe at least 1” larger than the drive pipe. The supply pipe (between the water source andthe stand pipe) should be 0.5” larger than the drive pipe.The reason behind this is simple - if the drive pipe is too long, the water hammer shockwave will travel farther, slowing down the pumping pulses of the ram. Also, in manyinstances there may actually be interference with the operation of the pump due to thelength of travel of the shock wave. The stand pipe simply allows an outlet to theatmosphere to allow the shock wave to release or dissipate. Remember, the stand pipe isnot necessary unless the drive pipe will have to be longer than the recommendedmaximum length.Another option would be to pipe the water to an open tank (with the top of the tank atleast 1 foot (0.3 meter) higher than the vertical elevation of the water source), then attachthe drive pipe to the tank. The tank will act as a dissipation chamber for the water hammershock wave just as the stand pipe would. This option may not be viable if the tankplacement would require some sort of tower, but if the topography allows this may be amore attractive option.Figure 13 shows the proper installation of a Ram Pump with a drive tank; the feed pipefollows the contour of the hill to get as close as possible to the Ram Pump before the drivetank.12
  17. 17. Figure 13 - Standpipe/Drive Tank Placement13
  18. 18. 4. System exampleThis section is a guide through the design process for a basic Ram Pump system.Table 1 – Basic System DataEw Elevation of water source 500mEs Elevation of consumers/storage 525mLr Distance from source to RamPump75mLs Distance from Ram Pump toconsumers/storage250mQs Minimum water source flow rate 1 liter/secondPs Current Population at Site 120pplG Population Growth Rate 2.5%n Design life of system 10yrs4.1. Site visit and source selectionIn this example, the initial site selection and survey has been performed. Table 1 has thebasic data to design this system. Due to seasonal variations in water supply, the minimumsource flow rate is used.4.2. Selection of Ram Pump SiteThe Ram Pump must be placed from 2 to 10 meters below the elevation of the watersource. Once the Ram Pump site is selected, the drive height and delivery height can becalculated.Er = 496 mHd = Ew – Er (1)Hd = 500m – 496m = 4mWhere: Hd = Drive Height (m)Ew = Elevation of Water Source (m)Er = Elevation of Ram Pump site (m)4.3. Calculation of required flow and storage tank sizingPf = Ps * (1 + G)^n (2)Pf = 120ppl * (1 + 2.5%)^(10yrs) = 154pplWhere: Pf = Design population (ppl)14
  19. 19. Ps = Current Population (ppl)G = Population Growth Rate (%)N = Design life of system (yrs)Per capita water use varies both by location (urban vs. rural) and type of water system(household connections vs. communal faucets). For the sake of the example, it is assumedthat a single person uses 50 liters of water per day for all domestic purposes (drinking,cooking, bathing, laundry, etc.).Vd = Pf * 50 l/ppd (3)Vd = 154ppl * 50 l/ppd = 7700 liters/dayQr = 7700 liters/day / 24 hrs/day / 60 min/hr / 60 sec/min = 0.089 lpsWhere: Vd = Daily water usage (liters)Pf = Design population (ppl)Qr = Required flow rate at storage tank (lps)4.4. Calculation of available waterRam Pump efficiency has been determined by a number of research organizations to bebetween 33% and 66% depending on the quality of the installation. In this example, theRam Pump will be 45% efficient.The elevation difference between the water source and Ram Pump is called the “driveheight”. The elevation difference between the storage tank and the Ram Pump is calledthe “delivery height.” The following equation gives an approximate flow rate at the storagetank:Qa = Qs * e * (Ew – Er) / (Es – Er) (4)Qa = 1 lps * 45% * (500 – 496) / (525 – 496) = 0.062 lpsQa = 0.062 lps * 86400 sec / day = 5362 liters/dayWhere: Qa = Water Available From Ram Pump (lps)Qs = Minimum Water Source Flow Rate (lps)e = Pump Efficiency (%)Ew = Elevation of Water Source (m)Er = Elevation of Ram Pump (m)15
  20. 20. Es = Elevation of Storage Tank/Consumers (m)4.5. First Iteration of Design to improve feasibilityQr = 0.089 lps (Water required based on number of users; section 4.3)Qa = 0.062 lps (Water available from initial Ram Pump system configuration)Since Qr > Qa, this system is currently unfeasible.There are several ways to solve this problem:1. If the source flowrate is large enough, add additional pumps in parallel toincrease the amount of water delivered.2. Decrease delivery height by building the storage tank at a lower elevation3. Increase drive height by building the Ram Pump at a lower elevation4. Decrease the per-capita water demand by making a system with communalfaucets instead of household connections (Level III -> Level II)In this design example the source flow rate is only at 1 lps so solution 1 is unfeasible. It isassumed that the storage tank cannot be moved to a lower elevation because of thelocation of the users, so solution 2 is unfeasible. Solution 3, increasing the drive height bylowering the Ram Pump site will be tested:Equation 4 is solved to calculate the needed Ram Pump Elevation (Er) for the system to befeasible.Qr = Qs * e * (Ew – Er) / (Es – Er)Qr * (Es – Er) = Qs * e * (Ew – Er)Qr * Es – Qs * e * Ew = Er * (Qr – Qs *e)Er = (Qr * Es – Qs * e * Ew) / (Qr – Qs * e)Er = (0.089 * 525 – 0.5 * 45% * 500) / (0.089 – 0.5 * 45%)Er = 483 mEw - Er = 525 - 483 = 42m (New delivery height)Es - Er = 500 - 483 = 17m (New drive height)4.6. Check drive pipe length if standpipe is needed16
  21. 21. Next, the drive pipe must be sized and the length determined. Table 2 can be used todetermine drive pipe size.Table 2 - Drive Pipe Sizing ChartSource Flow Rate(lps)Drive Pipe Diameter(inches)0.66 to 1 1”Ø1 to 1.33 1.5”Ø1.33 to 2 2”ØIn this example, the minimum source flow rate is 1 liter/sec, so a drive pipe size of 1.5”Ø willbe used. Using the drive pipe diameter, the drive pipe length must be checked. If thedrive pipe is too long or too short, the ram shockwave will dissipate to quickly or too slowlyand the pump may not function correctly, if at all.LdMin = 150 x Dd (5)LdMax = 1000 x Dd (6)LdMin = 150 x 1.5” = 225” = 5.72mLdMax = 1000 x 1.5” = 1500” = 38.1mLr = 75m (From Table 1)Lr > LdMax; the drive pipe is too long; this system will need a standpipeWhere: LdMin = Minimum Drive Pipe Length (m)LdMax = Minimum Drive Pipe Length (m)Lr = Distance from water source to Ram Pump (m)Since the distance from the source to the Ram Pump is longer than the maximumallowable length of the drive pipe, a standpipe must be placed in the system. Thestandpipe should be placed as far from the Ram Pump is possible to give the Ram Pumpthe maximum possible drive head.In this case, the standpipe should be no farther than 38m from the Ram Pump. The actuallocation of the standpipe should be surveyed to determine its elevation.17
  22. 22. 5. Pump Installation5.1. Pump FabricationSee Appendix 0 for full details on S-2 Ram Pump fabrication.IMPORTANT NOTE: There are two sections of the pump fabrication manual, one is theoriginal DTU design, the other is a page of design changes that should be consideredbefore fabrication. Before attempting to fabricate a Ram Pump, both sections should beread thoroughly.In Legaspi City, Albay, there is an experienced fabricator who has made 4 pumps withouta problem:Ravalo Machine Shop and Auto Supply Inc.Circumferential Road, Capantawan, Legaspi CityTel Nos. (052) 820-5445 or (052) 480-51155.2. Pump mounting and alignmentRam Pumps should be securely fastened to a concrete or steel base to prevent them frommoving. On every pump cycle, the pressure wave causes the pump to move and, If notproperly secured, the pump will break and may damage the pipes as well. Figure 14 showsan example of a steel pump mount mounted in a concrete base. Pumps can also bemounted on stainless steel bolts embedded in a concrete base.Remember: Any kind of pump mount should be aligned using the pump body to make surethe pump will fit. Without proper alignment, the pump will not fit and the base may have tobe remade.18
  23. 23. Figure 14 - Example of Steel Ram Pump Cradle Using 40mm Steel Angle Bars5.3. Pump and Valve Assembly5.3.1. Impulse Valve1. Look at the valve stem. The end withmore threads will be for the bottom.2. Tighten a nut down to the bottom of thelong threads3. Add a steel washer and then a rubberwasher to the rod.4. Place the first valve disc, then the valverubber, then the second valve disc on therod5. Add a rubber washer and then asteel washer.6. Add one nut to the threads andtighten it using your hand. Once it is tight,make one full turn with the wrench.7. Add a second nut and lock themtogether.19
  24. 24. 8. Place the valve rod through the valve plate and the stop bar with the short threadsat the top.9. Add washers for spacing and then 2 nuts.10. Adjust the pump and then lock the nuts in place.11. When the valve is closed, the nuts should be no more than 1cm above the topwasher.12. Test the valve by moving it up and down. It should move up and down easily, andwithout rubbing the sides of the stop bar.20
  25. 25. 5.3.2. Delivery Valve Assembly40mm M10 BoltSteel Washer BoltRubber WasherValve disc (64mmDiameter, 3mm thick)Steel WasherNuts1. Clean off the delivery plate and remove any rust.2. Place steel washer on bolt3. Place rubber washer on bolt4. Place valve disc on bolt. The disc should move freely up and down and not stickwhen placing it on the bolt. Make sure the smooth side is facing down! The valve may notwork properly otherwise5. Place the bolt through the delivery plate6. Place a small steel washer on the bolt7. Tighten one nut until the valve can move up and down 2mm.8. Lock a second nut against the first.5.4. Starting the pumpThe pump will have to be manually started several times when first placed in operation toremove the air from the ram pump piping. Start the pump by opening all valves on theintake box, drive line and Ram Pump. Water will flow from the opening of the impulsevalve until it suddenly shuts. Push the impulse valve open (it will be difficult, use your foot)and wait for it to shut again. You may have to push the impulse valve open repeatedly tore-start the pump in the first few minutes (10 to 20 times is not abnormal) - air in the systemwill stop operation until it is purged.21
  26. 26. 6. Operations and Maintenance6.1. Group to maintain systemRam Pump systems can be designed and constructed quite cheaply and easily, butrequire constant maintenance. Over time, the moving parts and gaskets of the pump willwear out and need replacement. Pump repairs are not very complex and a community-based organization, if properly trained, can easily maintain the Ram Pumps for long periodsof time. In addition, a local water and sanitation organization can collect a small fee fromall water users to pay for replacement parts and an honorarium for the caretaker.The system’s caretaker needs to live close enough to the system to check on the pumps atleast twice a week. In rural areas, people often live near a source of water; caretakerswho live closer to the pumps are more likely to visit and accept a sense of ownership overthe system.6.2. Common Ram Pump Maintenance ProblemsThe S-2 Ram Pump has been installed and tested in many different countries. Over time, alist of common problems was developed. These problems have been addressed inAppendix 0.6.3. Operations and Maintenance Weekly ChecksThe pump should be checked weekly, if possible, to keep it running consistently. Allinformation should be recorded in a logbook so recurring problems can be identified. Thebasic monthly checks are as follows:1. Intake Boxa. Open the fittings and clean out any debrisb. Fix trenches to divert water around the tanks2. Ram Pumps - Open each Ram Pump and inspect each valvei. Main valve:1. Is the valve rod being worn down?2. Valve rubber disc still in good condition?3. Are the bolts tight?4. Are the bolts/nuts rusty?ii. Delivery valve1. Can the valve move up and down about 2mm?2. Are the nuts locked against each other?3. Is the rubber disc intact?4. Is there rust?iii. Snifter valve1. Is the small hole still sealed?22
  27. 27. 2. Is the bolt tight?3. Is the hole blocked?iv. Bolts and gaskets1. Oil all bolts and gaskets2. Are the bolts and nuts rusty?3. Are the gaskets in good condition?3. Water Storage Tanka. Measure water levelb. Check for leaks. If there is a major leak, drain the tank and plaster the leakyspot with cement.c. Check that the lid is ond. Repair trenches to divert water away from the tank (overflow, drain pipe)4. Pipesa. Walk pipe route and look for wet spots where the pipe may be leakingb. Drive Pipesc. Check pipe fittings for leaksd. Check pipe for excess movement during pump cycle23
  28. 28. 7. BibliographyClemson University Cooperative Extension Service (2007). Home-made Hydraulic RamPump Retrieved September 21, 2008 from http://www.clemson.edu/irrig/equip/ram.htmLifewater: Water for the World. Designing a Hydraulic Ram Pump; Technical Note No.RWS.4.D.5. Retrieved September 21, 2008 fromhttp://www.lifewater.org/resources/rws4/rws4d5.htmUniversity of Warwick Development Technologies Unit (1998). DTU Technical Release No.14: The DTU S-2 Pump. Retrieved September 21, 2008 fromhttp://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/eng/research/dtu/lift/pubs/#trThomas D. Jordan. A Handbook of Gravity-Flow Water Systems.Intermediate Technology Publications. London. 1984.24
  29. 29. 8. APPENDIX8.1. Examples of Ram Pump InstallationsFigure 15 - “Normal” Ram Pump InstallationFigure 15 demonstrates the “normal” ram system where the drive pipe is less than themaximum length allowed. No stand pipe or open tank is required.Figure 16 - Ram Pump System with Drive Tank (or Standpipe)Figure 16 shows one system option where the drive pipe is longer than the maximum lengthallowed. The open water tank is required to allow dissipation of the water hammer shockwave.25
  30. 30. Figure 17 - Ram Pump System with StandpipeFigure 17 is another option used where the drive pipe is longer than the maximum lengthallowed. The stand pipe (open to atmosphere at the top) is required to allow dissipation ofthe water hammer shock wave.26
  31. 31. APPENDIX8.2. Ram Pump Example System Details8.2.1. RP1 - Ram Pump Fitting Detail8.2.2. RP2 - Ram Pump Enclosure Detail8.2.3. RP3 - 9000L Reservoir Detail8.2.4. RP4 - Communal Faucet Detail8.2.5. Bill of Materials for Example System27
  32. 32. 28
  33. 33. 29
  34. 34. 30
  35. 35. 31
  36. 36. Name of Project:Location:GENERIC RAMPUMP WATER DELIVERY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 1/411:22 AM, 1/7/2009A DIRECT COST1 INTAKE BOXQuantity 0.87 m^3Materials:9 bags Portland Cement @ 220.00 /bags 1,980.000.50 m^3 Sand @ 250.00 /m^3 125.000.80 m^3 Gravel @ 350.00 /m^3 280.0014 pcs 10mm RSB @ 200.00 /pcs 2,800.007 kg 16 ga Tie Wire @ 75.00 /kg 525.006 pcs 1/4" Ordinary Plywood @ 500.00 /pcs 3,000.0018 pcs 2x2x12 Cocolumber @ 40.00 /pcs 720.006 kgs Assorted Nails @ 50.00 /kgs 300.003 pcs 2"Ø S-40 GI Nipple (8" Long) @ 200.00 /pcs 600.001 pcs 2"Ø HDP to GI Male Compression Fitting @ 150.00 /pcs 150.001 pcs 2"Ø S-40 GI Cap @ 50.00 /pcs 50.00Materials Cost P 10,530.00Labor:1 lot Labor Cost (50% of materials budget) @ 5,265.00 /day 5,265.00Labor Cost P 5,265.00Materials Cost P 10,530.00Labor Cost P 5,265.00Item Cost P 15,795.00Unit Cost 18,197.00 /m^32 RAMPUMP BOXQuantity 0.9 m^3 of concMaterials:9 bags Portland Cement @ 220.00 /bags 1,980.000.50 m^3 Sand @ 250.00 /m^3 125.000.80 m^3 Gravel @ 350.00 /m^3 280.0014 pcs 10mm RSB @ 200.00 /pcs 2,800.007 kg 16 ga Tie Wire @ 75.00 /kg 525.006 pcs 1/4" Ordinary Plywood @ 500.00 /pcs 3,000.0018 pcs 2x2x12 Cocolumber @ 40.00 /pcs 720.006 kgs Assorted Nails @ 50.00 /kgs 300.004 pcs 1/2"Ø Stainless Bolt (4" Long) @ 50.00 /pcs 200.004 pcs 1/2"Ø Washer @ 10.00 /pcs 40.004 pcs Nut for 1/2"Ø Bolt @ 10.00 /pcs 40.003 pcs 2"Ø S-40 GI Nipple (8" Long) @ 200.00 /pcs 600.001 pcs 2"Ø S-40 GI Cap @ 50.00 /pcs 50.00Materials Cost P 10,660.00Labor:1 lot Labor Cost (50% of materials budget) @ 5,330.00 /day 5,330.00Labor Cost P 5,330.00Materials Cost P 10,660.00Labor Cost P 5,330.00Item Cost P 15,990.00Unit Cost 18,421.66 /m^3DETAILED COST ESTIMATE AND BILL OF MATERIALS32
  37. 37. Name of Project:Location:GENERIC RAMPUMP WATER DELIVERY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 2/411:22 AM, 1/7/20093 DRIVE PIPE AND STANDPIPEQuantity 42 lin mMaterials:60 m 2"Ø HDP SDR-11 Pipe @ 150.00 /m 9,000.001 pcs 2"Ø HDP to GI Male Compression Fitting @ 100.00 /pcs 100.001 pcs 2"Ø GI S-40 Nipple (8" Long) @ 200.00 /pcs 200.001 pcs 2"Ø GI Tee @ 100.00 /pcs 100.002 pcs 2"Ø GI S-40 Nipple (4" Long) @ 100.00 /pcs 200.001 pcs 2.5"Ø to 2"Ø GI Reducer @ 100.00 /pcs 100.003 m 2.5"Ø GI S-20 Pipe @ 490.00 /m 1,470.001 pcs 2"Ø to 1.5"Ø GI Reducer @ 75.00 /pcs 75.007 lngth 1.5"Ø GI S-40 Pipe @ 1,132.00 /lngth 7,924.002 pcs. 1.5"Ø GI Union @ 65.00 /pcs. 113.755 pcs. 1.5"Ø GI Coupling @ 25.00 /pcs. 131.25Materials Cost P 19,414.00Labor:1 lot Labor Cost (50% of materials budget) @ 9,707.00 /day 9,707.00Labor Cost P 9,707.00Materials Cost P 19,414.00Labor Cost P 9,707.00Item Cost P 29,121.00Unit Cost 693.36 /lin m4 RAMPUMPS AND FITTINGS (1.5"Ø Drive Pipe)Quantity 1 RampumpsMaterials:1 pcs. 1" Hydraulic Rampumps (Fabricated Locally) @ 16,000.00 /pcs. 16,000.001 pcs 1.5"Ø S-40 GI Nipple (4" Long) @ 70.00 /pcs 70.001 pcs 1.5"Ø GI Gate Valve 1,500.00 /pcs 1,500.001 pcs 1.5"Ø S-40 GI Nipple (12" Long) @ 150.00 /pcs 150.001 pcs 2"Ø to 1.5"Ø GI Reducer @ 70.00 /pcs 70.001 pcs 3/4"Ø GI Union @ 50.00 /pcs 50.002 pcs 3/4"Ø S-40 GI Nipple (4" Long) @ 40.00 /pcs 80.001 pcs 3/4"Ø GI Ball Valve @ 285.00 /pcs 285.001 pcs 3/4"Ø HDP to GI Male Compression Fitting @ 150.00 /pcs 150.001 lot Additional Valve Rubber @ 500.00 /lot 500.00Materials Cost P 18,855.00Labor:1 lot Labor Cost (50% of materials budget) @ 9,427.50 /lot 9,427.50Labor Cost P 9,427.50Materials Cost P 18,855.00Labor Cost P 9,427.50Item Cost P 28,282.50Unit Cost 28,282.50 /rampump33
  38. 38. Name of Project:Location:GENERIC RAMPUMP WATER DELIVERY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 3/411:22 AM, 1/7/20095 DELIVERY LINES FROM PUMPS TO TANKQuantity 250 lin mMaterials:250 m SDR-11 HDP Pipe (3/4") @ 38.84 /m 9,710.006 pcs. 3/4"Ø HDP to GI Male Compression Fitting @ 200.00 /pcs. 1,200.001 pcs. 3/4"Ø HDP to GI Male Compression Elbow @ 112.00 /pcs. 112.006 rolls Teflon Tape 1/2" @ 25.00 /rolls 150.00Materials Cost P 11,172.00Labor:1 lot Labor Cost (50% of materials budget) @ 5,586.00 /lot 5,586.00Labor Cost P 5,586.00Materials Cost P 11,172.00Labor Cost P 5,586.00Item Cost P 16,758.00Unit Cost 67.03 /lin m6 9000 LITER FERROCEMENT RESERVOIR1 EXCAVATIONQuantity 2 m^3Labor: 1.125 m^3/manday Productivity1 1 days Skilled Laborer @ 250.00 /day 250.001 1 days Common Laborer @ 150.00 /day 150.00Labor Cost P 400.00Labor Cost P 400.00Item Cost P 400.00Unit Cost 200.00 /m^32 CONCRETE WORKSQuantity 1 TanksMaterials:25 bags Portland cement @ 185.00 /bags 4,625.000.83 m³ Sand @ 200.00 /m³ 166.000.21 m³ 1/2" Gravel @ 475.00 /m³ 99.7517 bags Waterproofing Compound @ 20.00 /bags 340.0029 kg 16 ga Tie Wire @ 50.00 /kg 1,450.004 pcs 8mm rebar @ 150.00 /pcs 600.0035 pcs Rice Sacks @ 10.00 /pcs 350.001 pcs 150mm Stainless Steel Nipple (1 1/2"Ø) @ 150.00 /pcs 150.002 pcs 150mm Stainless Steel Nipple (1"Ø) @ 140.00 /pcs 280.001 pcs 150mm Stainless Steel Nipple (3/4") @ 130.00 /pcs 130.002 pcs 150mm Stainless Steel Nipple (1.2") @ 120.00 /pcs 240.005 rolls Teflon Tape @ 50.00 /rolls 250.001 pcs 1.5" Gate Valve @ 2,000.00 /pcs 2,000.001 pcs 1" GI Cap @ 750.00 /pcs 750.00Materials Cost P 11,430.75Labor:3 7 days Skilled Mason @ 250.00 /unit 5,250.005 7 days Common Laborer @ 150.00 /unit 5,250.00Labor Cost P 10,500.00Materials Cost P 11,430.75Labor Cost P 10,500.00Item Cost P 21,930.75Unit Cost 21,930.75 /Tank34
  39. 39. Name of Project:Location:GENERIC RAMPUMP WATER DELIVERY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 4/411:22 AM, 1/7/20097 DISTRIBUTION LINE TO CONSUMERSQuantity 300 lin mMaterials:300 m 1.5" SDR-11 HDP @ 80.00 /m 24,000.00Materials Cost P 24,000.00Labor:1 lot Labor Cost (50% of materials budget) @ 12,000.00 /day 12,000.00Labor Cost P 12,000.00Materials Cost P 24,000.00Labor Cost P 12,000.00Item Cost P 36,000.00Unit Cost 120.00 /lin m8 COMMUNAL FAUCETSQuanity 3 TapsMaterials:3 pcs S40 GI Faucet, 0.5" @ 250.00 /pcs 750.001 lngth 0.5" S40 GI Pipe, 6m lengths @ 180.00 /lngth 180.0015 mtrs. 0.5" SDR-11 HDP Pipe @ 24.50 /mtr 367.503 pcs S40 GI Ball Valve 0.5" @ 250.00 /pcs 750.003 pcs S40 GI Elbow, 0.5" @ 25.00 /pcs 75.003 pcs S40 GI Tee (Threaded) @ 25.00 /pcs 75.003 pcs HDP Compression Fitting (0.5") @ 90.00 /pcs 270.003 pcs HDP Saddle Clamp (1.5" to 0.5") @ 200.00 /pcs 600.003 pcs 0.5" Water Meter @ 600.00 /pcs 1,800.003 bags Portland Cement @ 188.00 /bag 564.000.255 m^3 Sand @ 200.00 /m^3 51.000.51 m^3 Gravel @ 475.00 /m^3 242.256 pcs 10mm Rebar (6m pieces) @ 100.00 /pcs 600.003 shts 1/4" Ordinary Plywood @ 500.00 /sht 1,500.003 pcs Hacksaw Blade @ 50.00 /pcs 150.006 kg Asst Nails @ 50.00 /kg 300.00Materials Cost P 8,274.75Labor:1 lot Labor Cost (50% of materials budget) @ 4,137.38 /day 4,137.38Labor Cost P 4,137.38Materials Cost 8,274.75Labor Cost P 4,137.38Item Cost P 12,412.13Unit Cost 4,137.38 /StandTotal Materials Cost P 114,336.50Total Labor Cost P 62,352.88Total Direct Cost P 176,689.38Contingency10% Contingency P 17,668.94Total Project Cost P 194,358.3135
  40. 40. APPENDIX8.3. S-2 Ram Pump Design Changes36
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  43. 43. APPENDIX8.4. S-2 Ram Pump Fabrication Instructions39
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