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2015 Tonga national agricultural census.

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2015 Tonga national agricultural census.

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2015 Tonga national agricultural census.

  1. 1. Regional Workshop for Monitoring the SDGs related to Food and Agriculture Sector and on the WCA 2020 Nadi, Fiji 6-10 November 2017 TECHNICAL SESSION 10: 2015 TONGA NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL CENSUS 1 Name: Futa Lolo Title : Technical Officer Grade 11 Name of agency : Ministry of Agriculture& Forestry & Fisheries and Food E-mail address: futa.lolo@maff.gov.to or futalolo@yahoo.com
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................................4-5 CENSUS METHODOLOGY....................................................................................................................................6-8 MAIN ITEMS OF THE THEME ASSIGNED TO YOUR COUNTRY  1-2 Identification & Demographic Household Bio data..........................................................................................7  A1-A2 Crops & Livestock......................................................................................................................................8  A3 Fisheries............................................................................................................................................................9  A4-A5 Forestry & Handicrafts................................................................................................................................10  A6 Other Information..............................................................................................................................................11 CENSUS COVERAGE.................................................................................................................................................12 ORGANIZING OF A CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE  Relation of Agricultural Census to Population Census......................................................................................13-16  Relationship with Housing Census...........................................................................................................................17  Relationship with Economic Census.....................................................................................................................18-19 THE ROLE OF THE CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE IN MONITORING OF SDG: POVERTY AND HUNGER..................................................................................................................................20-21 CHANGES TONGA CAN INTRODUCE REGARDING THE ASSIGNED THEMES......................................22 CHALLENGES AND DIFFICULTIES.....................................................................................................................23 LESSONS LEARNT...................................................................................................................................................24 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................................................................25 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  An agricultural census is usually conducted on a ten year basis, however, it has been a fourteen year gap between the previous Agricultural Census and the 2015 Tonga National Agricultural Census(TNAC).  Significant changes occurred in the Agricultural sector coupled with the need for updated agricultural statistics for policy formation, pushed the Ministry to conduct the 2015 Tonga National Agricultural Census(TNAC).  The 2015 Tonga National Agricultural Census(TNAC) was conducted to assess the structure of the Agriculture sector in Tonga and to provide a framework for more regular agriculture surveys to draw from in the future.  The implementation of this census would not have been possible without the generous technical and financial support of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).  The 2015 Tonga National Agricultural Census(TNAC) was jointly implemented by (Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry & Fisheries and Food (MAFFF) and the Tonga Statistics Department (TSD) since the authority for implementation of the census rest with the Government Statistician who has the legal power to collect such information under the Statistics Act 1978. 3
  4. 4. CENSUS METHODOLOGY In order to prepare for the 2015TNAC, the Tonga Government committed budgetary resources from their own funds and sought supplementary technical assistance from the FAO under FAO Technical Cooperation Program (TCP/TON/3403). The census activities implemented under the TCP can roughly be divided into three stages: (a) June to December 2014: Main activities during this period included the recruitment of the National Project Coordinator, the formation of the 2015 TNAC Steering Committee, acquisition of equipment and materials, preparation of census frames and development of census work plan and design of census questionnaire. During this period, the Lead Technical Officer, Dr. Mukesh Srivastava, undertook his first mission to Tonga to assist the TSD and MAFFF in the above aspects of work. An international consultant, Mr. Choiril Maksum, was also recruited and travelled to Tonga to assist with the design of the questionnaire. 4
  5. 5. Methodology cont’d (b) January to June 2015: At the beginning of 2015, the project continued with the conduct of data users and producers ‟workshop”, pre-test of census questionnaires, start of census publicity, finalization of questionnaires and manuals and designing of data processing system. The enumeration began on 7th April until 30th June 2015. For the purpose of the 2015 TNAC, the Kingdom was divided into 5 divisions, 23 districts and 169 villages as provided in the population census. The village was composed of enumeration blocks. Each enumerator was assigned to handle at least one block and was provided with the updated household list from TSD, enumeration guiding map, coding sheet, census questionnaires, instruction manual, summary form and other control form. The enumerator was asked to complete the work in his/her assigned block(s) and was encouraged to give their best effort in undertaking the interview of the respondents. Each census supervisor was assigned to handle several enumerators. He/she was tasked to guide the enumerators during the first week of the census taking. Then a follow-up supervision was also required from him/her. Then he/she was also expected to do some field checking/editing to facilitate the data processing in the headquarters. 5
  6. 6. Methodology cont’d (c) July to December 2015:  During this period the forms were collected from the field, data was being processed and final report and the thematic paper was also written. The questionnaires for the 2015 TNAC were designed in such a way that data items were efficiently encoded and processed using the software package CSPro.  These methods ensured the TNAC captured good quality data both efficiently and effectively. The final steps for final editing included: • Verifying all questionnaires that had been collected. This is done by running frequency statistics on each variable and checking this against the register of data entry and listing of blocks/questionnaires from the census; • Checking for missing variables from the frequency statistics. Some missing variables were imputed and some were left as it is, for example, values for items like livestock, fish, handicraft, etc. • Edit check programs were run twice before it was decided to finalise the data. 6
  7. 7. MAIN ITEMS OF THE THEME ASSIGNED TO YOUR COUNTRY The 2015 Tonga National Agricultural Census (TNAC) the priority needs of MAFFF, the FAO system of agriculture census and survey classification, the following items were included in the 2015 TNAC:  1. IDENTIFICATION  Holding ID: Village No. + Census Block No. + Household No.  Village Name  Head of Household  2. DEMOGRAPHIC HOUSEHOLD BIODATA  Names of household members  Gender  Age of household members  Relationship to Head of Household  Educational Level 7
  8. 8. A1. CROPS:  Land Issues – status of ownerships, leased and rented, number of parcels  Tax Allotments – Town/Bush Allotments, Size of Land area (poles, acres, etc.), Land tenure, Land Locations, Land Use  Existing Crop Varieties – List of all crops in the cropping area, Method and Type of planting, Size of crop area (acres)  Harvested Crops – List of harvested crops in the last 12 months, and quantitative estimations of harvested produces A2. LIVESTOCK:  Breeds: Cattle, Horses, Pigs, Goats, Chickens, etc.  Life stages: e.g. Pigs: piglets, weaner, barrow, sow, boar)  Numbers: individual counts for each life stages category in each livestock breed  Disposal: Consumed, Social Obligations, Sold, Lost  Veterinary Services: Yes or No 8
  9. 9. A3. FISHERIES:  Fishing Type: the type of fishing the household is engaging, Avg. weekly no. of trips, Avg. person hour/trip, Avg. weekly catch, Avg. weekly value of sold fish  Main purpose: the main purpose of the household fishing activity  Main species harvested: list of main species catches (e.g. tuna & pelagic fish, lobster, shellfish, sea cucumber, seaweed, ornamental fish, reef finfish, sea urchins, others)  Type of fishing habitat: the fishing ground e.g. flat reef, lagoon, sea grass, reef slope, open sea)  Time of fishing: when fishing are done e.g. day, night or both 9
  10. 10. A4. FORESTRY Numbers and Intended Use of trees/shrubs in Holding e.g. food sources, timbers, soil improvements, high value woods, fuel, shade/shelter/windbreaks, boundaries, handicrafts, medicinal, conservations, ornamentals, etc. A5. HANDICRAFTS:  Raw Material productions: Proportions of raw materials  buy or selling  Total handicrafts produced: Proportions of Total finished  products sold and values  Engaged in group productions of handicrafts for the  purpose of katoanga and estimated values if yes 10
  11. 11. A6. OTHER INFORMATION  Labour: Use of group or permanent labours, labour gender, working hours, rate and benefits if paid  Machinery & Equipments: List of all equipments owned in Farming, Fishing, Transport, Energy supply, and Livestock activities  Agricultural Income and Loan: Proportion of income comes from the agricultural sector activities, loan amount, sources, purposes and rate of repayment  Opinions and prioritising current Challenges in the agricultural sector: Lack of production inputs, lack of finance sources, lack of management skills, lack of markets, lack of new technologies and infrastructures 11
  12. 12. Census Coverage  The 2015 TNAC was conducted at the household level and made a complete enumeration of all households residing in Tonga during the period of the census enumeration. About 1,921 households did not respond during the 2015 TNAC, compared to 2,410 during the 2001 Census. This represented a final response rate of 89% for the 2015 TNAC. Households that went abroad and came back after the period of the census-taking, and those permanently living in other countries, were not included in the survey. 12
  13. 13. ORGANIZING OF A CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE  The 2015 Tonga National Agriculture Census(TNAC) held in the Kingdom of Tonga was very motivated in broaden view to an effective overall economic/social development and planning. The supervisors and enumerators have gained a lot of skills and experiences in conducting of the census especially in enumerating of household and used of field materials. 1.1 Relation of Agriculture Census to Population Census  The 2015 Tonga National Agriculture Census(TNAC) was conducted at the household level and a complete enumeration of all households residing in Tonga during the period of the census enumeration. List of households from the 2011 Population Census was used as frame for carrying out of the 2015 Tonga National Agriculture Census, even though the list only identifies households, not agricultural holdings or even households with own-account agricultural production. 13
  14. 14. Cont’d of Agricultural Census to population census  2015 Tonga National Agricultural Census provided data that highlighted the majority of agricultural production activities, Over 95% of the agriculturally active households engaged in subsistence and semi- subsistence agricultural activities with only 5% engaged in commercial agricultural activities.  Through household component, agricultural and population censuses identified to be in very closely related where as in 2015 Agriculture census the common concepts, definitions and classifications were inline with international standards and also with those used in the 2011 Population Census. By using of common statistical standards in conducting of agricultural and population censuses as approach in the new World Programme for the Census of Agriculture 2020, data from the two sources are consistent and comparable.  For field materials, each enumerator in the 2015 Tonga National Agriculture census was provide with map, coding sheet, census questionnaires, instruction manual, summary form and other control form. Similar materials were used in the population census. However, agriculture census normally conducted after population census and in this regards, these two censuses should share the field materials. 14
  15. 15. Cont’d of Agricultural Census to population census  In the 2015 Tonga National Agriculture Census (TNAC), each household membership was asked regarding economic characteristics, about their name, age, sex, main activity, employment status, occupation and industry. But on the other hand employment status, occupation and industry are normally including in the population census. To avoid duplication of data, there is emphasis on proper assessing of the existing agriculture data in sake of data needs for the agriculture census.  Agricultural employment data has weakness from the population census in short reference period of collecting data of a person’s main activity. This approach may not identify all persons working in agriculture, because of the seasonality of agriculture activities. Nevertheless, a frame for agricultural census can be established by combined data on occupation with status in employment from the population census. 15
  16. 16. Cont’d of Agricultural Census to population census  In the recent Population Census 2011, few additional agriculture-related data was included. But by including considerable agriculture-related items in the population census would therefore, provide wider range of agriculture-related data for the analysis process, useful for agricultural census frame and useful for the sample design and selection of a sample-based agricultural census core module.  Some data in the 2011 Population Census especially in the household item was used as a baseline for the 2015 Tonga National Agriculture Census. The data identified as out-of-dated but by coordinating the data in these two censuses it opens up the possibility of linking the data between the two censuses. Linking data means data in a household in both censuses is matched and can be used in tabulation and analysis process. 16
  17. 17. 1.2 Relationship with Housing Census  As approach in the WCA 2020, Housing census provides vital information on housing units, such as size, construction materials, and available services. Housing census normally conducted in association with population census, and from here any link between the agricultural and population censuses would also provide link between agricultural census and housing census.  There was no data on housing units was collected in the 2015 Agriculture Census. But, it is identified these data are very valuable in analyzing of economic status of a household. The link between the agriculture, population and housing censuses could bring data on housing census to use in the tabulation and analysis of the agriculture census. This approach provide new dimension to the agricultural census analysis. 17
  18. 18. 1.3 Relationship with Economic Censuses  Agriculture census 2015 provides valuable information that suit growing demand for agriculture structural statistics in Tonga especially for analysis of economic/social status and development of the country. Data collected were included information on level of agricultural activity, agricultural holdings and method of operation, crops and trees grown by minor agricultural household only, livestock, crops planted and already harvested on this parcel, etc.  In the new approach for World Census 2020, agriculture census is a component of the overall economic statistics based on System of National Accounts (SNA) and International Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities (ISIC). In the component of agriculture census, it covers establishment engaged in agricultural production activities but normally restricted to units engaged in the production of agricultural goods; namely crops and livestock products. The data provided in agriculture census shows it close-related with economic census by under this framework, the agricultural census measures the agricultural industry. 18
  19. 19. Cont’d Relationship with Economic Census  The link of agriculture census to housing census and to population census gives data in agricultural census the opportunity to link with data in economic census.  This link could be a particular agricultural holding in the agricultural census is matched to the same unit in an economic census to enable data in economic census to be used in the agricultural census tabulation and analysis. 19
  20. 20. THE ROLE OF THE CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE IN MONITORING OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs): POVERTY AND HUNGER  Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger is goal one of the SDGs. There is a various definition of Poverty but in the Pacific region it is defined as inadequate levels of sustainable human development through access to essential public goods and services and access to income opportunities. How does this definition apply to Tonga? In recent decades, Tonga has undergone rapid social, cultural, economic and political changes that have resulted in significant changes to the situation of sustainable livelihood of vulnerable households in Tonga. The major concerns in Tonga with people live in poverty are lack of access to land or cash crops, lack of access to basic services, such as water and sanitation facilities, healthcare, and lack of access to employment and consistent income.  The Agriculture Census 2015 covered information on household level. Some of the information collected on level of agricultural activity, agricultural holdings and household membership and economic characteristics. These levels provided valuable information for monitoring the status of poverty and hunger. 20
  21. 21.  Information collected from the agricultural census indicated signs lack of access to land or cash crop.  According to the agriculture census 2015, about 14% or 2176 households were found to be not growing or not cultivating any crops/trees/shrubs and they are identified as non-agricultural households. This figure by itself indicates great worrying in access to land and cash crops and access to consistent income.  Agriculture census could provide a range of data of interest to the SDGs: For example:  Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Two SDG indicators are used: the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age; and the proportion of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption. Data from a supplementary household food security module would help to better understand changes in the structure of agriculture and their effect on household food security.  Agricultural census helps to better understand the causes of poverty and provide baseline data for monitoring poverty alleviation programme.  Income and poverty data at the household level were not collected in the agricultural census 2015.  However, the WCA 2020 includes such data in a small census supplementary module, if required. 21
  22. 22. CHANGES TONGA CAN INTRODUCE REGARDING THE ASSIGNED THEMES.  With the closed relationship of agricultural census, population census, housing census and economic census, Tonga is approaching for an opportunity of conducting the agricultural census with association with population census. It means to conduct the agricultural census soon after the population census to capture valid household data for the frame. At the same time Tonga is interesting in including data in the housing census to enable analyzing of economic status of a household.  For monitoring of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) measures, data in a small census supplementary module is needed to be conducted after the core census module to collect more detailed structural data. 22
  23. 23. CHALLENGES AND DIFFICULTIES  Unpreparedness  results in frequent delaying of census activities  may have an impact with the collected data accuracy  Spatial distances and Remoteness  may affect communications and trip arrangements  National events  may draw away large population from outer islands e.g. coronation and church conference events in July  Delays due to resources unavailability  unavailability of resources (human, funds, tools, etc.) may delay all planned census activities 23
  24. 24. LESSONS LEARNT:  Preparation time should be sufficient: • required much time in preparations (e.g. 2 – 3 years ahead in preparations) • public familiarisations with the questions to be asked • census promotions and publicity required much time • budget allocations should be in hand  Stability of implementing staff to conduct the census • keep and use the same staff throughout the census during implementations • be neutral throughout the census period  Get the right people, the right time, and right tools and equipments 24
  25. 25. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Give sufficient time in preparations for an agricultural census  Promotion exercises and public programs should be very active in outlining the questions to be asked to get the public familiar with the questions as to give the most accurate information  Carry out annual surveys between census years as to have estimated benchmark data for the next census program  Reduce the gap of census interval to not more than 10 years period  Require sufficient time for supervisors’and enumerators’ training 25
  26. 26. MALO ‘AUPITO 1

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