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Green gold yearly operational report 2015

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Green gold yearly operational report 2015

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Green gold yearly operational report 2015

  1. 1. 1 Green Gold Project Annual Operations Report (1October 2014 – 31 October 2015) Ulaanbaatar, October 2015
  2. 2. 2 Green Gold Project in brief Name Green Gold Project Project Phase IV (2013-2016) Reporting period 1 October 2014 – 31 October 2015 Budget for the period 4,798,204,000 MNT Goal Livelihoods of herders are improved and poverty is reduced in rural Mongolia Phase IV Objective Herders, organised through collective action, manage rangeland sustainably and have better access to technological knowledge management and markets Outcomes 1 Collective action for sustainable rangeland management: Pasture-User Groups (PUG‟s) promote, at the herders‟ level, sustainable pasture management and economic development (f/m) 2 Applied agricultural research that produces results for practitioners: A science-based understanding of range- management issues enhances the scope for sustainable range management at all levels 3 An agricultural extension service to provide practical knowledge to the herders: The agricultural extension service delivers useful services (knowledge and services) to all herders (f/m) 4 Facilitate market access by linking yak herders to processing companies: The income of yak herders has increased Key outputs 1 PUGs have successfully negotiated land-use contracts 2 Institutional capacities for the interpretation and application of ecological potential-based rangeland management are developed 3 Herders are reached via the PUG system with relevant and tested extension messages 4 Herders‟ income increased through the improved value chain of yak wool and camel wool Geographic outreach Seven western aimags: Bayan-Ulgii, KKhovd, Uvs, Gobi-Altai, Zavkhan, Bayankhongor, Arkhangai Main beneficiaries About 60,000 herder households (300,000 individuals, of whom 45- 55 percent are female) Partners MIA, NAEC, NAMEM, ALAGCG, MSUA, NUM, RIAH, aimag, soum governments, Aimag Federations of Pasture-User Groups of herders, PUGs SDC Contribution 9.8 million CHF Government contribution 2.0 million CHF Herders‟ contribution 0.7 million CHF
  3. 3. 3 Summary Up to 60 percent of the country has been affected by drought this year. According to the National Institute of Metereology and feedback from herders, the 2015/2016 winter is likely to be tough. Winter preparation, therefore has been intense this year and is still on going. According to the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), as of October 2015 60 of percent of hay and forage required for emergency is prepared. Of this, 70 percent was prepared by herders and 30 percent by state-managed aimag and soum government reserves. A subsidy programme for sheep and camel wool has been running for three years, and a hides and skins subsidy programme for two years. The subsidies have both positive and negative impacts. On the positive side, herders sell raw materials through cooperatives via a supply contract with processing companies, which has given cooperatives an opportunity to earn income and establish working relationships with processing companies. The government channelled the subsidy through the Association of Wool and Cashmere Processors and the Association of Skin and Hide processing companies. On the negative side, herders received a price topping from the government irrespective of the quality of the products supplied. This was contrary to the interests of processing companies in terms of the quality of the raw materials supplied. However, in 2015 the government issued a resolution to differentiate subsidy prices for camel wool based on quality. First grade wool earns MNT 2000 per kilogram subsidy, while second and third grade wool earns MNT 1000 per kilogram. The global economic crisis and the negative development of Chinese and Russian markets continues to threaten the future sales potential of animal fibres and hides/skins. As a result, processors are purchasing only limited quantities of raw materials. In addition, the markets for semi-processed hide/skin products are threatened by an increasing level of environmental awareness that is changing consumers‟ patterns of consumption. The project will continue to consult with textile producers in seeking alternative markets in Europe and North America. In the case of meat, the project will qualify processors in the production of meat products as an alternative to the sale of carcasses. 2015 marks the third year of implementation of the government‟s Local Development Fund (LDF) and Soum Development Fund aimed at boosting rural development. In 2014, MNT 82.8 billion in LDF was allocated to seven Green Gold aimags. However, due to the economic downturn, in 2015 that figure fell more than two fold to MNT 35.7 billion. Hence, there has been a significant drop in investment in rangeland and livestock management activities. In May 2015, a National Rangeland Health Assessment Report of Mongolia was completed and submitted to the government. The six-year research project examined the state of rangeland degradation in Mongolia as well as remedial technology for each stage of degradation. The report has been shared with interest groups, policymakers, researchers, civil society organisations (CSOs), international partners, rangeland management practitioners and herders. Cooperation with ALACAG, NAMEM, MoFA and the Ministry of Environment and Green Development has demonstrably improved, and ALACAG has adopted a new methodology for rangeland health photo-monitoring and Ecological Site Description (ESD) models to complement the existing five-year rangeland assessment methodology. The MoFA will submit a draft Rangeland Law to Parliament in October 2015. A Green Gold team is part of a working group established at the MoFA, sharing the results and experiences of PUG rangeland-use agreements, particularly in relation to the participation of herders in rangeland management planning and implementation, and the role of herders and their institutions at different levels (khot ails, PUGs, APUGs, Aimag Federations [AFs], cooperatives). The main goal of the draft law is to ensure long-term collective tenure/user rights for herder families to their traditional rangelands. However, the law is likely to create tension in Parliament as the Ministry of Mining recently issued
  4. 4. 4 special exploration licences on an additional 30 million hectares of land, the majority of which is currently used as rangeland for livestock. As of June 2015, more than 600 PUGs of the total 1100 PUGs had negotiated rangeland- use agreements with soum governments. The organisation of herders into PUGs and the development of rangeland-use agreements has improved the participation of herder families in annual soum rangeland-management planning and budget allocations. From 2013-2014, there was on average a 1.5 times increase in LDF investments and local budget allocations for improved rangeland management. In the 2013/2014 fiscal year, when the LDF budget was highest (on average, each soum received MNT 200-300 million), investment proposals developed by herders, PUGs and APUGs based on rangeland-use plans (such as building wells and roads to expand rotational grazing areas, growing forage, and investing in high-productivity breeding animals) received substantial financial support from soum governments. Herders and PUGs were asked to contribute 10 percent of the total funding. This arrangement worked well. However, in the 2015 fiscal year, funding for the LDF fell from MNT 50-80 million per soum on average, as did investment contributions from local governments, hence many of the planned investments from herders and PUGs were put on hold. In order to further improve rangeland-use agreements, Green Gold in cooperation with the Centre for Policy Research is piloting two-tier agreements. In addition to the rangeland-use agreements negotiated between PUGs and soum governors, an agreement with more specific conditions that are inclusive of rangeland health indicators (ESD/State and Transition Model [STM]) and stocking rates will be established with smaller groups within PUGs and soum governments. In the initial stage, eight PUGs from eight aimags have been selected. At first, group members will agree on the rangelands to be covered by the second agreement (winter/spring or four seasons); they will then calculate potential carrying capacity and by how much that capacity is being exceeded, with consensus on a plan to reduce the stocking rate within the next five to 10 years. The agreement period will be negotiated with each of the groups and the stocking rate reduction plan will be monitored annually by soum governors. In return, soum governments will agree on a support scheme for those herder groups, which will differ according to the specific needs of each group. As well as improving the enforcement of rangeland-use agreements, this pilot project aims to demonstrate the feasibility of targeted subsidies with condtions stipulated for stocking rates and rangeland health. According to an initial assessment and based on expert calculation, herder families are willing to reduce their herds by 8 percent on average annually. This is in accordance with herders‟ need to maintain an appropriate level of livestock for reproduction. However, consideration needs to be given to rich and poor herder households when determining the level of livestock reduction. Ensuring the sustainability of the PUG system (PUGs, APUGs, AFs) is the centre of attention in Green Gold Phase IV. PUGs, APUGs, AFs and cooperatives are central components of Green Gold‟s legacy and sustainability. From 2014, the Green Gold PCU has increasingly been mandating to aimag AFs local-level coordination and liaison with Green Gold components and local stakeholders in order to develop their skills and capacity. There is an increasing tendency to use PUG networks and structures in acivities that require the participation of herder families, and to disseminate information. In this regard, soum APUGs and aimag AFs are pursuing two major directions; one is to set up business cooperatives and facilitate the collective marketing and sales of livestock products, and the second is to provide contracted services to herder households on behalf of public and private partners. All AFs have created second-level marketing cooperatives, and about 60 soum APUGs have created primary-level marketing cooperatives. Since 2013, cooperative membership has been continually increasing, as has shared capital and annual sales income. According to a Green Gold cooperative assessment conducted in May 2015, of the 63 cooperatives assessed,
  5. 5. 5 30 had reached a level of regular and sustainable operations; the remaining 33 were still in the early stages of development. All 63 cooperatives had experience developing long and short-term supply contracts with processing companies and working as local agents to facilitate the supply of livestock raw materials and the distribution of government subsidies to herder families. As of 2015, soum APUG and aimag AF-based cooperatives were managing sales of MNT 4.3 billion. According to processing companies, the advantage of PUG-based cooperatives is trust and the relationships developed with members that enable them to trace back suppliers and improve quality control. In 2015, most of the processing companies that had received soft loans from the Chinggis Bond had completed work to enhance their technical capacity. Ensuring the reliable supply of good-quality raw materials is now one of the main considerations to guarantee success. The second direction is for soum APUGs and AFs to provide services on behalf of public and private stakeholders. One example that was greatly appreciated by local governments and the MoFA was testing the effectiveness of traditional methods of rodent eradication, namely early spring flooding combined with the creation of bird seats and nests. According to the MoFA, 40 percent of all rangelands are affected by rodents. In using this method, it is important to use a time frame of 10-15 days of early spring frost and to mobilise people so flooding can take place simultaneously to ensure rodents don‟t escape. The Arkhangai aimag AF was selected to mobilise herders and PUGs in two soums. According to summer monitoring compared with baseline data collected in early spring and feedback provided by herders, the rodent population fell by 30-40 percent. This traditional method is five times less costly than the government‟s allotted budget (MNT 300 per hectare versus MNT 1800 per hectare). A second flooding is planned for November 2015 after rodents have moved underground for winter hibernation. The pilot project will be finalised in March 2016 and the results will be shared with the MoFA and nationwide. Another example was the financial support the Bayankhongor aimag AF received from AVSF Mongolia (a French international NGO) to implement collective rangeland management as part of the Sustainable Cashmere Project funded by the EU. With this financial support, the PUG approach was up-scaled to four additional soums. Meat sales and exports: This year, 13 domestic meat processing companies received export licences to China by the Chinese inspections agency. Thus far, about 70,000 tonnes of carcasses and processed meat products, such as frozen horse meat dumplings and dried yak meat, were exported. However, animal health remains a major concern for meat exports. Through a pilot project Green Gold implemented in Zavkhan aimag, herders supplied more than 45,000 head of sheep, goats and cattle to the Zavkhan Khuns company with a value of MNT 3.4 billion. In 2015, Green Gold conducted the first extensive gender study at the level of herding households. Three-hundred men and women from eight soums across Mongolia took part in the survey. Different aspects of herding household life were studied: The division of labour, decision- making, access/control of resources/benefits, participation in community activities, and child- related issues. The main findings of the research were that workload sharing varied seasonally, and that women‟s workload was greater than men‟s. Although both men and women work hard to earn income for their families‟ livelihood, in relation to decision-making about how to spend family income, women are involved in the evaluation process but final decisions are made by men. In relation to household money management, men were slightly predominant, although women‟s involvement was quite high (63 percent of husbands decided and in 58.5 percent of wives were involved). Furthermore, most of the property of herding households (58.5 percent), including livestock, winter/spring camps, motorcycles and other vehicles, is registered in husbands‟ names. There is also a direct correlation between poor livelihood households and children's tendency to pursue higher education after secondary school.
  6. 6. 6 Outcome 1: Pasture-User Groups (PUGs) promote at the herders‟ level sustainable pasture management and economic development (f/m) Output 1.1 PUGs have successfully negotiated land-use agreements (LUAs) Output 1.2 APUGs are successfully accessing public and private funding Output 1.3 Change of marketed volume and turnover of livestock products in cooperatives Output 1.4 Women’s increased participation in the PUG system Output 1.1: PUGs have successfully negotiated rangeland land-use agreements (LUAs) A two-tier rangeland-use agreement is piloted: The main challenges of formalising rangeland-use agreements (RUAs) and ensuring they are more effective and enforced remain due to an inadequate legal environment and the lack of capacity of local technical personnel to implement them. Following the Mid-Term Review, Green Gold organised technical assistance from the Centre for Policy Research (CPR) to aimag APUG Federations in order to develop two- tier RUAs; one level is a general RUA between PUGs, APUGs and soum governors; the second is an RUA that smaller groups within PUGs negotiate with soum governors and which have specific conditions on stocking rates and rangeland health. The CPR conducted a detailed assessment from April to June among herder families to identify the preconditions that members of the smaller groups would agree upon in relation to bearing responsibility for exceeding carrying capacity and rangeland health. The preconditions identified are that there is no trespassing by non-members, and that rangelands should be fully under the control of members. Once a boundary is defined and members are in agreement, the group‟s rangeland carrying capacity and rangeland health is estimated, as is the number of animals that would exceed the determined carrying capacity. The next step of the agreement is to calculate the number of animals to be reduced by each member of the group and to reach agreement on a plan to reduce the stocking rate to improve rangeland health. This RUA will be be in force for 15 years; herder groups develop a plan to reduce stocking rates and improve rangeland conditons within this time span which will be monitored annually by soum governors and soum land managers. In return, soum governors agree on a support package for these groups. That package varies depending on each context; in some soums, governors have agreed to subsidise rangeland infrastructure, the building of wells, the issuing of long-term land tenure for forage planting and facilitating livestock sales. This pilot aims also aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a targeted government subsidy policy. The CPR will pilot the two-tier agreement in one of the PUGs in one soum from each of the seven Green Gold aimags. The results of the pilot will be shared at two levels; the first, a demonstration event for policymakers, and the second capacity development training and demonstration events for those stakeholders who will be entrusted with the implementation of RUAs, PUG and APUG leaders, soum and aimag governors, soum land managers, bagh governors, AHBU staff, soum environmental inspectors and meteorological technicians. The Pasture Law will be submitted to Parliament in its autumn session: A working group at the MoFA is developing the draft Pasture Law at the request of the Minister for submission to Parliament in October 2015. Green Gold staff are part of the working group, and RUA conditions and the experiences of Green Gold are shared among group members. The main goal of the Pasture Law is to ensure long-term collective tenure/user rights for herder families to their traditional rangelands.
  7. 7. 7 About 60 percent of all the PUGs have established RUAs with soum governments: Of the 1100 PUGs formed in Green Gold‟s seven target aimags, more than 600 had established RUAs with soum governors. According to internal monitoring and soum government land management reports, the organisation of herders into PUGs and the development of RUAs had demonstrably improved the participation of herders in rangeland management planning and implementation. Increasing awareness among herders of the consequences of rangeland degradation has resulted in effective rotational grazing, and resting is carried out in accordance with plans agreed upon between PUGs and local governments and included in soum annual rangeland management plans. Table 1: RUAs made, rangelands rotated and rested in accordance with soum annual rangeland-use plans as of August 2015 Aimags Number of PUGs established Of which PUGs established LUAs as of June 2015 Rangelands under regular rotational grazing in addition to those as of December 2014 (ha) Rangelands under regular resting in addition to those as of December 2014 (ha) Arkhangai 323 51 124,685 (578,647) 15,270 (25,923) Bayankhongor 95 18 203,100 (182,720) 53,500 (27,800) Gobi-Altai 78 61 254,100 (214,000) 166,100 (1,211,220) Khovd 87 70 2,785,240 (2,348,802) 724,000 (654,854) Uvs 118 18 1,159,321 (525,003) 180,861 (143,635) Zavkhan 198 198 2,803,309 (2,698,786) 1,924,923 (1,811,840) Bayan-Ulgii 201 190 1,412,000 (1,400,000) 1,682,600 (1,682,600) Total 1100 606 8,741,755 (7,987,436) 4,747,254 (5,557,872) *()-data as of December 31, 2014 However, due to drought and late rain this summer, rangeland rejuvenation has been slow and herders have had limited grazing areas. Rain began from mid-July, which assisted rangeland recovery and the availability of water. According to field reports from PUGs, APUGs and local governments, with late summer and rain, animals have been underfed for a protracted period and have hence grown progressively weaker. As a result, grazing intensity is likely to be high this summer and autumn in the rangelands in order to sufficiently fatten animals for winter. Increasing the investment of herders and local governments in rangeland management improvement: Green Gold financial support to PUGs and APUGs is complementing and promoting local investment. Compared with 2010 data, there has been increased investment in improving rangeland management by local governments and herders. This peaked in 2013/2014 when the LDF was created, and on average soums were given from MNT 150-450 million a year depending on population numbers. Planned LDF funding for 2013 was received in May-July 2014. The majority of the projects initiated by PUGs, herders, APUGs and cooperatives in Green Gold target soums and included in soum annual land management planning have received financial support from the LDF and local governments. According to LDF regulations, beneficiaries are required to develop a written proposal and contribute at least 10 percent of total funding. Green Gold provided training on proposal writing for PUG and APUG leaders, and also provided complementary funding of up to 10-30 percent of the total investment. If total project investment is between MNT 0.5-15 million, Green Gold contributes about 20-30 percent; if total investment is above MNT 15 million, Green Gold‟s contribution is about 10 percent. This is based on the experiences of previous years in which the average investment proposal per PUG and herder group (HG) ranges from MNT 0.5-15 million. This policy encourages PUGs and HGs to develop proposals and access local funding opportunities. Another criteria for Green Gold complementary funding is the urgency and priority of the project
  8. 8. 8 for herders and PUGs, and its relevance to improved rangeland management, such as building roads, bridges or water points, access to unused pastures to reduce grazing pressure, fencing haymaking areas, growing forage for complementary feeding, and improving the per-head productivity of livestock. As well as complementing LDF funding, Green Gold financial support is also used to encourage herder families to join PUGs and establish RUAs, and to support the implementation of RUA conditions. In new soums covered by Green Gold in 2013 and 2014 in Arkhangai, Bayankhongor, Uvs and Gobi-Altai aimags, this approach has been very effective. Herders were able to see the visible results of their collective efforts to improve grazing management, rotations and resting in a short period of time. For example, in Undur Ulaan and Chuluut soums, while clearing mountain roads to access unused pastures to expand their grazing area, herder families were able to rest winter and spring rangelands from March to November, and the recovery of rangelands was high after just nine months. In many soums, the same results have been achieved by herder families while rehabilitating handmade manual wells to access new rangelands and reduce grazing pressure. Compared with three to four years ago, the willingness of herders and local governments to invest in more productive animals has visibly improved. The networks created among PUGs, APUGs and leaders have often been used to identify local high-productivity animals such as white cashmere goats from Bayankhongor aimag (Bumbugur Tsagaan yamaa), meat-bearing sheep from Uvs aimag (Bayad sheep), high-quality yak wool from Arkhangai aimag (Terhiin Bor Sarlag), and long-wool sheep from Zavkhan aimag (Sartuul Honi, a good raw material for carpet- making). In 2011, of the investment proposals Green Gold received, breeding projects made up 1-3 percent; as of 2014, half of up to 90 investment project proposals submitted by PUGs, APUGs and cooperatives focused on improved breeding. Green Gold encourages herder families prior to buying high-productivity breeds from outside to improve their existing herds through the selective breeding of their best-quality animals to ensure that productivity is fully exploited. In 2016, Green Gold will include in the training programme for herders, PUGs and APUGS skills development to simplify cost-benefit analyses for future investments. Table 2: Investment projects and Green Gold‟s contribution, and a comparision between 2014 and 2015 (thousand MNT) as of June 2015. Aimags Main investment projects GG contribution Rangeland management Hay/forage production Water supply Herd productivity enhancement 2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 Arkhangai 2500 60,000 11,910 25,10 0 300 13,20 0 22,000 50,000 36,710 61,900 Picture 1: Handmade bridges and roads to access new rangeland in Chuluut soum, Arkhangai aimag
  9. 9. 9 Bayankhongor 2000 20,000 0 13,20 0 0 15,00 0 1200 5000 1200 23,200 Gobi-Altai 38,577 23,000 0 3000 28,93 9 50,00 0 67,516 31,000 KKhovd 830 4300 14,185 3500 5200 10,00 0 0 20,000 20,215 9800 Uvs 0 3500 21,100 35,00 0 414 1000 0 15,000 21,514 3500 Bayan-Ulgii 14,000 25,000 24,000 50,00 0 1000 1500 22,500 30,000 60,500 0 Zavkhan 20,000 56,000 3800 15,00 0 120 2400 12,812 30,000 36,732 0 However, local government investment fell significantly in 2015 due to the cut to LDF funding. On average, soums received from MNT 30-80 million compared with the 2013/2014 fiscal year, where the average funding per soum was in the range of MNT 150-450 million. According to Green Gold experience working with local organisations such as PUGs, APUGs, bagh citizens‟ meetings, cooperatives and herder families, being able to access LDF funding for one year saw significant improvements to such rangeland management challenges as the lack of grazing areas, lack of water access, hay-making and rodent control, and that this encouraged the participation of the herding community in local governance. In short, the impact of the LDF and SLF has been significant in its short existence. Increasing local ownership of PUG networks and structures: There is an increasing tendency to use PUG networks and structures in activities that require the participation of herder families, and to disseminate information. In 90 of Green Gold‟s 126 target soums, soum annual land-management planning is based on PUG structure. PUGs develop individual rangeland-use plans and submit them to bagh citizens‟ meetings for discussion. Bagh governors unify the PUGs‟ rangeland-use plans and submit them to soum citizens‟ meetings for approval and inclusion in soum annual land-management planning and budgeting. According to feedback received from local governments and soum rangeland management reports, in those soums where annual rangeland-management plans are based on the PUG structure, rangeland management practices and the seasonal rotational grazing schedule is easily enforced, and local investment is based on the needs and priorities of herders. Investment proposals and investments made in soums with advanced PUG structures was higher compared with those soums where PUG structures were new and weak. For example, in Tariat and Ikh Tamir soums in Arkhangai aimag, the percentage of investments targeting improved rangeland management represented 20-35 percent of the total local budget, whereas in neighbouring soums with no PUG structures or recently established PUGs, such as Batsengel and Tsengel, few activities were planned and related investments comprised just 5 percent ot the total soum budget and LDF. In addition, rangeland degradation in the latter two soums was more widespread than in the former two. Since 2015, with support from Green Gold and ALAGAC, the Arkhangai aimag government and the land agency is up-scaling the PUG approach and ESD/STM-based rangeland health monitoring to the 12 soums in the aimag and AVSF project in Bayankhongor aimag up-scaled in 3 soums where AVSF project is implemented.
  10. 10. 10 Table 3. Number of soums adopting PUG-based soum annual rangeland-management planning Aimags Total soums Number of soums that have adopted PUG-based land- management planning 2013 2014 2015 Arkhangai 20 4 5 17 Bayankhongor 17 4 4 7 Gobi-Altai 18 11 11 11 Khovd 17 2 10 12 Zavkhan 23 12 16 22 Uvs 18 9 13 9 Bayan-Ulgii 13 12 12 12 126 41 71 90 One example that was greatly appreciated by local governments and the MoFA was testing the effectiveness of traditional methods of rodent eradication, namely early spring flooding combined with the creation of bird seats and nests. According to the MoFA, 40 percent of all rangelands are affected by rodents. In using this method, it is important to adhere to a time frame of 10-15 days of early spring frost and to mobilise people so flooding can take place simultaneously to ensure rodents don‟t escape. The PUG network has been used to disseminate information and mobilise herder families to organise spring flooding. Initially two soums were selected; one is heavily infested with rodents (80 percent of rangelands) and the other is moderately infected (30 percent of rangelands). The pilot project has been co-financed by the aimag Department of Agriculture/MoFA (60 percent of costs), herder families (labour, transport, water) and the Aimag Federation of APUGs (poles and food costs). Based on summer monitoring compared with baseline data collected in early spring and on feedback provided by herders, the results indicate that the rodent population fell by 30-40 percent. In relation to cost per hectare, the traditional method of flooding is five times less costly than the government‟s allotted budget (MNT 300 per tonne, MNT 1800 per hectare). The second flooding is planned to take place in November 2015 after rodents move underground for winter hibernation. This pilot project will be finalised n March 2016 and the results will be shared nationwide. In Ugiinuur soum, early spring flooding covered 80,000 ha of rangeland and 5030 main habitants (Picture 1); 262 bird seats and 45 nests were created involving 56 soum government employees, and 305 male and female herders and 86 vehicles were mobilised (Table 4). Table 4: Results of Ugiinnuur soum rodent-control work Bags Toglokh Doit Zegestei Ugii Orkhon Total PUGs 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 3
  11. 11. 11 Flooded main habitats 900 700 920 1244 150 200 234 320 242 120 5030 Bird seats 50 20 23 21 8 40 37 20 26 17 262 Bird nests 1 1 5 9 1 11 12 2 2 1 45 Rangeland area (ha) 13,000 12,00 0 10,00 0 8000 2000 10,00 0 8000 7000 6000 4000 80,00 0 In Erdenemandal soum, early spring flooding covered 53,000 ha of rangeland, and 855 main habitats were found; 175 bird seats and 24 nests were created involving 63 herder families and 38 soum government officials. Table 5: Results of Erdenemandal soum rodent-control work Bags Erdene Uul Teel Ulziit Khan Undur Alag Uul Total PUGs 1 2 1 1 1 1 Main habitats flooded 440 280 65 20 50 855 Bird seats 50 20 54 15 6 30 175 Bird nests 10 2 1 1 10 24 Project results were broadcast on Malchin TV nationwide twice this summer. Since then, five soums from Bayankhongor, Khuvsgul and Bulgan aimags have contacted Green Gold, and soum governments are planning to test late autumn flooding (once the rodents have moved to their winter habitat). When winter feed and bedding is destroyed, rodents die during the first winter frosts. According to the Plant Inspection Institute, about 70 percent of all rangeland is heavily infested with rodents. Increasing awareness of the stocking rate and investments for better herd-management practices: As well as improving grazing management practices, Green Gold has been promoting initiatives from herder families, PUGs, APUGs and cooperatives aimed at improving animal productivity and hence income per head. Initially, AFs are encouraged to organise skills and awareness-raising trainings for herder families (particularly younger herder families) on managing selective breeding within existing herds. The next step is facilitating the exchange of high-quality breeding animals between aimags using networks and contacts established through soum APUGs and aimag AFs. There are many local breeds of animals known for the high quality of their products and higher productivity, such as white cashmere goats from Bayankhongor aimag, red goats from Durvuljin soum in Zavkhan aimag, the Bayad breed of sheep from Uvs aimag (meat and wool), the Sartuul sheep from Zavkhan (wool), and the Terhiin Bor yak (high-quality yak wool). As of June 2015, 27 nuclear breeding herds of different livestock had been established by PUGs, APUGs, cooperatives and soum governments and were being used for breeding by herder families with support from Green Gold. Table 6: Nuclear breeding herds of local high-productivity animals used for breeding purposes Breeds Bayankhon gor Zavkhan Khovd Uvs Gobi- Altai Arkhangai Bayankhongor whilte goats 4 Bayad sheep 4 2 5 1 Dukhum Tungalag (camel) 2 1 Lamyn Gegeen Ulaan (camel) 2 1 Sartuul sheep (wool) 5 Selenge cattle (meat and 1
  12. 12. 12 milk) Total 8 9 3 5 2 1 Development of PUGs’ Herders’ Matching Funds: Since 2010, Green Gold has been supporting PUGs to establish Herders‟ Matching Funds. The main aim is to use economic incentives to promote collective action among herders for better rangeland management. Depending on budget availability, Green Gold contributes 10-15 CHF per PUG member and members contribute the same amount to the Matching Fund. With support from Green Gold, PUGs have developed simple rules to manage the funds. As of June 2015, the total sum of Herders‟ Matching Funds was MNT 2.1 billion, and about 34,000 herder families had joined. This means that each herder family has a share of MNT 90,000 in the Matching Fund. According to Green Gold experience, in the beginning (one to five years), the Herders‟ Matching Fund is used by members to bolster seasonal cash shortages while borrowing with interest rates below bank rates (up to 2.5 percent a month), with the amount ranging from MNT 100,000 to MNT 1 million for a period of three to six months. The loan repayment rate is high at 97 percent. As the Matching Fund increases and herders‟ trust grows, herders are willing to contribute more. For example, in Tsengel, Altai and Ulaankhus soums in Bayan-Ulgii aimag and Ikh Tamir and Tariat soums in Arkhangai aimag members agreed to increase their contribution from MNT 50,000 to MNT 200,000 and transform it into a business cooperative or savings and credit cooperative. However, as setting up savings and credit cooperatives requires special licences and regulations, such as having a full-time accountant and manager, the costs increase. Thus far, only two APUGs in Tsengel soum in Bayan-Ulgii aimag and Telmen soum in Zavkhan aimag have established savings and credit cooperatives. In the remaining soums, Herders‟ Matching Funds are operated and managed by the PUGs themselves as Community Development Funds at the APUGs. Starting in July 2015, Green Gold negotiated an agreement with Khaan Bank to make all transactions via bank transfer. This improves the transparency and monitoring of fund operations. In accordance with the new regulation, PUG leaders issue an assurance for the members to receive loans, and members enter into an agreement with APUG leaders to take out a loan from the Matching Fund. Green Gold is undertaking an assessment of Herders‟ Matching Funds to determine the main purposes of the loans. The results of the assessment will be available by mid-October. Table 7: Herders‟ Matching Funds (as of June 31, 2015) Aimags Total herder households Member HHs Contribution „000 MNT Interest rate income „000 MNT Balance as of June 2015 („000 MNT) Green Gold Herders Arkhangai 5080 3996 86,750 81,843 35,433 168,593 Bayankhongor 12,724 8520 190,050 203,044 310,033 393,094 Gobi-Altai 2151 2160 45,905 15,120 8288 69,313 Khovd 5134 4210 93,203 51,915 13,192 158,310 Uvs 7332 3197 163,700 78,349 59,200 301,250 Zavkhan 8435 5678 103,330 110,893 17,246 231,469 Bayan-Ulgii 10,112 7086 203,140 221,948 331,063 756,152 Total 51,148 34,817 886,078 763,113 774,459 2,078,184 Improving disaster risk preparedness: Green Gold support improves the disaster risk preparedeness of herder families in many ways. Herders are dependent on rangelands for their livestock feed, with the exception of a few days of additional feeding in winter and early spring. The most difficult period is the five months between December and April/May until rangelands
  13. 13. 13 start to regenerate. When heavy snow falls or blizzards occur, it is impossible for animals to graze on open rangelands, and if hay or forage is not available for indoor feeding, the animals eventually starve to death. The situation worsens if animals are not sheltered from the cold and do not have warm, dry bedding. After being exposed to frost for a few days, animals freeze to death. In Mongolia, there are two kinds of dzud: Hoof dzud or black dzud, which results in animals dying of malnutrition because they lack the food to overcome the long, cold winter, and frost dzud, when temperatures drop dramatically, sometimes below -50C, causing animals to freeze to death. According to herders, winter preparation means: - Making good “otor” (ensuring animals gain enough weight and fat during summer and autumn grazing to overcome winter) - Preparing additional hay and forage - Resting winter and spring rangelands for regeneration - Preparing warm shelters and bedding for animals - Keeping money aside in case of emergency while selling animals in autumn Green Gold contributes to the improved preparedness of herder families in natural disasters: 1. Herder families in soums with PUG structures and rangeland-use plans (34,000 herder families in about 60 soums of a total of 126 soums in seven Green Gold target aimags) are able to rest from grazing winter and spring rangelands until the following winter. As of June 2015, according to reports from PUGs and APUGs, about 3.9 million hectares of winter and spring rangelands are fully rested from March to November. For example, in Undurshireet soum, the lack of summer rangelands means winter and spring camping areas are used for summer grazing, which has led to an increase in conflicts among herders. When herders are organised into PUGs and have introduced rangeland-use planning, all available rangelands are divided into four seasonal grazing areas and herders start practicing rotational grazing between four seasons. 2. In relation to “otor”, the availability of plentiful summer and autumn rangelands is essential. Remote rangelands are usually used for otor, and in Green Gold target soums about 120,000 ha have been made assessible while clearing mountain roads and constructing new wells. 3. The creation of reserve rangelands for winter/spring: While herders are becoming organised into PUGs, one of the issues Green Gold encourages discussion on is the creation of reserve areas in case of emergencies. This, however, is dependent on the soum having sufficient seasonal grazing areas. If not, it is difficult to put aside reserve rangelands. PUGs and HGs generally keep aside reserves near winter and spring camps. Among the 126 target soums, about 24 soums had created reserve areas totalling 113,000 ha and had adopted special regulations on the use of reserve rangelands. After harvesting, fenced hay-making and forage- planting areas are used as autumn rangelands, and if the year turns out to be difficult, those areas are kept aside as reserve rangelands for winter. There are about 4100 ha of fenced hay- making areas and 210 ha of forage planting areas.
  14. 14. 14 Table 7: Reserve rangelands reflected in soum annual rangeland-use plans as of June 2015 Aimags Soums Reserve areas created (ha) Percentage of total rangelands Arkhangai 4 12,000 0.6 Gobi-Altai 2 34,648 0.6 Bayankhongor 3 23,450 1.2 Bayan-Ulgii 2 8000 0.2 Zavkhan 2 6700 0.09 Uvs 6 15,000 0.3 Khovd 5 13,580 0.2 Total 24 113,378 3.5 4. Forage and fenced hay-making: Herders and PUGs are increasingly planting forage on a small scale. Green Gold has been providing support, complementing soum governments, to those herder families, PUGs, APUGs and cooperatives issued with long-term licences for forage and hay-making areas, and is contributing 10 percent of total funding. In 2014/2015 as a part of the LDF, 158 PUGs, APUGs and cooperatives were supported with complementary Green Gold funding. Table 8: Forage and hay-making as of June 2015 Aimags Number of PUGs/APUGs and cooperatives involved Forage Fenced/improved hay-making areas (ha) Investment (000‟ MNT) Area planted (ha) Harvest (tonnes) Green Gold Local budget Herders Arkhangai 40 90 360 700 5000 3000 17,700 Bayan-Ulgii 20 20 80 3000 Bayankhongor 15 8 32 90 1000 3700 Gobi-Altai 30 30 120 50 1200 1 000 3800 Khovd 10 10 40 120 5000 1000 1000 Uvs 30 50 200 100 8000 2000 1000 Zavkhan 13 5.5 22 100 300 395 Total 158 213.5 8540 4160 20,500 7000 27,595 5. In the aftermath of the 2009/2010 dzuds, Herders‟ Matching Funds played a crucial role in herder families being able to access to money to buy urgent medical supplies for family members, fuel to send small children and women to soum centres, and additional forage to ensure animals did not starve to death. The easy accessibility of the Matching Funds was very helpful, according to herders during the dzud. As of June 2015, there were MNT 2 billion in Herders‟ Matching Funds, from which about 34,000 herder families were benefiting. According
  15. 15. 15 to PUG and APUG leaders, local banks feared this coming winter would be severe so they ceased issuing loans to herders with fewer than 200 animals. Herders Matching Funds have also been used by herder families to send children to school and to prepare for winter. Output 1.2 APUGs are successfully accessing public and private funding Supporting the sustainability of the PUG system (PUGs, APUGs/cooperatives, AFs/cooperatives) is the central component of Green Gold Phase IV. In this regard, soum APUGs and aimag AFs are pursuing two major directions: Establishing business cooperatives and facilitating the collective marketing and sales of livestock products, and providing contracted servies to local public and private partners. Creation of primary and second-level cooperatives among soum APUGs and Aimag Federations of APUGs: All AFs have created second level-marketing cooperatives and about 60 soum APUGs have created primary-level marketing cooperatives. Since 2013, cooperative membership has been continually increasing, and with it shared capital and annual sales income (Tables 9, 10). All 60 have established contractual relationships with processing companies and are working as local agents to organise the collective supply of all types of livestock raw materials. About 35 cooperatives have been contracted to channel government subsidies to herders on sheep wool, skin and hides. For yak wool supply, APUGs and AF- based cooperatives are supplying about 80 percent (60 tonnes) of yak wool to processing companies. According to the processing companies, the advantage of PUG-based cooperatives is trust and the relationships developed with members that enable them to trace back suppliers and improve quality control. Based on Mid-Term Review recommendations, Green Gold conducted an assessment of each of the soum cooperatives between March and May 2015. The assessment was conducted in line with the seven principles of cooperative capacity development: Voluntary open membership; democratic governance and the monitoring of members; the economic participation of members; the independence of a cooperative; education, training and information; cooperation between cooperatives; and common interest. Basic training was also carried out during this period. The assessment, involving experts from major national cooperative associations, led to the development of detailed recommendations and a Plan of Activities for each of the 60 cooperatives. It was the most recent and most detailed field assessment undertaken of herders‟ cooperatives. The recommendations and Plan of Activities will be shared within and outside Green Gold and will be a major reference document for Green Gold cooperative-related capacity development activities in the remaining period. In relation to the Plan of Acitivities, the Green Gold PCU is starting training for cooperative leaders in September. Picture 2: Herders during cooperative assessment and training
  16. 16. 16 The main findings of the assessment were: Positive: - In accordance with the seven principles, of the 63 cooperatives assessed, 30 had reached a level of regular and sustainable operations, while the remaining 33 were still in the early stages of development and their operations were not regular. - In the past two years, the total shared equity of APUGs and AF cooperatives has increased on average by a factor of 2.2. Up to 15 cooperatives received financial support from the LDF and other organisations and projects being implemented in the soum. - The increase of cooperative memberships year by year demonstrates that herders are aware of the benefits of joining cooperatives. There are cooperatives implementing such innovative initiatives as the issuing of membership cards and shareholder books in which are recorded shared capital, dividends and participation in cooperative meetings and acitivities. These initiatives boost herders‟ trust and encourage them to take part in cooperative activities. - Secondary-level cooperatives created by AFs are an appropriate institutional structure to coordinate and facilitate the improved access of smaller primary and soum-based cooperatives to market activities. - Feedback from herders and other local stakeholders demonstrated that Green Gold took the right approach in supporting the establishment of cooperatives alongside PUGs and APUGs. Members express their appreciation for the support provided. Problems: - In general, herders have an inadequate level of understanding about cooperatives. This hinders them in enrolling in cooperatives and taking part in cooperative activities. - Despite increasing contributions from members, the financial capacity of cooperatives is still weak. Although cooperatives enter into supply contracts with buyers in order to secure raw materials from herders, to compete with middle men they need better cash flow for deposits. For this reason, although they are members of cooperatives, some herders are tempted to sell raw materials to middle men for a lower price. - The internal governance and operational management of cooperatives is still weak. For example, cooperatives‟ internal regulations do not comply with legal requirements and standards. On many occasions, they simply copy each other and don‟t reflect the specifics of the different cooperatives. - With weak governance and operational regulations, cooperatives lack the capacity to determine their overall development policies and strategies. The heads of the majority of cooperatives have dual positions, also working for soum APUGs without salaries. - Herders‟ cooperatives have to pay 10 percent VAT from total income derived from the sale of raw materials irrespective of the fact that they do not create any added value. This is a loophole in the current cooperative law. As a result, they must always seek ways to avoid paying VAT, which has a negative impact on their operations.
  17. 17. 17 Table 9: APUGs and AF-based cooperatives‟ scale of collective assets and sales income Aimags Coops assessed Shareholding capital („000 MNT) Sales income (mln MNT) 2014 2015 2014 2015 Arkhangai 3 47,250.0 165,750.0 403.9 1,160.0 Bayankhongo r 4 25,000.0 53,800.0 272.4 319.8 Gobi-Altai 6 19,000.0 24,600.0 50.3 78.8 Uvs 6 232,350.0 343,072.0 833.6 794.5 Tuv, Dundgovi 2 60,500.0 60,500.0 42.2 50.0 Bayan-Ulgii 11 513,727.3 636,619.0 748.1 617.9 Khovd 12 138,588.0 147,465.0 196.3 299.8 Zavkhan 19 108,411.0 114,111.0 1,074.0 984.4 TOTAL 63 1,144,826.3 1,485,417.0 3,620.0 4,305.0 Table 10: APUG and AF-based business cooperatives, membership Name of aimags Cooperatives involved in the assessment Number of members Percentage of male members 2014 2015 2014 2015 Number percent in total Number percent in total Arkhangai 3 1565 1692 1461 93.4 1692 94.5 Bayankhongor 4 510 564 461 90.4 564 91.0 Gobi-Altai 6 278 431 215 77.3 431 80.0 Uvs 6 768 768 610 79.4 768 79.4 Tuv, Dundgovi 2 472 472 438 92.8 472 92.8 Bayan-Ulgii 11 2999 2999 2466 82.2 2999 82.2 Khovd 12 967 1588 829 85.7 1588 87.0 Zavkhan 19 3053 3357 1559 51.1 3357 52.0 Total 63 10612 11871 8039 75.8 11871 82.3 According to the assessment, herder families are registered as members of cooperatives by the head of the family, hence the percentage of male members is very high. As the table above demonstrates, the percentage of male members is on average 80 percent and women 20 percent. Contracted service provisions: Green Gold has been aiming to build the capacity of APUGs and AFs to provide services on behalf of public and private stakeholders. The initial results have been achieved in a short period of time. The Bayankhongor aimag AF received financial support from AVSF Mongolia (a French international NGO) to implement collective rangeland management as part of the Sustainable Cashmere Project financed by the EU. The PUG financial approach was up-scaled to an additional four soums. In order to improve effectiveness, a working group led by soum governors, and comprised of local land managers, bagh governors, AHBUs, soum environmental inspectors and meteorological technicians, was established in each of the four soums. From 2014, the Green Gold PCU has increasingly been mandating local-level
  18. 18. 18 coordination and liaison with Green Gold components and local stakeholders. Soum APUGs and AFs have been provided with training to write proposals for local tendering. In Gobi-Altai aimag, six soum APUGs were mandated to implement local projects funded by the soum government and the LDF, as well as the Ministry of Environment and WWF, totalling MNT 29 million for rodent control, animal bathing, the rehabilitation of old wells, the fencing of natural water springs, and the creation of water reserves in remote rangelands. Starting from 2014, the Green Gold PCU has mandated local coordination tasks to soum APUGs and aimag AFs so they can learn the skills needed to provide services and manage local activities related to marketing, extension and applied research. The workload of two to three people at AFs has increased, however they have demonstrated a high level of commitment and have managed to adequately facilitate local activities. Follow-up activities were carried out by AFs on behalf of Green Gold in the field. According to AF semi-annual reports, AFs and soum APUGs organised and moderated 160 meetings for herders and PUGs involving 5700 participants (3260 men and 2440 women). During this period, about 50 events (workshops, trainings, trade fairs and conferences) were organised with support from Green Gold, with 5400 participants (3100 men and 2300 women). Table 11: Training provided by soum APUGs and AFs with support from Green Gold Training topics Partners Participant herder family members Men Women Rangeland management trainings C1, C2, C3 and soum AHBUs, land managers ALAGAC, MSUA 1220 800 Herd management trainings C1, C3, soum AHBUs, private companies 1000 700 Leadership training for PUG and APUG leaders C1 550 120 Soum APUGs capacity development project C1, MLSD 100 120 Cooperative assessment and training C1, cooperative associations 800 550 Two-tier RUAs C1, CPR 250 150 Matchmaking events between processors and cooperatives C4 174 92 Extension master training C3 57 30 Training of soum extension facilitators C3 50 50 Training of herders‟ advisors C3 500 120 Rodent control MoFA 350 200 RUA training CPR Baby camel wool and yak wool combing training C4 300 100 Hides and skin primary processing C1 110 50 Yarn-making training C4 45 Sewing training C4 40 Dairy processing training C1, soum AHBUs 50 Women herders‟ workshop C1 730 Soum herders‟ workshop C1 550 400 Herders Matching Fund improvement training C1 350 400 Total 6360 4740
  19. 19. 19 Establishment of a National Union of PUGs to improve lobbying and the representation of the interests of the herding community at the national level. The establishment of a National Union of PUGs as a part of a sustainability plan has long been discussed among herders and PUG and APUG leaders. This intensified with the adoption of fiscal decentralisation legislation and the creation of LDFs at the soum level. In the context of Mongolia, where herders on average comprise 80 percent of the soum population, the reflection of their interests in the allocation of LDFs became an issue in the first year. In 2013/2014, the majority of LDFs were spent on projects suggested by citizens living in the soum centre, such as the building of playgrounds for children, streetlights, public showers and gardens, and the construction of new offices for the soum government. According to Green Gold internal monitoring, the main reason for this was a lack of awareness among herders about the LDF and herders not being informed in advance about the LDF. In February 2015, PUG, APUG and AF leaders and representatives from 69 soums gathered in Ulaanbaatar and established a National Union of PUGs. The main purpose of the National Union of PUGs is to have herders‟ interests reflected in national policy, as well as providing a vehicle with which to represent and lobby for those interests. Since its establishment, the National Union of PUGs has embarked on three projects: A pilot project in cooperation with the MoFA to test local indigenious technology aimed at eradicating rodents; facilitating meetings at the parliamentary level to improve the legal environment for herders‟ user rights on traditional rangelands; and promoting the formalisation of RUAs between PUGs and local governments. Since its establishment, in addition to seven western aimags, herders from five soums in Uvurkhangai and Khentii aimags have joned the National Union. Establishment of Herders’ Training and Information Centres: This year, Green Gold provided support to 12 Soum APUGs to establish Herders‟ Training and Information Centres. The centres are also used as APUG and cooperative offices. The arrangement was made in accordance with Green Gold‟s C3 component that C1 components support the construction of the centre and C3 supports the centre‟s operations and provides basic training equipment and tools. Each of the centres receives on average MNT 1.3 million from C3. PUG and APUG networks and leaders are increasingly acting as information agents for the herding community. However, there is still a need to make good use of Herders‟ Training and Information Centres. Table 12: Newly established Herders‟ Training and Information Centres Aimags Soums Total cost „000 MNT Of which „000 MNT GG Herders Local government/other sources Arkhangai Chuluut (done) 23,000 18,000 5000 1000 Undur Ulaan (done) 24,000 18,000 5000 1000 Bayankhong or Bogd (in progress) 25,000 20,000 5000 0 Gobi-Altai Taishir (in progress) 26,550 20,000 5000 1550 Darvi (in progress) 26,200 20,000 5000 1200 Tugrug (in progress) 20,000 20,000 5000 1200 Jargalan (in progress) 20,000 20,000 5000 1200 Uvs Umnugovi (in progress) 21,000 21,000 5000 1000 Turgen (in progress) 21,000 21,000 5000 1000 Undurkhangai (in progress) 21,000 21,000 5000 1000
  20. 20. 20 Ulgi (in progress) 21,000 21,000 5000 1000 Khovd Bulgan (done) 20,000 20,000 5000 2000 Output 1.3 Changes in market volume and turnover of livestock products in cooperatives With increasing membership and the market volume of products, cooperatives‟ turnover is also on the rise. There have been two big waves of cooperative development in the past three years: The introduction of a government subsidy scheme to channel sheep wool, skins/hides and camel wool through cooperatives to herders, and soft loans for livestock processing companies from the Chinggis Bond to support technical change and working capital. In order to create stable business operations and ensure the quality of raw materials from herders, a growing number of companies are interested in developing working relationships and entering into contracts with cooperatives. Table 13: Contracts established by APUG-based cooperatives in 2015 (short and long term) Aimags Long and short-term marketing contracts Contracted sales volume (mln MNT) Number of job places created full and part-time (M/F) Arkhangai 6 1,210.0 35/45 Bayankhongor 7 319.8 6/2 Gobi-Altai 6 78.8 43/33 Khovd 4 794.5 11/2 Uvs 3 617.9 15/18 Zavkhan 29 299.8 107/14 Bayan-Ulgii 10 984.4 8/9 Total 65 4,305.0 225 Male 123 Female A secondary marketing cooperative set up at the Aimag Federation of APUGs has entered into supply contracts with the following processing companies: Bayalag Ulzii (yak wool), Uguuj Shim (yak wool), Darhan Nekhii (skins and hides), Erdenet Khivs (sheep wool), Mogol (sheep wool) and Darkhan Foods (meat). Bayankhongor aimag cooperatives organised herders‟ participation in border trading in China and sold camel dairy products worth MNT 12.7 million. This year, the Arkhangai aimag AF entered into contracts with several wool-processing companies to supply wool from herders and the World Bank Marketing Project. The total sum of the contracted work was MNT 60 million.
  21. 21. 21 During the recent Green Gold-mandated cooperative assessment, it was found that herders were also willing to increase their share in cooperatives. For example, in several soums in Gobi- Altai, Arkhangai and Zavkhan aimags, members agreed to increase their contributions up to MNT 100,000 per member in order to generate working capital. APUG and AF-based cooperatives developing new businesses: In addition to engaging in livestock raw material sales, Green Gold encourages APUG-based cooperatives to engage in local value-adding and primary processing businesses and in non-livestock product businesses such as growing fruit trees, planting potatoes and vegetables, and running shops and hotels. Based on a request from the AF in Arkhangai aimag, a Yak Festival was organised as an educational and tourist event. The main aim for Green Gold was to provide support for the AF and PUGs to gain experience and learn the skills needed to independently organise next year‟s festival as a tourism event and a possible source of income. According to a CBA analysis, in order to organise a Yak Festival for 1500-2000 visitors, there is a direct cost of about MNT 12.0 million As well as selling tickets to tourism companies, herders and soum APUGs can also earn income from the sale of dairy products to tourists and running a small eating establishment on site. This year, the total income generated for local herders and PUGs was MNT 15 million. Next year, the Arkhangai AF will participate in the Tourism Fair 2016 and will sell tickets to local tour operators to visit the Yak Festival. Table 14: New business initiatives supported by Green Gold for APUG-based cooperatives Non-livestock businesses Aimags Cooperatives Number of employees (part and full-time) Annual income („000 MNT) Yak festival Arkhangai All cooperatives 10/10 5500 Fruit tree planting Bayankhongor Bayangobi 2 F/T 6 P/T 3000 Construction concrete Bayankhongor Gurvanbulag 5 P/T 3000 Potato and vegetable growing Bayankhongor Bayanlig 5 P/T 3000 Felt-making Gobi-Altai Taishir 12 P/T 5000 Felt-making, sheep wool washing Gob Altai Erdeme 8/1 5000 Forage and hay- making Potato and vegetable planting Gobi-Altai Khaliun 12/12 4400 Bio char coal processing Bayan-Ulgii Altai, Buga, Bayannuur, Buyan, Tolbo, Deluun, Ulaankhus, Tsengel 30/12 Not available Livestock sales market Uvs Second-level cooperative In progress Livestock sales market Khovd Second-level cooperative In progress Yoghurt-making for school Zavkhan Erdenekhairkhan 3 females 5000
  22. 22. 22 lunches Camel wool marketing: The market for camel wool has not improved, which has been reflected in sales prices. This year, Gobi-Altai and Bayankhongor AFs in cooperation with the marketing component of Green Gold organised the combing of baby camel wool (1250 tonnes raw). Sample raw materials were processed at several processing companies and the results were very good. According to the companies, baby camel wool micron and length is higher than the current best-quality cashmere. The average micron of combed baby camel wool is 15 mkm, with an average length of 41mm; the average cashmere micron is currently 16.5 mkm with a length of 38mm. Two local processing companies were involved in different stages of processing, from washing to final production. According to industry experts, camel wool is suitable for both knitted and woven products. Output 1.4: Women’s increased participation in the PUG system The participation of women herders in bagh citizens’ meetings is increasing: According to soum government officials, women‟s participation in bagh citizens‟ meetings has increased in the past two years since women herders‟ annual meetings were made a regular event. In order to encourage women to participate in PUG activities, Green Gold has been supporting soum APUGs to organise annual meetings of women herders since 2013. In up to 30 soums of the 126 target soums, this has become a regular event. On average, 70-100 women per soum attend annual meetings. In the early years, these meetings were moderated by Green Gold staff or APUG leaders, with the main focus being rangeland management issues. The events have since expanded and become a platform for herder women to discuss a range of issues, and have become an important social gathering for women to meet and network. As Green Gold nears completion in 2016, we are working to make it sustainable in the future. About 30 soum governments have begun co-sponsoring the events. Gender analysis in herding households: Green Gold facilitated a gender analysis of herding households from November 2014 to June 2015. About 300 men and women from herding households and 70 herders‟ sons and daughters participated in the survey from eight soums across Mongolia: Taishir (Gobi-Altai), Most (Khovd), Umnugovi (Uvs), Bayannur (Bayan-Ulgii), Tsagaanchuluut (Zavkhan), Mandal (Selenge), Undurshireet (Tuv) and Ulziyt (Dundgovi). Different aspects of herding household life were examined: The division of labour, decision- making, access/control of resources/benefits, participation in community activities, and child- related issues.
  23. 23. 23 The main findings of the research are summarised as follows:  Workload sharing varies seasonally throughout a year, however women‟s workload is greater than men‟s. The total working hours of women spent on productive, reproductive and main community activities is higher than men‟s for the majority of the year.  Women‟s working hours and their workload for reproductive activities was three to four times higher than that of men.  50.1 percent of respondents said most of the decisions about livestock production (such as otor movements, seasonal grazing movements, involvement in pastureland management plans and herd management) were made by men; only 23.2 percent said wives were involved in decision-making processes.  Although both men and women work hard to earn income for their families‟ livelihoods, there are imbalances in relation to the use of and the benefits derived from family income. In relation to decision-making on how to spend family income, women are involved in the evaluation process but final decisions are taken by men. In relation to household money management, men are slightly predominant, although women‟s involvement is quite high (63 percent said the husband decides, and 58.5 percent said wives were involved).  Most herder household property (58.5 percent), including livestock, winter/spring camps, motorcycle and other vehicles, is registered in the name of husbands.  Survey respondents said women‟s limited involvement in community activities was the result of the difficulty they faced in delegating household tasks (33.2 percent) and delegating to others the care of children and the elderly.  In relation to the choice of a leader, the preference for men is quite pronounced (for PUGs, 38.7 percent). For cooperatives, 40.7 percent said they they had no gender preference as long as the person chosen was able to carry out their duties effectively. Only 12.6-16 percent of respondents said they would choose women as PUG/cooperative leaders.  Gender differences among sons and daughters in relation to education and their future were particularly evident in relation to school dropouts, with parents preferring to take their sons out of school rather than their daughters.  There is a direct correlation between poor livelihood households and children's tendency to pursue higher education after secondary school. School dropouts increase when households lack a workforce and the income needed to hire an assistant herder. Parents often need to keep one of their sons at home to work so their other children, mainly daughters, will have the opportunity to study. Promotion of women in income-generation opportunities: One of the cross-cutting themes within all Green Gold components is the promotion of income-generation opportunities for women in herding households. - Based on the successful experience of Herders‟ Matching Funds, Green Gold appropriated MNT 35 million to create a Community Fund for Women. The fund will operate under the same principles as the Herders‟ Matching Funds, in which member contributes MNT 15,000-20,000 with Green Gold contributing the same amount. The fund will primarily be used to support women in engaging in income-generation activities for the family, to sponsor women‟s events within PUGs and cooperatives, and to provide small loans to women in emergency situations. - Through the extension component, herder women were contracted to sew 300 “information bags” for herders for MNT 6000 each. - Up to five small income-generation projects were implemented by the extension and marketing components.
  24. 24. 24 Lessons learned and implications:  Given the growing role of aimag AFs in the local coordination of four Green Gold components as well as coordination with local governments and herders, the workload of AF personnel (three people) has significantly increased this year. In addition, AF heads are also engaged in the collection of raw materials from herder familes and organising transfers and sales to processing companies in Ulaanbaatar, and the disribution of payments to herder families. PUGs and APUGs/cooperatives and AFs/cooperatives fill the gaps in the outreach system to nomadic herder households that existed under the Soviet system.  Ensuring the participation of herder families in collective rangeland management and increasing their responsibillity remains a challenge. The habit of grazing freely and the free use of rangeland resources for more than 20 years is a deep-seated mindset among herders.  Faciltating close cooperation between PUGs, APUGs and aimag land departments, soum land managers, AHBU staff and metererolgical technicians has improved the enforcement of RUAs and the planning and implementation of annual soum rangeland- use plans.  Following the release of the National Rangeland Health Report and the introduction of two-tier RUAs with more specific conditions on maintaining rangeland health (ESD/STM) and stocking rates, more time is required for training and facilitation from the PCU. The results may not be fully achieved during Green Gold‟s remaining time period.  Given the late issuing of the regulation for the LDF and that it was not well communicated, there are few soums in which 30 percent of the LDF (in accordance with the regulation) was spent on rangeland and environmental management projects. Most of the projects funded emanated from soum centre organisations and residents. This is because the majority of the members of Soum Citizens‟ Meetings reside in the soum centre. Therefore, voting tends to favour projects around the soum centre. Another reason is that after many of years budget deficit, the LDF was largely used to cover pending investments. However, there is still the issue of prioritisation. For example, in Ugiinuur soum in Arkhangai aimag, the governor said that although one of major problems in the soum was rodent control, he was unable to muster support from Soum Citizens‟ Meeting members to allocate funding to combat the problem; instead, members opted to build a children‟s playground in the soum centre.  Each year, Green Gold financial support is delayed and released in April. This means complementary funding from Green Gold for project proposals submitted by PUGs, HGs and cooperatives and those included in the Annual Plan of Operations are postponed. In the past two years, projects related to planting forage, expanding grazing areas and increasing access to water had to be delayed, necessitating the reworking of plans by PUG and APUG leaders.  The leadership of PUGs and APUGs is crucial for the successful implementation of collective rangeland management and cooperative development. Herders‟ trust in leaders can help to resolve many issues.  Organising training for PUG leaders in Zavkhan aimag by the aimag AF proved to be a good initiative. A total of 240 PUG leaders took part in the training, which resulted in the development of recommendations for the aimag governor on improved rangeland management policy, which was personally submitted to the governor.  In order to improve the monitoring and control of PUG Herders‟ Matching Funds (HMF), Green Gold is undertaking an assessment at each soum HMFs and made an arrangement with Khaan Bank to make all transcations via the Bank. The assessment results will be ready by March 2016.  Government policy on cooperative development is inconsistent, and the ad-hoc distribution of subsidies and unfulfilled promises is negatively shaping herders‟
  25. 25. 25 perceptions. This year, many herder families did not receive price caps on sheep wool because of registration errors in the AHBUs. Many PUGs and APUGs delivered letters to the MoFA about this issue.  Pronounced political partisanship is reflected at the local level and is fueling tensions among herders from different parties.  According to feedback from herders on the issue of mining, they are not completely opposed to mining operations in their soums. The main issue for herders is being informed in advance and being able to take part in the processes. If there are negative consequences for the environment and rangelands, a joint solution needed to be sought. Outcome 2: Applied agricultural research that produces results for practitioners: Science-based understanding of range-management issues enhances the scope for sustainable range management at all levels Output 2.1 Human and institutional capacity is created within relevant ministries that enables: i) Improved data management; ii) The use of ecological site description-related concepts to interpret monitoring data; and iii) Serves by consistent products on regional and national dynamics. Output 2.2 The ESD concepts, documents, map products and extension materials are jointly produced with the target soums to be used by PUGs/soums. They will serve as a foundation for the spatial expansion of ESD development. Output 2.3 New technologies for forage production with annuals and perennials and for pasture rehabilitation are developed and demonstrated in experiments for the new ecological conditions of the target areas of Green Gold IV, are tested with PUGs and transferred to extension services for further up-scaling. Output 2.4 The human and institutional capacities for the interpretation of existing data and the independent adaptation of rangeland management and forage production to present and future challenges are developed. Output 2.1: Human and institutional capacity is created within relevant ministries that enables: i) Improved data management; ii) The use of ecological site description-related concepts to interpret monitoring data; and iii) Serves by consistent products on regional and national dynamics. The National Rangeland Health Report is presented to the Government of Mongolia. Based on successful collaboration with NAMEM in previous phases of Green Gold with such achievements as: 1. Resolution 114 of the Ministry of Environment and Green Development issued on 20 April, 2011, pertains to the adoption of one methodology nationwide for rangeland health monitoring. 2. Regional trainings were carried out for 450 soum technicians on the basic skills of data collection, as well as the provision of tools, in conjunction with SDC‟s Coping with Desertification Project and UNDP‟s Sustainable Land Management Project. 3. A national rangeland monitoring database has been set up at NAMEM on which is stored four years of data (2011-2014) from 1550 plots throughout Mongolia.
  26. 26. 26 With support from the USDA team and rangeland inventory data collected from more than 600 plots, we developed concepts for ecological potential and the recovery of Mongolian rangelands with the aim of providing consistent information about potential recovery options, which is essential for translating assessment into management actions that improve land conditions and human livelihoods. These are as follows: 1. A five-level classification of recovery potential called “recovery classes” based on common patterns of rangeland dynamics observed worldwide. While the logic underpinning the application of these classifications to particular land areas is science-based, it must be recognised that in Mongolia they represest testable hypotheses that can be either verified or disproved through management actions and monitoring. 2. Twenty-two ecological site groups based on the soil, climatic and landscape features of common rangeland types in Mongolia. These serve as a basic tool for the planning, enforcing and monitoring of rangeland management and restoration programme activities. 3. State and transition models are developed for the most common rangeland community shifts, state transitions and related triggers, and restoration pathways that enable NAMEM engineers to deliver annual rangeland health assessments to the public. Based on these concepts and NAMEM monitoring data from the 1550 plots, the National Report on Rangeland Health was completed and presented to the government. Findings included: - At present, 65 percent of Mongolia‟s rangelands have been altered to a certain extent. - Most rangeland areas can recover by changing the existing management approach. - The belief that irreversible degradation was spreading from southern Mongolia was not supported by the analysis. However, as our data suggests, aimags in forest steppe and steppe regions in central Mongolia face serious degradation problems. Output 2.2: ESD concepts, documents, map products and extension materials are produced jointly with the target soums to be used by PUGs/soums. They will serve as a foundation for the spatial expansion of ESD development. The ALAGAC management board approved the resilience-based rangeland management approach for planning and management-impact monitoring, and decided to pilot the approach in 15 soums and one aimag. Rangeland management activities should be based on scientifically proven evidence and involve participation from land users. In order to provide land users and managers at all levels with the knowledge and tools needed to undertake rangeland management planning, the STMs for Mongolian rangeland communities have been simplified into user-friendly photo catalogues (Figure 1). The application of ESDs, including STMs as a roadmap for soum land-management planning, rangeland state mapping and management-impact monitoring, were tested in four soums in 2013/2014 (Undurshireet soum, Tuv aimag, Chandmani soum, Khovd aimag, Ikh Tamir soum, Arkhangai aimag, and Bulgan soum, Dornod aimag), representing the country‟s main ecological regions: Forest steppe, steppe and desert steppe. Based on the results of this testing, the ALAGAC management board decided to update soum land-management planning and management-impact monitoring manuals so that ESD information formed the basis for future planning and monitoring (Figure 1).
  27. 27. 27 Figure 1: A photo catalogue for Mongolian rangeland communities in different ecological regions provides images of key indicator species and expected productivity, as well as information on carrying capacity and the appropriate utilisation of management recommendations Figure 2: ESD-based soum land-management planning and photo-monitoring approaches were approved by ALAGAC In relation to up-scaling the resilience-based rangeland management approach: 1. The resilience-based rangeland management (RBRM) approach is introduced in 15 pilot soums representing different ecological zones and throughout Arkhangai aimag. ALAGAC seeks to improve the Soum Annual Land Management Planning process by: - Providing clear criteria for identifying healthy and degraded areas - Using ESDs and maps of rangeland conditions to specify where grazing can be usefully deferred or pastures rested, and estimating the appropriate timing of grazing and recommended adjustments to stocking rates - Adjusting management to specific areas based on differences among ecological site groups and rangeland health - Focusing management on rangeland health as well as animal herds - Linking monitoring to expectations about pasture use and the maintenance or improvement of rangeland health, based on specific indicators - Encouraging the participation of all stakeholders, including herders and local government officials, in selecting preferred management options and updating plans 2. ALAGAC and MULS signed a Memorandum of Understanding to collaborate in the capacity development of soum land managers; a land-management planning laboratory
  28. 28. 28 was also set up (Figure 3). The laboratory is equipped with high-speed computers and GIS programs and has the potential to conduct training for 25 people Figure 3: With Green Gold support, a laboratory for land-management planning is set up at MULS 3. The first training on the RBRM approach is conducted for 50 land managers from 30 soums а) ALAGAC Director A. Khurelshagai opened the training б) A total of 63 land managers took part in RBRM training, of whom 41 percent were women b) Land managers are given textbooks, manuals and handouts on RBRM concepts and its application for planning and monitoring г) Land managers are given basic tools for photo- monitoring
  29. 29. 29 Output 2.4: The human and institutional capacities for the interpretation of existing data and the independent adaptation of rangeland management and forage production to present and future challenges are developed. Improvement of rangeland and herd-management training programme at MSUA As one of Mongolia‟s leading universities training rangeland and herd management specialists, MSUA has launched a rangeland and herd-management training programme, which includes: 1. Updating the curriculum and rangeland and herd-management course syllabuses. As a result of the collaboration between MULS professors, graduates and agencies involved in the agricultural and natural resource management sectors, the rangeland management and animal nutrition syllabuses were updated and approved in 2014. 2. Improvement of rangeland and herd management training materials: - The translation of such internationally recognised textbooks as Jerry Holechek‟s “Rangeland Management Principles and Practices” was completed and published. Richard O. Kellems and David C. Church‟s “Livestock Feeds and Feeding” textbook is also being published. Capacity building programme for young researchers Programmes oriented towards building the capacity of young researchers in the field of pasture ecology have been implemented through a “Young Researchers‟ Club” at NUM. The purpose of the club is to provide young researchers with opportunities (1) To exchange experiences, new ideas and innovations; (2) To coordinate studies among themselves; and (3) To improve their knowledge and capacity. Club activity is continuing independently since Green Gold ended its financial support and is focused on the following: - Information sharing via social media (https://www.facebook.com/groups/160219437472585/) - National and international scientists and specialists in the field Stuard Pimm, Li Alan Dugatkin and Chuluun published articles and were invited to give talks (Figure 8) Figure 8: Lectures by internationally recognised scientists play a key role in providing young researchers with modern principles and best practices in rangeland ecology and natural resource management.
  30. 30. 30 Students are conducting field research on the impact of climate change via simulation studies and rangeland productivity dynamics at experimental sites in Ikh Tamir soum in Arkhangai aimag, which is then passed on to NUM Updating the rangeland management curriculum at MULS As a result of the collaboration between MULS, alumni students working in the rangeland management sector and the government agency responsible for land management and monitoring, the “rangeland management” and “animal nutrition” course syllabuses were updated and in use from this academic year. In addition, such internationally recognised textbooks as Jerry Holechek‟s “Principles and Practices in Rangeland Management” and Richard O. Kellems and David C. Church‟s “Animal Nutrition” were translated into Mongolian as student reference material. Outcome 3: Demand-driven extension service system for herders (f/m) is set up. Output 3.1 The capacity of the extension service system is strenghtened. Output 3.2 Content: Herders are provided via the PUG system with relevant and tested extension messages (f/m). Output 3.3 Dissemination: Application of sustainable livestock herding practices is increased. Output 3.4 Entrepreneurship of herders is improved. Outcome indicator 3.1: Perception of usefulness of extension services by herders The SDC baseline monitoring report 2013 and annual monitoring report 2015 by IMRI confirmed that the share of herders in Green Gold areas that perceive extension services as useful increased from 11.2% in July 2013 to 51.6% in July 2015. This equals a 461% increase rate in positive perception of extension services within 21 months of implementation of the Extension component of the Green Gold project. Outcome indicator 3.2: Public funds allocated for extension services in the project intervention areas The pilot intervention and capacity building activities of C3 are resulting in increased awareness of the usefulness of extension services not only among herders but also among local decision makers. Funds allocated by aimag governments in the intervention areas for extension services reached 85 million MNT in 2015, compared to MNT 65 million in 2013. Outcome indicator 3.3: Funds spent on delivery of extension services by APUG-based herder cooperatives With initial support and stimulation by C3, APUG-based herder cooperatives have started providing extension services with substantial potential of sustaining without further support from the project. As an economic activity to boost profitability as well as a social activity to strengthen membership base, extension service delivery has been increasingly integrated into regular operation of the cooperatives. Internal funds spent by the cooperatives on delivery of extension services in 2015 were MNT 14 million, compared to MNT 8 million in 2013.
  31. 31. 31 Output 3.1: The capacity of the extension service system is strenghtened. Output indicator 3.1.1: Improved collaboration of MULS and NAEC C3 is facilitating a new cooperation agreement between NAEC and MULS, which shall be followed by a collaborative project for establishment of a distance-learning system targeting an estimated 1500 agricultural specialists and extension staff at DFAs and AHBUs countrywide. Conclusion of the cooperation agreement and the start of the collaborative project are expected in September 2016. Output indicator 3.1.2: Number of students learning extension methods at MULS Stimulated through collaboration with C3, MULS replaced the undergraduate course “Extension service“, which was only elected by 42 students in 2013 and 36 students in 2014, with a new course titled “Communication and Innovation”. The course will be launched in the academic year 2015/2016 starting in September 2015. C3 organised two workshops with representatives of the administration and schools of MULS on curriculum and syllabus development of the “Communication and Innovation” course. The first workshop in January 2015 with 15 participants (7F/8M) was a full-day event, and resulted in an initial curriculum and a work group to prepare the syllabus. At the second workshop with 7 participants (7f/10m) for 2 days in June 2015, the syllabus and curriculum of the course were finalised, core modules were prepared, and specific contents and delivery methods were planned for each school. Output indicator 3.1.3: Number of aimags with qualified Master Trainers (f/m=30/70) As of 31 July 2015, 17 Master Trainers (4f/13m) at AFPUGs and DFAs in 7 target aimags of C3 (Arkhangai, Bayankhongor, Bayan-Ulgii, Gobi-Altai, Khovd, Uws and Zavkhan) have been trained and are engaging in planning, coordination and monitoring of demand-driven extension services piloted for improving rangeland management, herd management, animal health and nutrition, and entrepreneurship of herders and herder cooperatives in the intervention areas. The following three events were organised by C3 for training of master trainers:  Refresher training of master trainers in October 2014 (2 days)  Training of master trainers in March 2015 (4 days)  Refresher training of master trainers in June 2015 (3 days) The refresher training in October 2014 was attended by 7 MTs (2f/5m) in Khovd, Uws and Bayan-Ulgii aimags, who had been initially trained in March 2014. The training strengthened the knowledge and skills of the MTs to design and coordinate demand-driven extension services for herders. Specific outputs included work plans for local-level training and exchange activities in the period October to December 2014, and for intensifying collaboration between AFPUGs and DIAs at the aimag level, and between APUGs and AHBUs at the soum level. The ToMT in March 2015 was attended by 10 persons (2f/8m), including extension officers of AFPUGs and livestock/rangeland specialists of DFAs in Arkhangai, Bayankhongor, Gobi-Altai and Zavkhan aimags, which have been targeted by C3 since January 2015, in addition to extension officers of AFPUGs in Khovd and Uws, at which the Executive Directors have been trained as Master Trainers in 2014. Specific outputs of the training included a gender mainstreaming plan, design of a herder feedback mechanism and a participatory M&E framework. The refresher training in June 2015 was attended by 11 MTs (3f/8m) from AFPUGs in 7 target aimags, and DFAs in 4 aimags (Arkhangai, Bayankhongor, Khovd and Uws). The training resulted in improved communication, facilitation and leadership skills of the MTs and increased their ability to communicate sustainable rangeland management and livestock herding practices to local stakeholders and herders. In addition, 7 MTs (3f/4m) were trained in facilitation of
  32. 32. 32 community participation and leadership, and entrepreneurship of herder women. Specific outputs included work plans for local-level training and exchange activities in the period October to December 2014, including training herder women in 37 soums, and a plan for intensifying the operation of Herder Service Centres. Output indicator 3.1.4: Percentage of GG soums with a team of trained Extension Facilitators (f/m=30/70) As of 31 July 2015, 126 Extension Facilitators (36f/90m) at APUGs and AHBUs in 63 pilot soums in 7 target aimags of C3 have been trained and are engaging in coordination and delivery of demand-driven extension services piloted for improving rangeland management, herd management, animal health and nutrition, and entrepreneurship of herders and herder cooperatives in the intervention areas. The following events were organised by C3 for training of facilitators:  Refresher training of facilitators in September 2014 (2 days)  Training of facilitators in April 2015 (3 days)  Workshop on preparation of business plans of herder cooperatives in November 2014 (3 days)  Training on participatory video in March 2015 (4 days)  Refresher training on participatory video in July 2015 (4 days) The refresher training in September 2014 was organised in Ulaangom and Khovd, and attended by 52 facilitators (13f/39m) from 26 soums in Khovd, Uws and Bayan-Ulgii aimags, who had been initially trained in April 2014. The training strengthened the knowledge and skills of the participants to deliver demand-driven extension services to herders. Specific outputs of the training included assessment of local-level training and exchange activities in the period May to September 2014 and a detailed work plan for the period October to December 2014. The ToF in April 2015 was attended by 74 persons (23f/51m), including heads of AFPUGs and livestock/rangeland specialists of AHBUs in 37 new pilot soums of C3 in 7 target aimags. Specific outputs of the training included a detailed plan for activities to facilitate herder learning and engagement at soum-, PUG- and khot ail-levels, and a plan of participatory monitoring of extension methods and contents in relation to herders‟ demands. The workshop on preparation of business plans was organised in Ulgii in November 2015, and attended by 11 persons (3f/8m), including 10 APUG leaders in Bayan-Ulgii, Khovd and Uws aimags, who lead herder cooperatives at the same time, in addition to the extension officer of the AFPUG in Uws aimag. The participants drafted business plans for their cooperatives for the period 2015 to 2019, and the drafts were finalised by the C3 consultant who facilitated the workshop. Ten facilitators (4f/6m) from 5 pilot soums (Tsetseg, Must and Darvi soums in Khovd aimag, and Tolbo and Buyant soums in Bayan-Ulgii aimag) were trained in preparation and use of participatory video to support herders‟ communication and exchange through training workshops in Khovd in March and July 2015. Each team was provided with cameras and tripods by C3. Output indicator 3.1.5: Percentage of GG soums with APUG-based units for information dissemination and herder learning and exchange Based on the establishment of Herder Training and Information Centres with APUG-offices by GG C1, C3 is introducing the concept of "Herder Service Centre (HSC)" in the intervention areas. As of 31 July 2015, HSCs in 55 pilot soums, out of 125 target soums of GG, are in operation. C3 supplied each HSC with information materials and media, and equipment for training and photo-point monitoring of rangelands. C3 also provides methodical guidance to APUGs for effective operation of HSCs.
  33. 33. 33 The HSCs are based on herders' participation, operated by APUGs in collaboration with AHBUs, and serve to herders as: 1) a learning and exchange hub, 2) a social space to interact with different stakeholders and services and 3) a shop to provide products and/or services they need; whereas the level of intensity of each of these functions varies in different soums. Output indicator 3.1.6: Percentage of APUGs with extension cooperation agreements with AHBUs As of 31 July 2015, APUGs and AHBUs in all 63 pilot soums of C3 have extension cooperation agreements for the period May 2015 to December 2016. Output 3.2: Content: Herders are provided via the PUG system with relevant and tested extension messages (f/m). Output indicator 3.2.1: Percentage of PUG members (f/m=30/70) receiving extension messages via mass media In the period of reporting, 10,000 PUG-member herder households in Khovd, Uws and Bayan- Ulgii aimags were reached with information and extension messages through two issues of the newsletter "Malch ukhaan" (“Herders‟ wisdom”). The outreach rate was 31% of all PUG- members. The 2/2014 issue of the newsletter was published in October 2014 and the 1/2015 issue in January 2015. Both issues were distributed in 3000 copies in Mongolian and 2000 copies in Kazakh language per issue. On average, each copy is read by two herder households in the same khot-ail. Output indicator 3.2.2: Percentage of PUG members (f/m=30/70) receiving extension messages via printed and audio-visual media Through printed and audio-visual media, 8000 herder households in 7 target aimags, equalling 25% of PUG-members, received extension messages in the period of reporting. The following media were used:  Manuals - reached 8000 herder households: o “Herder of the XXI century” manual, published by NAEC in original version in 2011 and updated in May 2015 - 9 modules covering rangeland management, livestock management, animal breeding, animal health, herder entrepreneurship and herder cooperative development; o Manual on “Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the brucellosis”, published by AHP in April 2014; o Manual on “Animal health”, published by AHP in April 2015;  Wall calendar, published by C3 in June 2015, with extension messages contributed by Green Gold C1, C2 and C4, AHP, IBLIP, NAEC and MULS – published in 5000 copies, reaching 5000 herders;  Training videos, prepared by C3 between May 2014 and June 2015, on: haymaking, forage cropping, wool processing, and diagnosis, prevention and treatment of brucellosis, ganders and contagious agalactia – published in 150 copies per each and reached 1500 herders. These media are distributed to herders through PUG-leaders trained as herder advisors. In June 2015, C3 introduced a system of distributing manuals and training videos to herders and receiving their feedback using “circulating information bags”. In May and June 2015, 400 information bags were distributed to 400 PUGs in 63 pilot soums of 7 target aimags. The information bags reached 8000 herder households by 31 July 2015, and the expected level of coverage by the end of 2015 is 40 herders per bag or 16,000 herder households.
  34. 34. 34 Output indicator 3.2.3: Percentage of PUG members (f/m=30/70) engaging in field-based learning and herder-to-herder exchange In the period of reporting, 5000 PUG-members participated in field-based training and exchange meetings at PUG and soum levels. Field-based training of herders is linked to innovation pilots conducted by PUGs with partial support from the project for demonstrating sustainable rangeland and livestock management approaches and solutions to increase the herders‟ incomes. In 2014, innovation pilots on forage cropping, haymaking, lamb feeding, wool and milk processing, supplementary feeding were implemented in 17 soums of Khovd, Uws and Bayan-Ulgii aimags. Field days to disseminate the practices demonstrated were attended by 250 herders during the period September to December 2014. In 2015, innovation pilots are being implemented in 32 soums of 7 target aimags. Between January and July 2015, the pilots were visited by an estimated 3000 herders, either through field days or exchange visits of PUGs. Herder exchange meetings at PUG and soum levels take place in spring and autumn. In October to November 2014, exchange meetings were facilitated at 265 PUGs in 26 pilot soums, and attended by 2500 herders. In the period June-July 2015, PUG-level exchange meetings were facilitated by herder advisors at 300 PUGs in 7 target aimags, and attended by an estimated 5000 herders. Output 3.3: Dissemination: Application of sustainable livestock herding practices is increased. Output indicator 3.3.1: Number of PUGs adopted practices for improving carrying capacity of rangelands Number of PUGs that adopted technologies for improving carrying capacity of rangelands such as irrigation and bio-fertilisation increased from 8 in 2013 to 12 by 31 July 2015. Output indicator 3.3.2: Percentage of GG soums with improved off-take intensity of non- productive animals Balanced off-take of male animals older than 3 years and barren female animals is a priority of C3 pilot intervention as this has both short-term benefits to herders and long-term effects on the sustainability of rangeland management. In the period of reporting, off-take of such non- productive animals were increased in 11 GG soums, compared to the 2013 level. Output indicator 3.3.3: Percentage of PUGs with improved animal breeds For increasing animal productivity, especially in wool and meat, AFPUGs in 6 aimags, in collaboration with DFAs and AHBUs, facilitated breeding of 12,000 dams at 34 PUGs with sires of superior breeds such as Bayad, Sutai and Sartuul rams, and Altain Ulaan bucks in September to October 2014. Output indicator 3.3.4: Percentage of PUGs with increased intensity of supplementary feeding in winter and spring Hay and forage reserves for the winter 2014/2015 were increased at 36 PUGs by at least 15% compared to 2013, reaching up to 50 tons per PUG, thus enabling increased supplementary feeding in winter. Output indicator 3.3.5: Percentage of PUG members contracted local vets Twenty-one thousand herder households with PUG-membership have veterinary service contracts with local vets as of 31 July 2015. This presents a 117% increase compared to 2013. Output 3.4: Entrepreneurship of herders is improved.
  35. 35. 35 Output indicator 3.4.1: Percentage of PUG members (f/m=50/50) keeping household records Household record keeping sheets as decision-making tools, especially for herd optimization, are being piloted by 500 herder households presenting 1.5% of all PUG-members. The number of herder households involved in this pilot is expected to reach 1600 by the end of 2015. Output indicator 3.4.2: Percentage of APUG-based cooperatives generating supplementary income for herders (f/m=30/70) Through C3 innovation pilots aiming to stimulate herders' business development, 10 APUG- based herder cooperatives out of 60 cooperatives in 7 target aimags are generating supplementary incomes for herders. The income-generating activities include: wool and milk processing, animal breeding, biochar production, fodder and vegetable cropping, sea buckthorn growing, meat storage and marketing, sewing and herders' shops. Output indicator 3.4.3: Number of herder women engaging in collective processing of animal products 118 herder women in 5 aimags (Khovd, Uws, Bayan-Ulgii, Gobi-Altai and Arkhangai) are engaging in groups in milk and wool processing and sewing businesses of the APUG-based herder cooperatives. 2.3 Summary of achievement of monitoring indicators Indicators Baseline 2013 Target for 2015 Achievemen t by 31 July 2015 Rate of execution Outcome 3: Demand-driven extension service system for herders (f/m) is set up. 3.1. Perception of usefulness of extension services by herders (f/m=30/70) 11.2% 50% 51.6% 103% 3.2. MNT Public funds allocated for extension services at aimag and soum levels MNT 65 million MNT 58.25 million MNT 70 million 120% 3.3. MNT Funds spent on extension services by APUG-based herder cooperatives MNT 8 million MNT 8.4 million MNT 11 million 131% Output 3.1. The capacity of the extension service system is strengthened. 3.1.1. Improved collaboration of MULS and NAEC 0 2 2 100% 3.1.2. # of students (f/m=50/50) learning extension methods at MULS 42 150 36 24%

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