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05 - Measurement System Analaysis (MSA) - ESTIEM Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Course

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These slides are part of the ESTIEM Lean Six Sigma Green Belt course which also includes 13hr of video by Gregory H. Watson.
For more info about the ESTIEM Lean Six Sigma Green Belt course visit https://internal.estiem.org/leansixsigma

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05 - Measurement System Analaysis (MSA) - ESTIEM Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Course

  1. 1. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Measurement system analysis for publication 1
  2. 2. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org It’s Feedback time! 2 Persons giving feedback Link to the feedback form (can be found on Schoology and WhatsApp) Instructor to give feedback toPersons giving feedback INSTRUCTOR 1 INSTRUCTOR 2
  3. 3. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org What do you remember about DMAIC? 3 Project Charter SIPOC EDA VA vs. NVA DEFINE Fishbone Diagram Deployment Diagram Identifying the BN MEASURE PPA MSA
  4. 4. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Remember the bolts… Let’s measure them! Bolt needs to be exact size in order to fit the nut • Above 605 → doesn’t fit in • Below 595 → doesn’t hold tight
  5. 5. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org What kind of problems might we see in the measurement systems? 5
  6. 6. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org How can measurement problems develop? - and at what points? 6 Measure this with this by this operator
  7. 7. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org How about now? 7 Measure this with these by these people
  8. 8. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org ▪ Biased measurements ▪ Difference between the measurements of different persons ▪ Difference between the measurements of a same person ▪ Unclear criteria for labeling items as “good” or “bad” ▪ Too low resolution in the measurement system ▪ … Examples of measurement system problems, many more exist! 8
  9. 9. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org What could you do as a Green Belt to check if the measurement system is good enough? 9
  10. 10. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Sequence of Measurement System Analysis 10 Operational definitions Do Attribute Agreement Analysis Determine Measurement Capability Conduct Gage Analysis On Factors A B C
  11. 11. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Sequence of Measurement System Analysis 11 Operational definitions Do Attribute Agreement Analysis Determine Measurement Capability Conduct Gage Analysis On Factors A B C
  12. 12. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Let’s start with the base, the operational definitions 12
  13. 13. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Operational definitions describe what a certain measurement means, and how it is performed. 13
  14. 14. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org What kind of problems there might be with the following operational definition? 14
  15. 15. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org • MEASURE: Product lead time • Measured as the difference in time between the order and the shipping date What might be wrong with the following operational definition? 15
  16. 16. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org • MEASURE: Product lead time • Measured as the difference in time between the order and the shipping date Possible problems: • What is the customer order time – might be the actual order placement date, or when the order arrived in the factory? • When is the product shipped? When it exits the factory? When it exits the distribution center to the customer? What might be wrong with the following operational definition? 16
  17. 17. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org • CHECK: The catapult cup must be • A circle • Diameter of 7-9mm • Measured with a ruler How could you improve the following operational definition? 17
  18. 18. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org • CHECK: The catapult cup must be • A circle • Diameter of 7-9mm • Measured with a ruler How could you improve the following operational definition? 18 • CHECK: The catapult cup must be • Should be a circle • Difference between min and max radius from the center of the cup +/- 0.5mm • Diameter: • Min diameter > 7mm • Max diameter < 9mm • You could add a picture on how to measure!
  19. 19. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Any questions about the operational definitions? 19
  20. 20. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Time to work… 20
  21. 21. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org SPONSOR MESSAGE 21
  22. 22. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Sequence of Measurement System Analysis 22 Operational definitions Do Attribute Agreement Analysis Determine Measurement Capability Conduct Gage Analysis On Factors A B C
  23. 23. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Discuss with a pair, what is the Attribute Agreement Analysis? 23
  24. 24. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Attribute Agreement Analysis tests, if EVERY PERSON draws the SAME CONCLUSION of the product EVERY TIME E.g. every person always labels the product as a defect or good product 24
  25. 25. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org What could be processes where Attribute Agreement Analysis could be useful? 25
  26. 26. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Attribute Agreement Analysis can be used e.g. in: •Do all measurers spot the defective products? •Do all persons label the invoices as “ready to be sent” or “needs to be reworked”? •Should the scratch on a car be repaired or not? 26
  27. 27. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org For measurement studies you have to collect the DATA IN THE RIGHT FORMAT! Discuss what are the requirements for collecting data for the Attribute Agreement Analysis 27
  28. 28. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org EVERY PERSON should measure EACH PART the SAME NUMBER OF TIMES! 28
  29. 29. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Every measurer should measure each part the same number of times! 29 Person A Person B Person C Part A Part A Part B Part B Part C Part C
  30. 30. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Person A Person B Person C Part A GOOD BAD GOOD Part A GOOD GOOD GOOD Part B GOOD GOOD GOOD Part B BAD GOOD BAD Part C GOOD GOOD GOOD Part C GOOD GOOD GOOD What can you observe from the results? 30
  31. 31. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Person A Person B Person C Part A GOOD BAD GOOD Part A GOOD GOOD GOOD Part B GOOD GOOD GOOD Part B BAD GOOD BAD Part C GOOD GOOD GOOD Part C GOOD GOOD GOOD What can you observe from the results? 31 Reproducibility error
  32. 32. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Person A Person B Person C Part A GOOD BAD GOOD Part A GOOD GOOD GOOD Part B GOOD GOOD GOOD Part B BAD GOOD BAD Part C GOOD GOOD GOOD Part C GOOD GOOD GOOD What can you observe from the results? 32 Repeatability error
  33. 33. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Flash quiz: What is a common improvement to do if the attribute agreement analysis shows differences between the measurers? 33
  34. 34. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Time to work… 34
  35. 35. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org SPONSOR MESSAGE 35
  36. 36. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Sequence of Measurement System Analysis 36 Operational definitions Do Attribute Agreement Analysis Determine Measurement Capability Conduct Gage Analysis On Factors A B C
  37. 37. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Possible types of measurement capability erros 37 Linearity Stability Calibration Bias Discrimination
  38. 38. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Measurement capability can be checked in various ways, but the basic concepts are important 38 Linearity Stability Calibration Bias Discrimination
  39. 39. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Measurement capability can be checked in various ways, but the basic concepts are important 39 Linearity Stability Calibration Bias Discrimination
  40. 40. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Measurement capability can be checked in various ways, but the basic concepts are important 40 Linearity Stability Calibration Bias Discrimination
  41. 41. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Measurement capability can be checked in various ways, but the basic concepts are important 41 Linearity Stability Calibration Bias Discrimination
  42. 42. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Measurement capability can be checked in various ways, but the basic concepts are important 42 Linearity Stability Calibration Bias Discrimination
  43. 43. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Any questions / are these clear for you? 43 Linearity Stability Calibration Bias Discrimination
  44. 44. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Sequence of Measurement System Analysis 44 Operational definitions Do Attribute Agreement Analysis Determine Measurement Capability Conduct Gage Analysis On Factors A B C
  45. 45. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Types of Measurement System Analyses 45 Attribute Agreement Analysis Attribute Gage R&R Study Variable Gage R&R (Nested) Variable Gage R&R (Crossed) Gage Bias and Linearity Study Gage Run Chart
  46. 46. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Types of Measurement System Analyses 46 Attribute Agreement Analysis Attribute Gage R&R Study Variable Gage R&R (Nested) Variable Gage R&R (Crossed) Gage Bias and Linearity Study Gage Run Chart
  47. 47. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Gage R&R stands for a Gage study for Repeatability and Reproducibility 47 Repeatability Reproducibility SAME PART & SAME MEASURER: Are the results consistent? SAME PART & DIFFERENT MEASURER: Are the results consistent? Person A Person B Person C Part A 0,85 1,05 1,02 Part A 0,92 1,02 1,04 Part B 1,06 1,32 1,22 Part B 1,03 1,13 1,19 Part C 0,53 0,63 0,98 Part C 0,65 0,62 0,97 Person A Person B Person C Part A 0,85 1,05 1,02 Part A 0,92 1,02 1,04 Part B 1,06 1,32 1,22 Part B 1,03 1,13 1,19 Part C 0,53 0,63 0,98 Part C 0,65 0,62 0,97
  48. 48. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Crossed designs is the simplest design for Gage R&R Analysis 48 Operator Part Measurement A 1 A 1 B 1 B 1 C 1 C 1 A 2 A 2 Etc. Etc. Remember from the Attribute Agreement Analysis? EVERY OPERATOR should measure EACH PART the SAME NUMBER OF TIMES!
  49. 49. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org
  50. 50. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Left side of Gage R&R describes how the process is performing overall 50 Variation from real differences between parts or measurement errors? Are there clear outliers in the measurements? Is the measurement system capable to detect differences?
  51. 51. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Variation from real differences between parts or measurement errors? 51 We want to see all part-to-part
  52. 52. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Are there clear outliers in the measurements? 52 We want to see all points down Blue point = Difference between the MAX and MIN measurement Control limits = 3 standard deviations up from the center line
  53. 53. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Measurement system capable to detect differences? The number of distinct categories! 53 4 distinct categoriesWe want to see at least 5 Black point = Average of one operator measurements of a part Control limits = Calculated using the repeatability error estimate
  54. 54. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Left side of Gage R&R describes how the process is performing overall 54 Variation from real differences between parts or measurement errors? Are there clear outliers in the measurements? Is the measurement system capable to detect differences?
  55. 55. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org The right side of the Gage R&R helps you to guide your inquiry further 55 Are there differences between measurements of the same part? Are the operators similar in their distributions? Is there a consistent bias in the operator measurements?
  56. 56. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Response by part shows if some parts have more variance in measurements than others 56 We want to see the dots close together
  57. 57. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org In Response by Operator, you want to see a straight line in the operator means 57 Straight line, good reproducibility
  58. 58. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Boxplots and points can be different illustrations of data … 58 Points used when there are <10 data points Boxplots used when there are >9 data points
  59. 59. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org In Part * Operator you look for continuous biases – is some operator constantly on top/bottom 59 No constantly lower/higher values
  60. 60. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org The right side of the Gage R&R helps you to guide your inquiry further 60 Are there differences between measurements of the same part? Are the operators similar in their distributions? Is there a consistent bias in the operator measurements?
  61. 61. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Now it’s time to practice interpreting the charts in groups 61
  62. 62. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org
  63. 63. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org
  64. 64. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Extra round 64
  65. 65. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org
  66. 66. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org
  67. 67. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Final round 67
  68. 68. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org
  69. 69. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org
  70. 70. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Question 1/3: What kind of measurement system problems might not be seen with the Gage R&R study?
  71. 71. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Question 2/3: Describe a practical example where could you use Gage R&R study
  72. 72. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Question 3/3: If Gage R&R study deems the measurement system as incapable, what kind of options you have as a Green Belt?
  73. 73. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Time to work… 73
  74. 74. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org SPONSOR MESSAGE 74
  75. 75. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org It’s Feedback time! 75 Persons giving feedback Link to the feedback form (can be found on Schoology and WhatsApp) Instructor to give feedback toPersons giving feedback INSTRUCTOR 1 INSTRUCTOR 2
  76. 76. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org It’s Feedback time! Feedback box 76
  77. 77. European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management www.estiem.org Usage license of the materials https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode Contact leansixsigma@estiem.org for commercial usage of the materials Materials of the trainings have been created based on the materials provided by ESTIEM Summer Academy Professor Gregory H. Watson

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