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McKinley’s Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation


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By Ms. Kristel Ann Evangelista
BSTM 31A - Philgov

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McKinley’s Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation

  1. 1. -25th President of the United States, serving from March4, 1897, until his death.-McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War.-McKinley served in the Civil War and rose from privateto brevet major.In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he becamethe Republican Partys expert on the protective tariff,which he promised would bring prosperity.
  2. 2. -1891 and 1893, He was elected Ohios governor-Rapid economic growth marked McKinleys presidency.He promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protectmanufacturers and factory workers from foreigncompetition, and in 1900, he secured the passage ofthe Gold Standard Act.-McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grantindependence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, butwhen negotiation failed, he led the nation in the Spanish–American War of 1898
  3. 3. Benevolent assimilationDec. 21, 1898, President McKinley issued the BENEVOLENTASSIMILATION PROCLAMATION, announced in the Philippines onJan. 4, 1899The U.S. have "come, not as invaders or conquerors, but asfriends, to protect the natives in their homes, in theiremployment, and in their personal and religious rights."U.S. wanted to "win the confidence, respect, and affection of theinhabitants of the Philippines by assuring them in every possibleway that full measure of individual rights and liberties which isthe heritage of free peoples, and by proving to them that themission of the United States is one of benevolent assimilationsubstituting the mild sway of justice and right for arbitrary rule."
  4. 4. Benevolent assimilation The proclamation reads in part:Finally, it should be the earnest wish and paramount aimof the military administration to win the confidence,respect, and affection of the inhabitants of thePhilippines by assuring them in every possible way thatfull measure of individual rights and liberties which is theheritage of free peoples, and by proving to them that themission of the United States is one of benevolentassimilation substituting the mild sway of justice andright for arbitrary rule.
  5. 5. -The proclamation was sent to General Elwell Otis (U.S.military commander in the Philippines)-Otis sent Emilio Aguinaldo a version of the proclamationwhich he bowdlerized by removing the mention ofU.S. sovereignty "to stress our benevolent purpose" andnot "offend Filipino sensibilities" by substituting "freepeople" for "supremacy of the United States," anddeleting "to exercise future domination". May 24, 1898- Aguinaldo had proclaimed an insurgent dictatorial government in the Philippines
  6. 6. June 12, 1898- proclaimed Philippine IndependenceJune 23, 1898- changed the dictatorial government to arevolutionary one -General Otis had also sent an unaltered copy of the proclamation to General Marcus Miller in Iloilo City who, unaware that an altered version had been sent to Aguinaldo, passed a copy to a Filipino official there.