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Occupational hazards

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Occupational hazards

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Occupational hazards

  1. 1. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS & PULMONARY DISEASE Dr. M. Omer MBBS, MPH Lecturer CHS
  2. 2. Occupational health  is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations Hazard  something that can cause harm if not controlled. Occupational disease  Disease directly caused by a person’s occupation.
  3. 3. Ergonomics - “Fitting the job to the worker”. Integral part of occupational health services. Greek word ‘Ergon’ means ‘Work’, ‘Nomos’ means ‘Law’ . It is the ADAPTATION, MODIFICATION, MANIPULATION of MACHINERY, WORK ENVIRONMENT, WORK & REST SCHEDULE and JOB DEMANDS to suit the CAPACITY, LIMITATIONS & EXPECTATIONS of the workers.
  4. 4. Occupational Environment  Sum of external conditions and influences prevailing at the place of work which have a bearing on the health of the working population. Three types of interactions in the work place:  Man and physical, chemical, & biological agents.  Man and machine.  Man and man.-
  5. 5. 1. Physical hazards 2. Chemical 3. Biological 4. Psychological and behavioral changes.
  6. 6. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS 1. Physical hazards Heat – Direct & indirect effect of high temperature, radiant heat, heat stagnation. Cold – General & local cold injury Light – Acute & chronic effect of bright & dim light. Radiation a. Ionizing - X-rays,gamma rays,beta particles, alpha particles b. Non-ionizing - microwaves, infrared, and ultra-violet light Noise – Auditory & non auditory effect. Vibration – hazardous in the frequency range of 10- 500Hz
  7. 7. I. Physical Hazards due to A)Heat ( Hyperthermia) 1) Heatstroke – death because of prolonged exposure to the sun or heat. 2) Heat Exhaustion-- Symptoms are headache, fatigue, muscle weakness, etc.
  8. 8. 3) Heat syncope ( fainting) Falling unconscious because of too much exposure to high temperatures Muscle spasm that result from lack of salt and water due to rigorous activities 4) Heat cramps
  9. 9. 5) Burns Burns can be caused by direct fire or electrocution Who are at risk? Agricultural workers field workers, nursery workers dairy workers fire fighters, carpenters, civil engineers, factory workers, street sweepers, athletes, bakers, cooks, soldiers, industrial engineers electricians, electrical engineers, traffic policemen, truck drivers, welders, car racers, motocross racers, oil refinery workers,
  10. 10. 8) Preventive Measures (Heat) a) Wear proper clothing, protective gadgets, use proper equipment b) Have regular medical check-ups, make sure the workers are fit for the job. c) Have careful and proper training. d) There should be a regular check-up of all equipment, e) Constantly check the temperature in the work place. F ) Proper time management.
  11. 11. B) Cold 1) Trench foot - is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions. 2) Frostbite is the medical condition where localized damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to freezing.
  12. 12. 3) Chilbains are small, itchy, painful lumps that develop on the skin. caused by poor circulation in the skin when exposed to cold. Who are at risk? Workers in places that have winter, fishermen, people working in the grocery the frozen food, road construction workers, market vendors(fish market, meat market) soldiers during the war, ice
  13. 13. 5) Preventive Measures (Cold) a) Use proper clothing and safety gear( ear cuffs, scarf, bonnets, hats, etc -should not be too tight to allow ventillation b) Temperature in the workplace must be closely monitored c) Have regular medical check-ups d) Employees should be properly trained e) Make sure shoes, socks and boots are cleaned regularly f) Always have hot beverage available g) Boots should be waterproof h) Avoid touching cold metals with bare skin i) Bring a thermometer j) Use gas or electrical heaters
  14. 14. C) Light 1) Occupational cataract Usually in people working with radiation and x-rays (radiologists) 2) Miner’s nystagmus An occupational disease that occurs among coal miners, usually those of middle age or elderly. Its physical symptoms consist of difficulty of seeing in the dark or in poor light
  15. 15. D ) Pressure 1) decompression sickness. At risk are scuba diving, marine biologists, fishermen, marine photographers 2) Explosions or blast overpressure or BOP:- Explosions due to negligence or unattended equipment that can are pressurized, incompetence, defective or destroyed
  16. 16. F) Noise: Occupational Deafness a) Occupational Deafness is a kind of sensorineural hearing loss. It is caused by prolonged exposure to noise at work which results in the damage of the nerve cells of the inner ear. Who are at risk? Farmers, civil engineers, construction workers, factory workers, mining engineers, musicians and music teachers, airline workers, police, soldiers, pilots
  17. 17. G) Radiation a) Refers to ionizing radiation ( x-rays and Gamma rays) b) Exposure to high doses cause damage to living tissue, skin burns and death c) Low exposure causes cancer and genetic damage Who are at risk? Those working in manufacturing factories , researchers/scientists, nuclear power industry, nuclear engineers, physicians and some health workers.
  18. 18. H) Mechanical Factors a) The mechanical hazards in industry centre round machinery, protruding and moving parts. Mostly accidents in industry are due to mechanical causes. b) Who are at risk? 1) agricultural workers 2) business establishments workers 3) construction workers 4) transport workers
  19. 19. I) Vibration Continuous work with such machines affects hands and arms. The blood vessels of fingers may become increasingly sensitive to spasm Who are at risk? Hammer drill operators, chain saw operators, Bulldozer drivers, loader drivers, people working with pumps, compressors and generators
  20. 20. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS VIRUSES FUNGI BACTERIA PARASITES Insects Birds Animals Blood-borne Pathogens
  21. 21. Diseases due to Biological Agents Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis C Virus Tuberculosis – particularly among Healthcare Workers Blood-borne Diseases – HIV/AIDS Anthrax Tetanus
  22. 22. 2. Chemical hazards  Acids  Bases  Heavy Metals – Lead  Solvents – Petroleum  Particulates – Asbestos, Silica and other fine dust/fibrous materials  Fumes – noxious gases/vapors  Highly- reactive Metals
  23. 23.  Gases – gas poisoning.  Inorganic dusts:  Coal dust - Anthracosis  Silica - Silicosis. Silicosis, the oldest known occupational lung disease, develops in people who have inhaled silica dust for many years. (fibrosing pneumoconiosis)  Asbestos - Asbestosis. Workers who demolish buildings that have insulation containing asbestos are at increased risk (Bronchogenic carcinoma)  Iron - Siderosis Diseases due to chemical agents
  24. 24. Organic dusts :  Cane fiber - Bagassosis.  Cotton dust – Byssinosis. It produces obstructive impairment of lung function (asthma)  grain dust – Farmer’s lung. Chemicals – Burns, dermatitis, cancer, respiratory illness Metals – lead, mercury, arsenic, chromium cause poisoning
  25. 25. Definition of Pneumoconiosis  Occupational Lung disease secondary to inhalation of inorganic dust leading to change in the lung architecture excluding chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cancer
  26. 26. Occupational Asthma  Symptoms usually begin several weeks after exposure begins.  Early in the syndrome, the patient may just notice a dry cough.  Patient may not be continuously exposed to provoking antigen.  A portable peak-flow meter and a diary is very helpful in determining if a work-place antigen is responsible
  27. 27. Prevention of Occupational asthma  Transition to safer Chemicals.  Animal Allergens in the work place should be removed.  Control of Dust from Powder Dye Handling operations.  Allergic diseases should be controlled.
  28. 28. 4. Psychosocial hazards Work-related stress – excessive working time and overwork Violence – from outside the organization Bullying – emotional and verbal abuse Sexual Harassment Exposure to unhealthy elements – tobacco, uncontrolled alcohol
  29. 29. Disorders due to Psychological Agents Psychological Hazards resulting from stress & strain: Depression Discouragement Anxiety Memory loss Dissatisfaction Frustration Irritability Discouragement
  30. 30. Definition: 4Ps.  Aims at the PROMOTION AND MAINTENANCE of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupation;  the PREVENTION of ill-health among workers caused by their working conditions;  the PROTECTION of workers in their employment from risk resulting from factors that adversely affect health;  the PLACING AND MAINTENANCE of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological ability.
  31. 31. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROTECTION OF WORKERS. 1. Nutrition. 2. Communicable disease control. 3. Environmental sanitation.  Water supply  Food  Toilet  Proper garbage & waste disposal.  General plant cleanliness.  Sufficient space.  Lighting.  Ventilation.  Protection against hazards.
  32. 32. 4. Mental health: GOALS: To promote health and happiness of workers. To detect signs of stress and strain and take necessary measures. Treatment of employees suffering from mental illnesses. Rehabilitation of those who become ill. 5. Measures for women and children. 6. Family planning services 7. Health education. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROTECTION OF WORKERS.

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