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PRESENTED BY:
MR.TUSHAR S.
KEDAR
FINAL YEAR MSC (N)
SEMINAR
ON
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND
SAFTEY
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
INTRODUCTION:
All occupational fields have their
own hazards. There are variety of
hazards to which worker may be
exposed and which may cause
various diseases.
DEFINITION
 Occupational health is the promotion
and maintenance of the highest degree
of physical, mental and social well-being
of the workers in all occupations.
(WHO 1953)
Occupational health hazards
Generally they are classified under the following
headings.
 Physical hazards
 Chemical hazards
 Biological hazards
 Psychological hazards
 Mechanical hazards
PHYSICAL HAZARDS:
HEAT AND COLD:
 Heat -The common physical hazard in
most industrial is heat.
 The direct effects of heat are burns, heat
exhaustation, and heat stroke And heat
cramps.
 Indirect effect are increased fatigue, and
accident
 Cold- chill blains, erythrocyanosis, frost bite as
a result if cutaneous vasoconstriction
 LIGHT–the workers may be exposed risk of poor
illumination or excessive brightness.
 The acute effects of poor illumination are eyestrain,
headache, eye pain, lacrymation ,congestion around
cornea and eye fatigue.
 Chronic effects include miners nystagmus
 NOISE:
 Auditory effect: temporary or permanent hearing
loss
 Non-auditory effect: nervousness, fatigue,
interference with communication by speech.
VIBRATION:
 Vibration usually affects the hands and arms.
 Exposure to vibration may also produce injuries
of the joints of the hands, elbow and shoulders.

 ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION:
 Occupational exposure to UV occurs mainly in arc
welding.
 Such radiation leads many effects in the eyes and
causing intense conjunctivitis and keratitis( welders
flash)
 Symptoms are redness of the eyes and pain here
usually disappears on the few days with permanent
effect once with or on the deeper structure of the
eye.
CHEMICAL HAZARDS:
 Chemical gents act in three ways local action
,inhalation and ingestion.
 LOCAL ACTION:
 Some chemical cause dermatitis, eczema, ulcer
and even cancer.
 Some causes dermatitis by an allergic action.
 INHALATION:
 Dust are produced in a number of industries-
mines foundry, pottery ,wood or stone working
industries.
 The most common dust disease in this country
are silicosis and anthracosis
 METAL AND THEIR COMPOUNDS:
 A large number of metals and compounds are
used throughout industry.
 The chief mode of entry of some of them is by
inhalation as dust or fumes.
 The industrial physician should be aware of toxic
effect of leads, cobalt, phosphorus, chlorine zinc
and others.
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS:
 . The occupational disease in this category are
brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, hydatidosis
tetanus ,encephalitis fungal infection .
 Person working among animal products
(e.g.hair,wool,hides) and agriculture workers are
specially exposed to biological hazards.
PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS:
 The psychosocial hazards arise from the workers
failure to adapt to a psychosocial environment,
lack of job satisfaction, poor human relationship,
emotional tension are some of the psychosocial
factors which any undetermined both physical
and mental health of the worker will be affect.
MECHANICAL HAZARDS:
 The mechanical hazards industry center round
machinery producing and moving parts and the
10 % of accident in industry are said to be due to
mechanical causes.
SAFTEY MEASURES FOR HEALTH
PROMOTION OF WORKERS
 Medical measures
 Engineering measures
 Legislatives/statutory
MEDICAL MEASURES:
PRE-PLACEMENT EXAMINATION:
 It is done at the time of employment and the
workers medical, family occupational and social
history, a through physical examination and also
biological and radiological examination ex. chest
x-ray, ECG, urine test, blood examination etc.
 The main purpose of pre-placement examination
is to place right man in right job
PERIODICAL EXAMINATION:
 Many disease of occupational origin require
months or year for their development.
 The frequency and content of periodical medical
examination will depend upon the type of
occupational examination.
 Once in a year examination is needed but in case
of occupational exposure on led, toxic radium
monthly examination.
Cont.
 Sometimes daily examination in case of chemical
exposure
 Particular care should be given towards those
who are return from medical leave to assess the
nature and degree of any disability.
MEDICAL HEALTH CARE SERVICES:
 In India the ESI ( employment state insurance)
scheme provides medical care not only for the
worker but also his family.
SUPERVISION OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT:
 The physician should pay frequent visit to the
factory in order to acquaint himself with the
various aspects of working environment
conditions which are suspected to cause
occupational diseases.
MAINTAINENCE AND ANALYSIS OF
RECORDS:
 Proper records are essential for planning
,development and efficient operation of an
occupational health service. Workers health
records must be maintained.
HEALTH EDUCATION AND
COUNCELLING:
 Ideally, health education should start before the
worker enters the factory.
 All the risk involved in the industry in which he is
employed and the measure to be taken for
personal protection should be explained to him.
ENGINEERING MEASURES:
DESIGN OF BUILDING:
 Measures for the prevention of occupational
diseases should be commencing in the blue print
stage.
 The type of floor ,walls ,ceiling ,roof ,doors and
windows, cubic space are all matter which put by
the individual architect.
 Once the building is constructed if would be
difficulties introduce alteration without much
trouble and expense.
GOOD HOUSEKEEPING:
 It covers general cleanliness, ventilation ,lighting
food arrangement and general maintenance.
 The walls, ceiling and passage should be washed
at least once in a year.
 The dust settled must be cleaned with vacuum
cleaner.
GENERAL VENTILATION:
 There should be good general ventilation in
factories as it decrease the air borne hazards to
the worker ,especially hazards from dusts and
gases.
SUBSTITUTION:
 It means replacement of a harmful material by a
harmless one, or one of lesser toxicity,
eg. Substitution of white phosphorous by
phosphorus sulphide in the match industry
PROTECTIVE DEVICES:
 Respiratory and gas mask are among the old
devices used to protect workers against air borne
contamination.
 The other protective device are earplugs ear
mask , helmets, safety shoes, aprons, gloves,
gumboots, barriers cream, screens.
LEGISLATION:
 The most important factory law in India today is:
 The factory 1948
CONCLUSION
 Occupational diseases should not be neglected
and should give proper attention at time. it is the
main role of the nurse to work as an educator and
protector in the field of occupation. early detection
and timely management can control occupational
diseases.
SUMMERRY
 Today we discussed regarding introduction,
definition occupational health hazards, safety
measures and role of nurse in occupational
health. So I hope you understood my
presentation and use this knowledge in
occupational area.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Deepak K. Sarathchandra C. Kumar B.P. A
Comprehensive Textbook on nursing
Management. Emmess medical publishers, 1st
ed. P 283-99.
 Clement I. Management of Nursing Service And
Education 1st ed. P316-19
 www.wikipdia.com
Occupational health & Hazards

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Occupational health & Hazards

  • 1.
  • 2. PRESENTED BY: MR.TUSHAR S. KEDAR FINAL YEAR MSC (N) SEMINAR ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFTEY
  • 3. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH INTRODUCTION: All occupational fields have their own hazards. There are variety of hazards to which worker may be exposed and which may cause various diseases.
  • 4. DEFINITION  Occupational health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of the workers in all occupations. (WHO 1953)
  • 5. Occupational health hazards Generally they are classified under the following headings.  Physical hazards  Chemical hazards  Biological hazards  Psychological hazards  Mechanical hazards
  • 6. PHYSICAL HAZARDS: HEAT AND COLD:  Heat -The common physical hazard in most industrial is heat.  The direct effects of heat are burns, heat exhaustation, and heat stroke And heat cramps.  Indirect effect are increased fatigue, and accident
  • 7.  Cold- chill blains, erythrocyanosis, frost bite as a result if cutaneous vasoconstriction
  • 8.  LIGHT–the workers may be exposed risk of poor illumination or excessive brightness.  The acute effects of poor illumination are eyestrain, headache, eye pain, lacrymation ,congestion around cornea and eye fatigue.  Chronic effects include miners nystagmus
  • 9.  NOISE:  Auditory effect: temporary or permanent hearing loss  Non-auditory effect: nervousness, fatigue, interference with communication by speech.
  • 10. VIBRATION:  Vibration usually affects the hands and arms.  Exposure to vibration may also produce injuries of the joints of the hands, elbow and shoulders. 
  • 11.  ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION:  Occupational exposure to UV occurs mainly in arc welding.  Such radiation leads many effects in the eyes and causing intense conjunctivitis and keratitis( welders flash)  Symptoms are redness of the eyes and pain here usually disappears on the few days with permanent effect once with or on the deeper structure of the eye.
  • 12. CHEMICAL HAZARDS:  Chemical gents act in three ways local action ,inhalation and ingestion.  LOCAL ACTION:  Some chemical cause dermatitis, eczema, ulcer and even cancer.  Some causes dermatitis by an allergic action.
  • 13.  INHALATION:  Dust are produced in a number of industries- mines foundry, pottery ,wood or stone working industries.  The most common dust disease in this country are silicosis and anthracosis
  • 14.  METAL AND THEIR COMPOUNDS:  A large number of metals and compounds are used throughout industry.  The chief mode of entry of some of them is by inhalation as dust or fumes.  The industrial physician should be aware of toxic effect of leads, cobalt, phosphorus, chlorine zinc and others.
  • 15. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS:  . The occupational disease in this category are brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, hydatidosis tetanus ,encephalitis fungal infection .  Person working among animal products (e.g.hair,wool,hides) and agriculture workers are specially exposed to biological hazards.
  • 16. PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS:  The psychosocial hazards arise from the workers failure to adapt to a psychosocial environment, lack of job satisfaction, poor human relationship, emotional tension are some of the psychosocial factors which any undetermined both physical and mental health of the worker will be affect.
  • 17. MECHANICAL HAZARDS:  The mechanical hazards industry center round machinery producing and moving parts and the 10 % of accident in industry are said to be due to mechanical causes.
  • 18. SAFTEY MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROMOTION OF WORKERS  Medical measures  Engineering measures  Legislatives/statutory
  • 19. MEDICAL MEASURES: PRE-PLACEMENT EXAMINATION:  It is done at the time of employment and the workers medical, family occupational and social history, a through physical examination and also biological and radiological examination ex. chest x-ray, ECG, urine test, blood examination etc.  The main purpose of pre-placement examination is to place right man in right job
  • 20. PERIODICAL EXAMINATION:  Many disease of occupational origin require months or year for their development.  The frequency and content of periodical medical examination will depend upon the type of occupational examination.  Once in a year examination is needed but in case of occupational exposure on led, toxic radium monthly examination.
  • 21. Cont.  Sometimes daily examination in case of chemical exposure  Particular care should be given towards those who are return from medical leave to assess the nature and degree of any disability.
  • 22. MEDICAL HEALTH CARE SERVICES:  In India the ESI ( employment state insurance) scheme provides medical care not only for the worker but also his family.
  • 23. SUPERVISION OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT:  The physician should pay frequent visit to the factory in order to acquaint himself with the various aspects of working environment conditions which are suspected to cause occupational diseases.
  • 24. MAINTAINENCE AND ANALYSIS OF RECORDS:  Proper records are essential for planning ,development and efficient operation of an occupational health service. Workers health records must be maintained.
  • 25. HEALTH EDUCATION AND COUNCELLING:  Ideally, health education should start before the worker enters the factory.  All the risk involved in the industry in which he is employed and the measure to be taken for personal protection should be explained to him.
  • 26. ENGINEERING MEASURES: DESIGN OF BUILDING:  Measures for the prevention of occupational diseases should be commencing in the blue print stage.  The type of floor ,walls ,ceiling ,roof ,doors and windows, cubic space are all matter which put by the individual architect.  Once the building is constructed if would be difficulties introduce alteration without much trouble and expense.
  • 27. GOOD HOUSEKEEPING:  It covers general cleanliness, ventilation ,lighting food arrangement and general maintenance.  The walls, ceiling and passage should be washed at least once in a year.  The dust settled must be cleaned with vacuum cleaner.
  • 28. GENERAL VENTILATION:  There should be good general ventilation in factories as it decrease the air borne hazards to the worker ,especially hazards from dusts and gases.
  • 29. SUBSTITUTION:  It means replacement of a harmful material by a harmless one, or one of lesser toxicity, eg. Substitution of white phosphorous by phosphorus sulphide in the match industry
  • 30. PROTECTIVE DEVICES:  Respiratory and gas mask are among the old devices used to protect workers against air borne contamination.  The other protective device are earplugs ear mask , helmets, safety shoes, aprons, gloves, gumboots, barriers cream, screens.
  • 31. LEGISLATION:  The most important factory law in India today is:  The factory 1948
  • 32.
  • 33. CONCLUSION  Occupational diseases should not be neglected and should give proper attention at time. it is the main role of the nurse to work as an educator and protector in the field of occupation. early detection and timely management can control occupational diseases.
  • 34. SUMMERRY  Today we discussed regarding introduction, definition occupational health hazards, safety measures and role of nurse in occupational health. So I hope you understood my presentation and use this knowledge in occupational area.
  • 35. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Deepak K. Sarathchandra C. Kumar B.P. A Comprehensive Textbook on nursing Management. Emmess medical publishers, 1st ed. P 283-99.  Clement I. Management of Nursing Service And Education 1st ed. P316-19  www.wikipdia.com