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Communicating science Intro

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2144 s17 intro

  1. 1. 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 1
  2. 2. 24/01/2017 2 The art and science of communication Cormac McGrath Director of Unit for Medical Education Cormac McGrath © Erik G Svensson
  3. 3. To communicate science § Orally present your research and adjust to different audiences § Reflect on presentation skills and ability to adjust to different audiences § Wakefield scandal (Moore, 2006) § The “Werther” effect (Niederkrotenthaler et al 2006) § Reporting on suicide § Post Truth: The Trump effect 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 3
  4. 4. 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 4
  5. 5. Milestones during the course § Introduction § Video recorded 4-5 minute presentation for general public § Literature seminar § Media facilitated 4-5 minute presentation § Infograph presentation (with poster) § Individual reflective statement (with references). § Now organize in groups. § 2 groups § Introduce yourselves, name, department, one thing you would like to share about yourself § Each person will introduce someone else to the whole class. Make sure you don’t say ehh, or mmmmmm § Make sure you know what you want to say! 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 5
  6. 6. 24/01/2017 6Cormac McGrath Do’s and dont’s In pairs Think about a lecturer/presentation you have seen in action. Present one/a few things you thought were good Present one/a few things you thought were less good What did s/he do? Create two lists– do’s and dont’s What should one do as a presenter? What should one avoid? List the three most important points in each
  7. 7. Quick summary What? Why?Who? How 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 7
  8. 8. How would you target these audiences with your project? Write down a killer opening statement for each audience: § Basic researchers § Clinicians § Patient organisations § Your grandmother Adapt your message to the audience (discuss two and two, 5 minutes) 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 8
  9. 9. §Part one §Communication, perception and limitations in understanding & learning §Part two/three §Presentation technique §To communicate a message 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 9
  10. 10. Common Communication myths § Good communication has taken place § More communication is better § Communication ability is innate § To communicate a hidden problem exacerbates the problem § The message sent is the message received § Intellectual intelligence is the same as good communication § Communication is unidirectional § Learning communication theory makes you a better communicator § Communication solves everything § Effective communication is about presenting the blunt truth 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 10
  11. 11. How do I get/compete with the audience’s thoughts? 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath You need to be more interesting than the audiences’ own thoughts. § What am I going to make for dinner? § What time do I have practice this afternoon? § I wonder what’s bothering my boyfriend/girlfriend? http://www.hemlin.pp.se/ 11
  12. 12. Attention curve (Bligh 1971) Start End20-30 min Where to introduce extra emphasis?Level of attention Lecture time 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 12
  13. 13. Attention Level of attention Effect of rest or change in activity on learning (Biggs, 2003 from Bligh 1971) Start End Lecture time Short brake Our sensory system adapts to the humming of the air-conditioner when it is consistent. We notice the changes 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 13
  14. 14. What hinders understanding? 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 14
  15. 15. Information overload §Information overload §Too much information makes understanding difficult §Cognitive load (Sweller, Merrienboer 2009) § Our working memory is limited, overloading impairs understanding § Allow time to process new terminology, new concepts and complexity § Reduce extraneous load: make it easy for your audience to get and interpret the message 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 15
  16. 16. Biological limitations of cognitive capacity • Multi modal information encodes more information/time and we remember the content better • Dual coding theory. Visual and verbal channels, where information are processed in different processes. (Paivio) • Which sense (channel) is dominant for our perceptions? ØUse both images and speech in conjunction and coherence 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 16
  17. 17. Chunking enhances memory of information § 524836107371213662 § 524 836 120 737 12 13 66 vs. § 5 2 4 8 3 6 1 2 0 7 3 7 1 2 1 3 6 6 § G.A. Miller (1956) found the optimal number of chunks to be 7 when processing information § ”The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two” 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 17
  18. 18. Esoteric jargon § Given that we have a limited ability to retain information, and then what is your stance on esoteric jargon in your subjects. § Let’s play jeopardy: § This is an unobserved exposure associated with the exposure of interest and is a potential cause of the outcome of interest. This lead to bias that distorts the magnitude of the relationship between two factors of interest. § Suggested by Thomas Kuhn, this is a scientific revolution and completely changes the way in which science looks at the world. § The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope, and the distinction between justified belief and opinion § Relating to or denoting the side of the body opposite to that on which a particular structure or condition occurs. § What is a confounder § What is a paradigm shift § Epistemology § Contralateral 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 18
  19. 19. Neurological limitations: What reaches the consciuos level? § We perceive 11 million information bits/second from our senses § Only 40 information bits reach the conscious level § The conscious experience is delayed with half a second § Perceptions reach Cortex after 10-20msek § Consciuos experience after 0.5 second § The report suggests the average American consumes 34 gigabytes of content and 100,000 words of information in a single day. (Leo Tolstoy’s “War and Peace” is only 460,000 words long.) This doesn’t mean we read 100,000 words a day — it means that 100,000 words cross our eyes and ears in a single 24-hour period. That information comes through various channels, including the television, radio, the Web, text messages and video games. • (NYT. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 2009) § Help your audience to sort out impressions to get the core of your message 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 19
  20. 20. Meaning making §Biological limitations are nessesary to consider, but not sufficient to ensure understanding and remembering §How do you facilitate meaning making? § Relate to previous experience § Relate to our needs § Who’s your audience? § Why should your audience care? 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 20
  21. 21. Interpretation We § Relate to previous knowledge § Fill in the gaps § Disregard information that is perceived as redundant We want to understand and make sense of the world! Create meaning This is an old house! Don’t flush tampons down the toilet. 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 21
  22. 22. 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 22 I cnduo't bvleiee taht I culod aulaclty uesdtannrd waht I was rdnaieg. Unisg the icndeblire pweor of the hmuan mnid, aocdcrnig to rseecrah at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mttaer in waht oderr the lterets in a wrod are, the olny irpoamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rhgit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whoutit a pboerlm. Tihs is bucseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey ltteer by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Aaznmig, huh? Yaeh and I awlyas tghhuot slelinpg was ipmorantt! See if yuor fdreins can raed tihs too.
  23. 23. How do we focus our audience’s attention? Selective Attention Awareness (Simon & Chabris, 1999) 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 23
  24. 24. Set the context for interpretation § Our expectations or model of the world determines what we see 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 24
  25. 25. The curse of knowledge § Your everyday knowledge of your topic and scientific field is acquired since many years. Eventually it becomes transparent to ourselves § What does it take for your audience to understand your message? 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 25
  26. 26. Can your listener guess the song? § Think of a well known song § Tap the melody with your finger while someone is listening § What are the chances of a correct answer from the listener? 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 26
  27. 27. What’s in your mind doesn’t automatically transfer to the audience § Elisabeth Newton had subjects tap out the melodies of a familiar song with their finger and predict what fraction of those songs will be recognized by a listener. § “Tappers” estimation was that 50% would be recognized § the result was 3% recognized songs. Tappers estimation and listeners correct guess 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 estimation outcome percentage Ref: L. Newton, “Overconfidence in the Communication of Intent: Heard and Unheard Melodies,” Ph.D. dissertation, (Stanford University, 1990) 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 27
  28. 28. Summary §What is the most important things you picked up so far? 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 28
  29. 29. 24/01/2017 29Cormac McGrath So far • Communication, perception and limitations in understanding & learning • Good communication takes place when the presenter’s intended message has been internalised by the listener • Too much information, inhibits learning and understanding • Too much one-way talking could be taxing for the audience • Esoteric Jargon complicates things
  30. 30. 24/01/2017 30Cormac McGrath24/01/2017 30Cormac McGrath Your presentation • What is the basic information you wish to convey? • What is the right amount of information? • Be specific, share with your partner! • Critique each other
  31. 31. Make sure that you are! § Clear § Conscise § Concrete § Correct (Truthful) § Coherent § Complete § Courteous 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 31
  32. 32. Resources § http://www.ted.com/talks § http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/04/ § http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ § http://www.toastmasters.org/tips.asp § http://www.hemlin.pp.se/ 24/01/2017 Cormac McGrath 32

Communicating science Intro

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