SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 36
1 | P a g e
INTRODUCTION
TO SPECIAL EDUCATION
Prepared by:
Claire Ann B. Pangilinan, LPT
Submitted to:
Dr. Aida S. Damian, Ed.D
2 | P a g e
I. Philosophy, History, Laws and Principles of Special Education
Basic Philosophy of Special Education:
“Every individual is valuable in his own right and should be afforded equal opportunities
to develop his full potential. Equal opportunities do not mean the same educational experiences
but rather different experiences based on the child’s unique needs. The right to education cannot
be denied a person if only because of his disabilities.”
Mission as a Special Educator
My mission as a special educator is to provide the best to all those having disabilities as
much as I can. Also open every door I possibly can for every incapable child in the society since
‘Education should be a lifelong adventure’ (Hastings 2003).
Laws in Special Education
1. Education for All Handicapped Children Act
Passed by Congress in 1975, this was the first special education law directed at students with
physical and mental disabilities. The law stated that public schools must provide children with
special needs with the same opportunities for education as other children. It also required any
public school that received federal funds to provide one free meal a day for these children.
The mission of this act was to:
 make special education services accessible to children who require them;
 maintain fair and appropriate services for disabled students;
 institute systematic evaluation requirements for special education; and
 endow federal resources to public schools for the education of disabled students.
2. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, was created in 1990 and is a
modification of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. This law ensures that special
needs students receive appropriate free public education in the least restrictive environment
necessary to meet those students’ needs. It helps students receive the extra assistance they need
but allows them to participate in the same activities as children without special needs whenever
possible.
3. No Child Left Behind
In 2001, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, commonly known as the No Child Left
Behind Act, called for schools to be accountable for academic performance of all students,
whether or not they had disabilities. The act requires schools in every state to develop routine
assessments of students’ academic skills. While it does not stipulate that these assessments meet
a national standard, the law does oblige each state to come up with its own criteria for
3 | P a g e
evaluation. No Child Left Behind provides incentives for schools to demonstrate progress in
students with special needs. It also allows for students to seek alternative options if schools are
not meeting their academic, social or emotional needs.
4. Individualized Education Programs
The IDEA maintains that parents and teachers of children who qualify for special education must
develop an Individualized Education Program, or IEP, that helps establish specific education for
a child’s explicit needs. This requires caregivers to meet initially to determine a child’s eligibility
for an IEP and to come together annually to develop and assess the educational plan.
The student’s educational strategy must be designated in writing and should include an
evaluation and description of the current academic status, measurable goals and objectives,
designation of an instructional setting and placement within that setting and transition services
for children aged 16 or older. An IEP gives parents the right to dispute any issues with the school
district through a neutral third party.
5. Students with Disabilities and Postsecondary School
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 forbid
discrimination in schools based on disability. This applies to colleges and universities as well as
elementary, middle and high schools. Many students with special needs go on to study at the
postsecondary level, but the laws are slightly different for postsecondary schools. The law does
not require postsecondary schools to provide a free appropriate public education to students, but
it does oblige schools to offer suitable academic adjustments and accessible housing to students
with disabilities.
Whether you’re a student with disabilities or you’re looking to teach children with disabilities,
it’s important to know special education laws. These laws preserve the rights of students and
their families and help integrate students with special needs into society without segregating
them. Although the laws differ slightly from state to state, the acts passed by Congress help to
standardize the treatment of students with special needs across the country.
4 | P a g e
History of Special Education
• In the Philippines Sped begun in 1901 where Mrs Rice an American teacher established
the School for the Deaf and the blind located in Pasay City.
• A Philanthropist and Pediatrician by the name Dr Jose Fabella established “Children’s
Village at Welfaireville Compound in 1926 at Mandaluyong which catered to children
with mental retardation, abandoned infants, unwed teenage mothers, wayward girls
juvenile delinquent boys, orphans. Children of lepers, and the aged.
• This institution was under the care of the SWA- DSWD, and that time, Dr Fabella was
the Secretary of SWA.
• While these children were undergoing rehabilitation, there were teachers who were hired
to teach.
• With the advent of the dispersal, the different institutions of the said Village, the DSWD
put up instituitons such as , Elsie Gaches, Village, for ID located at Alabang, The
Training School for Girls, also known as Marilac Hills, at Alabang, Nayon ng Kabataan
at MIA RD, National Training School for Boys in Tanay Rizal, Reception and Study
Center , located in QC. NOH, school for Crippled Children at Banawe QC. For children with
physical disabiities, these comprise the four National Special School.
• Today, the division office is now in-charge of the programs in special education by
putting up their respective division sped center. Mandated by the Department of
Education
5 | P a g e
7 Major Principles under IDEA
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
1. Informed Consent
2. Zero Reject
3. Free and Appropriate Public School
Education-FAPE
4. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
5. LRE-Least Restrictive Environment
6. Individualized Education Program
(IEP)
7. Due Process Safeguards
 Informed Consent
Before any evaluations, testing, and placement can be done, there must be parental
informed consent. Informed consent is defined as the following:
1. The parent has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which
consent is sought, in his or her native language, or other mode of communication.
2. The parent understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of the activity for
which his or her consent is sought, and the consent describes that activity and lists the
records (if any) which will be released and to whom.
3. The parent understands that the gaining of consent is voluntary and may be revoked at
any time
 Zero Reject
All students have the right to a public school education and cannot be excluded because
of a disability. Before IDEA, school officials who felt that they were not equipped to
address the special needs of particular students would not accept such students into their
schools.
 Free Appropriate Public School Education
- All students have the right to a public school education at no cost to the parents
regardless of the extent of the disability.
- “Free” is easy to understand
- But what is “Appropriate”?
 Non-Discriminatory Evaluations
The evaluation for a suspected disability for a suspected disability must be non-
discriminatory.
 IDEA and Evaluations
Under IDEA, 5 criteria must be met in order for an evaluation for a suspected disability
to be considered a non-discriminatory evaluation:
1. Multidisciplinary Team
When considering eligibility for special education, the evaluation must be done by a
multi-disciplinary team.
6 | P a g e
2. Racial and Culturally Discriminatory Issues
All testing materials and procedures used for the purposes of evaluation and placement of
children with disabilities must be selected and administered so as not to be racially or
culturally discriminatory.
3. Validity
All tests and other evaluation materials have been validated for the specific purpose for
which they are used.
Validity- Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure?
Reliability- Consistency of results
4. Administration by Trained Personnel
Tests and other evaluation materials must be administered by trained personnel in
conformance with the instructions provided by their producer.
5. More than One Criterion Must be Used
No single procedure can be used as the sole criterion for determining an appropriate
educational program for a child.
6. Native Language
Tests must be given and reports must be written in the native language:
When doing assessment, all tests must be given in the child’s native language and all
reports must be written in the parent’s native language.
 Least Restrictive Environment
Rule: All students in special education must be placed in the least restrictive
environment: Students with disabilities need to place in the environment that is most
suited for their educational needs, or as it was termed: The Least Restrictive one.
LRE- The provision in IDEA states that students with disabilities are to be educated with
their non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate.
Full Inclusion-An interpretation of the principle of the LRE advocating that “all” pupils
with disabilities are to be educated in the general education classroom. It involves the
delivery of appropriate specialized services to students with disabilities in a general
education classroom.
Continuum of Placements under Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Under IDEA, a continuum of placements, ranging from the general classroom to
homebound and hospital programs, needs to be developed by schools.
 Regular Classroom
 Resource Room
 Separate Class
 Separate School
 Residential Facility
 Home/Hospital
7 | P a g e
Resource Room
An educational placement option for students with disabilities involving specialized
instruction for a specified time period during the day to address the student’s needs.
Most of the student’s day, however, is spent in the general education classroom.
Special Education Classroom
A classroom setting under the supervision of a qualified special educator that provides
specially designed instruction to meet the needs of a student with a disability.
Also known as a self-contained classroom.
**Self-Contained refers to a type of classroom
_____ :______: _____
8:1:2 means 8 students, 1 teacher, and 2 aides
Special Schools - A general term applied to a separate educational placement for
students with disabilities outside of a general education school.
96% of students with disabilities between the ages of 6 to 21 receive their education in
a general education school building.
 Individualized Education Programs
All students in special education must have an **individualized education program (IEP)
**If a student is determined to be eligible for special education an IEP will be developed.
- All students in special education are required to have an individualized education
program designed to meet their needs.
- The IEP includes both short-term and long-term goals, along with how and where
services will be provided.
- The IEP MUST be written by a TEAM
COMPONENTS OF IEP:
1. The child’s Present levels of educational performance
2. Measurable annual goals-including benchmarks (short-term objectives)
3. An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will NOT participate with non-
disabled children
4. Related Services- Services necessary to ensure that students with disabilities benefit
from their educational experience. Related services include: Speech pathology,
psychological services, counseling, physical and occupational therapy, special
transportation, and etc.
5. The projected date of the beginning of related services, and the frequency, location,
and duration of the related services.
6. Any modifications in the administration of state or district wide testing.
7. How the child’s progress towards the annual goals will be measured and how the
parents will be regularly informed of their child’s progress
8. Beginning at age 16, a statement of needed transition services
Transition services- Services that assist the adolescent with a disability to successfully
move from school to post-school activities
8 | P a g e
 Due Process
Parents are entitled to due process: All students and their parents are afforded due
process. This means that if a conflict or disagreement ensues concerning a student’s
eligibility for special education placement or services, no changes can be made until the
issue has been settled by mediation or an impartial hearing.
- Try Mediation first
Mediation is a discussion between families and school districts over a point of
disagreement for the purposes of resolving the disagreement before a due process
hearing is held.
- IDEA does not require mediation, and mediation may not be used to deny or delay the
right to a due process hearing
- A due process hearing is an administrative hearing (similar to a mini trial) conducted
before a person charge with making an objective decision.
II. 13 Disabilities According to IDEA and the Causes
What is the difference between disability and handicap?
DISABILITY- refers to inability of an individual to do something in a certain way; an
incapacity to perform as other individuals due to impairment in sensory, physical, cognitive,
and other areas of functioning
1. reduce to the loss or reduced function of a particular body part.
2. Synonymous to impairment
HANDICAP - refers to the problems that individual with a disability encounters as he or she
attempts to function or interact in his environment This is the consequence of disability or
impact imposed on the individual by his or her disability
13 TYPES OF DISABILITIES ACCORDING TO IDEA
1. autism
2. deaf-blindness
3. deafness
4. emotional disturbance
5. hearing impairment
6. intellectual disability
7. multiple disabilities
8. orthopedic impairment
9. other health impairment
10. specific learning disability
11. speech or language impairment
12. traumatic brain injury
13. visual impairment (including blindness)
9 | P a g e
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
• Conditions in which certain areas of psychological development are delayed,
• A person affected with ASD is affected in many ways to varying degrees including:
difficulties in talking to and understanding other people , trouble with friendship
relationships and other social interactions unusual behavior and a great need for routine
and sometime unusual sensory reactions.
• A person with ASD often finds their environment a confusing place in which to function.
• Most persons with ASD have difficulties throughout their life span. Most children who
are diagnosed at an early stage improved in their social, language and other skills. In
some cases the improvement is significant.
• The amount of progress a child makes is usually dependent on cognitive ability,
dependent on language skills, access to appropriate educational programming, parent
involvement in treatment and education and the degree to which any oppositional,
aggressive or interfering behaviors can be brought under control.
1. Multiple etiologies: genetic and environmental
2. Lifelong disorder:
a) Different appearance (e.g., peer interactions change throughout life)
b) Importance of early diagnosis
c) Need for sustained support
3. Selective or greater impairment in social interaction
DEAF-BLINDNESS
It means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which
causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they
cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or
children with blindness.
DEAFNESS
It means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic
information through hearing, with or without amplification that adversely affects a child's
educational performance.
EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCES / BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS
A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of
time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:
(a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
(b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and
teachers
(c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
(d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
(e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school
problems.
10 | P a g e
CAUSES:
• BIOLOGICAL – includes physical illness, malnutrition, brain damage
• HEREDITARY FACTORS – may be acquired from family or runs in the family
• DYSFUNCTIONAL PARENTING – factors related to individual home’s life
such as emotional upset at home, coercion from parents, unhealthy or inconsistent
discipline style
HEARING IMPAIRMENT
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear. A deaf
person has little to no hearing. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. Hearing loss can be
categorized as mild, moderate, moderate-severe, severe, or profound.
1. Definition according to IDEA:
- An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a
child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”
Characteristics:
• Speech delays
• Communication difficulties
• Selective hearing
• Difficulty to produce speech sounds
• Uncomfortable in a larger group
2. Causes of Hearing Impairment
• ACCIDENT OR TRAUMA - described as the injury or damage to the central
nervous system
• PRENATAL - drug intoxication, viral diseases, congenital malformation, blood
incompatibility, maternal bleeding during the first trimester pregnancy
• PERINATAL - traumatic experience during birth lack of oxygen
• POSTNATAL - diseases after birth such as meningitis, measles, other viral
infections like mumps, chicken pox, influenza and etc.
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
It means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the
same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period,
that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
11 | P a g e
One of the most complex types of disabilities. It has three significant deviations; social, mental
and physical. There are three significant conditions present:
1. Sub-average in intellectual functioning
2. Deficit in adaptive behavior
3. These two conditions should occur during the developmental period (0-18) duration of
occurrence
CAUSES:
Medical / Psychological:
- Infection and intoxication
- Trauma or physical agent
- Nutritional problem
- Metabolic Disorder
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- Environmental Influence
- Unspecified conditions
MULTIPLE DISABILITIES
Is a concomitant [simultaneous] impairment (such as intellectual disability-blindness,
intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe
educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for
one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.
CAUSES:
• Chromosomal Abnormalities
A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or
irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
• Premature birth
Some long-term disabilities caused by premature birth include: Behavior problems, including
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also called ADHD) and anxiety. Neurological disorders,
like cerebral palsy, that affect the brain, spinal cord and nerves throughout the body.
• Poor development of the brain or spinal cord
Birth defects of the brain result in problems that can range from mild to severe. They can affect
one part or many parts of the central nervous system.
• Infections
Worldwide, infections are among the leading causes of chronic, developmental disabilities in
children, along with and sometimes interacting with genetic and nutritional causes (Institute of
Medicine, 2001).
• Genetic Disorders
A genetic disorder is a condition that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's DNA.
ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENT
12 | P a g e
This is a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease
(e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy,
amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)
OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENT
Means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to
environmental stimuli that result in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment,
that:
(a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead
poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and
(b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY
The conditions in this group affect a child’s ability to read, write, listen, speak, reason or do
math. Here are some of the issues that could fall in this group:
• Dyslexia
• Dysgraphia
• Dyscalculia
• Auditory processing disorder
• Nonverbal learning disability
Definition according to IDEA:
- A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding
or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to
listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term
includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain
dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning
problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of
intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or
economic disadvantage.
Causes of Specific learning disability (SLD)
Experts aren’t exactly sure what causes learning disabilities. Some possibilities include:
• ACQUIRED TRAUMA
Described the injury or damage to the central nervous system that may have occurred
from:
- Prenatal (Before birth)
- Perinatal (During birth)
- Postnatal (After birth)
• GENETICS/HEREDITARY INFLUENCES
Often, learning disabilities run in the family, so it’s not uncommon to find that people
with learning disabilities have parents or other relatives with similar difficulties.
13 | P a g e
• BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES
This may due to allergic reaction to certain food colorings, flavorings or additives that
contained in may food products. For example, Feingold (1975, 1976) claimed that
artificial colorings and flavorings in many of the foods children eat can cause learning
disabilities and hyperactivity.
• ENVIRONMENTAL POSSIBILITES
Particularly impoverished living conditions early in a child’s life and poor instruction,
probably contribute to the achievement deficits experienced by many children in this
special education category. Children cannot learn if they have not been properly taught.
Quality schools and excellent teachers count. Oftentimes children who have received
low-quality schooling are misdiagnosed with learning disabilities.
SPEECH OR LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT
Means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment,
or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial
functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's
educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in
impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning;
abstract thinking; judgment; problem solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities;
psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does
not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by
birth trauma.
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT INCLUDING BLINDESS
It is impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational
performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
14 | P a g e
III. IDENTIFICATION, DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT
15 | P a g e
16 | P a g e
17 | P a g e
18 | P a g e
19 | P a g e
20 | P a g e
21 | P a g e
22 | P a g e
23 | P a g e
24 | P a g e
25 | P a g e
26 | P a g e
27 | P a g e
IV. EDUCATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS AND TEACHING STRATEGIES
 AUTISM
As mentioned the autism spectrum disorder characteristics are quite varied. As a teacher we
really are only looking for slight progress and teaching to the needs of each student. You also
need to make sure that you are very flexible because it may take time and different styles before
you find the best educational consideration. About 42% of students with autism are
in separate classrooms and 29% are in general education classrooms.
Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies
Some considerations for students with autism are:
DIRECT INSTRUCTION
This should include a highly structured and direct approach that uses basic principles of behavior
psychology. a highly structured approach that focuses on teaching functional skills and
continuous assessment programs emphasizes positive reinforcement or rewarding of desired
behaviors.
VISUAL INSTRUCTIONS
Using visual instructions makes it very clear for what students are to do and they are able to see
everything right in front of them. Photographic cues are able to help the student learn and it gets
stored in their memory for easy access. When visual aids are used students can refer back to
them to reread or go over what they have forgotten, when things are spoken out loud they may
have missed it or have already forgotten
INSTRUCTION IN NATURAL SETTINGS
Learning should be taught in the same settings that children without disabilities enjoy. Natural
interaction with other students is a key because students are able to learn social skills and second
hand language.
Direct
Instruction
Visual
Instructions
Instruction in
Natural Settings
Behavioral
Management
Pivotal Response
Teaching (PRT)
Service Delivery
Models
Fidget Toys
28 | P a g e
BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT
Students with severe autism sometimes display inappropriate behaviors such as biting.
Authorities recommend that a combination of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and
positive behavioral intervention and support (PBIS) to eliminate these behaviors. FBA involves
determine the consequences (purpose of the behavior), antecedents (things that trigger the
behavior), and setting events that maintain such behaviors (contextual factors on why the
behavior occurs). PBIS involves finding ways to support positive behaviors of the student rather
then punishment for bad behaviors.
PIVOTAL RESPONSE TEACHING
Based on assumptions that some skills are critical, or pivotal, for functions in other areas.
Focusing the intervention on these pivotal skills the effects of the intervention can more easily
spread to other skill areas. Some pivotal areas are motivation, self-management, and responding
to multiple cues. PTI fosters motivation by emphasizing on natural rewards of the child's own
choosing.
SERVICE DELIVERY MODELS
General and special education teachers work together to meet the needs of the student. There is
not one route to take that is the most effective just that the idea of collaboration is key. One on
one teaching or small group work is preferred for autistic students.
FIDGET TOYS
This is a great idea because many students just need to keep moving in the classroom or may get
antsy at times. These toys allow them to become more calm without distracting other students in
the classroom.
 MULTIPLE DISABILITIES
These students may exhibit weakness in auditory processing and have speech limitations.
Physical mobility will often be an area of need. These students may have difficulty attaining
and remembering skills and or transferring these skills from one situation to another. Support
is usually needed beyond the confines of the classroom. There are often medical implications
with some of the more severe multiple disabilities which could include students with cerebral
palsy and severe autism and brain injuries. There are many educational implications for these
students.
Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies
• Multiple disabilities have interactional, rather than additive, effects, making instruction
and learning complex.
• Assessment relevant to the education/training of students with multiple disabilities is
different from the assessment for children with mild disabilities. Many children with
multiple disabilities must first learn basic skills, such as, eating, walking, communicating,
toileting, dressing and interacting socially. The overall instructional goal is to develop
skills which enable the child with multiple disabilities to be independent or semi-
29 | P a g e
independent as early as possible. These children are sometimes completely dependent
upon others for most/all of their daily needs.
• Remember that students with disabilities are people first. The school PE curriculum
should be similar whether it is taught in a segregated or inclusive class. Students with
disabilities in a segregated setting are still part of the school community; to take away
their opportunity to learn what their peers are learning is not pedagogically sound. If a
ninth-grade high-school curriculum consists of eight units, then the instructor for the
segregated or inclusive class should teach eight units. The students with disabilities
should learn the same eight units as their peers. The standards set forth by NASPE are
specific. NASPE standard 1 states that students must develop competency in a variety of
physical activities. Standards 2 and 3 address a similar concept. Students with severe
disabilities must also be taught a variety of units and cannot just learn one or two units in
a year. These students have the right to learn the same units as their peers. It is up to the
physical educator, the paraeducators, and the multidisciplinary team to make the
modifications necessary to make this possible.
• As noted earlier, students with severe and multiple disabilities learn best in a one-on-one
situation. Whether they are in a segregated or inclusive class, they require additional
support in order for them to receive individualized instruction, feedback, and
physicalassistance. For example: Maya, who has cerebral palsy, is deaf and visually
impaired and uses a walker; she will benefit from having a support person to guide her in
the locomotor skills unit. In addition, she should automatically have a partner when the
class pairs up for various activities.
 LEARNING DISABILITIES
Learning disabilities should not be equated with intellectual disabilities or psychiatric
disabilities, although learning disabilities can coexist with other conditions such as ADHD or a
psychiatric disability.
Common accommodations for students with learning disabilities include alternative print
formats, taped lectures, notetakers, alternative plans to complete assignments, course
substitutions, time extensions for assignments and exams, priority registration, and consultations
regarding study skills and strategies.
Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies
• Keep instructions as brief and uncomplicated as possible. Repeat exactly without
paraphrasing.
• Assist the student in finding effective note takers from the class Allow the student to tape
record lectures.
• Clearly define course requirements, the dates of exams, and when assignments are due.
Provide advance notice of any changes.
• Present lecture information in both an auditory and a visual format (e.g., chalkboard,
overheads, PowerPoint slides, handouts).
• Use more than one way to demonstrate or explain information.
30 | P a g e
• Have copies of the syllabus ready no less than 6 weeks prior to the beginning of the
semester so textbooks can be transcribed to tape in as timely a manner as possible
• When teaching, review previous lessons and summarize periodically.
• Allow time for clarification of directions and essential information.
• Provide study guides or review sheets for exams.
• Provide assistance with proofreading written work.
• Stress organization and ideas rather than mechanics when grading in-class writing
assignments.
• Allow the use of spell-check and grammar assistive devices when appropriate to the
course.
• When in doubt about how to assist the student, ask him or her as privately as possible
without drawing attention to the student or the disability.
 INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES
An intellectual disability, formerly referred to as “mental retardation”, is not an inherent trait
of any individual, but instead is characterized by a combination of deficits in both cognitive
functioning and adaptive behavior. The severity of the intellectual disability is determined by
the discrepancy between the individual's capabilities in learning and in and the expectations
of the social environment. It should be noted that while the term “mental retardation” is still
widely used within education and government agencies; however, many advocacy groups
feel that this label has too many negative connotations. The newer terms of intellectual
disability or developmental disability are becoming far more accepted and prevalent within
the field.
Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies
 Use concrete items and examples to explain new concepts and provide practice in
existing skill areas.
 Role model a desired behavior and clearly identify what behaviors you expect in the
classroom.
 Plan ahead with your class activities.
 Use appropriate communication methods such as Makaton signing for pre-verbal students
or those with beginning language.
 Do not overwhelm a student with multiple or complex instructions.
 Use strategies such as chunking, backward shaping and role modeling as helpful teaching
approaches.
 Be explicit about what it is you want a student to do.
 Learn about the needs and characteristics of your student, but do not automatically
assume they will behave the same way today as they did yesterday.
31 | P a g e
 Ask for their input about how they feel they learn best, and help them to be as in control
of their learning as possible.
 Put skills in context so there is a reason for learning tasks.
 Involve families and significant others in learning activities, planning and special days, as
well as in informing you about the needs of their young person.
 One such strategy is to break down learning tasks into small steps. Each learning task is
introduced, one step at a time. This avoids overwhelming the student. Once the student
has mastered one step, the next step is introduced. This is a progressive, step-wise,
learning approach. It is characteristic of many learning models. The only difference is the
number and size of the sequential steps.
 A second strategy is to modify the teaching approach. Lengthy verbal directions and
abstract lectures are ineffective teaching methods for most audiences. Most people are
kinesthetic learners. This means they learn best by performing a task "hands-on."
 Third, people with ID do best in learning environments where visual aids are used. This
might include charts, pictures, and graphs. These visual tools are also useful for helping
students to understand what behaviors are expected of them. For instance, using charts to
map students' progress is very effective.
 A fourth teaching strategy is to provide direct and immediate feedback. Individuals with
ID require immediate feedback. This enables them to make a connection between their
behavior and the teacher's response.
 Use short and simple sentences to ensure understanding.
 Repeat instructions or directions frequently.
 Ask student if further clarification is necessary.
 Keep distractions and transitions to a minimum.
 Teach specific skills whenever necessary.
 Provide an encouraging and supportive learning environment.
 Use alternative instructional strategies and alternative assessment methods.
 Explicitly teach organizational skills.
 Keep conversations as normal as possible for inclusion with peers.
 Teach the difference between literal and figurative language.
 Direct student’s attention to critical differences when teaching concepts.
 Remove distractions that may keep student from attending.
 Increase difficulty of tasks over time.
 Teach student decision-making rules for discriminating important from unimportant
details.
32 | P a g e
 Use strategies for remembering such as elaborative rehearsal and clustering information
together.
 Use strategies such as chunking, backward shaping (teach the last part of a skill first),
forward shaping.
 Use mnemonics (words, sentences, pictures, devices, or techniques for improving or
strengthening memory).
 Intermix high probability tasks (easier tasks) with lower probability tasks (more difficult
tasks).
*Social Stories can be used to teach social skills to children with such disabilities as
autism or intellectual disability. A situation, which may be difficult or confusing for the
student, is described concretely. The story highlights social cues, events, and reactions
that could occur in the situation, the actions and reactions that might be expected, and
why. Social stories can be used to increase the student’s understanding of a situation,
make student feel more comfortable, and provide appropriate responses for the
situation. We recommend that you incorporate visuals into the stories as well. These
visuals can be drawings created by the student, imported images from Google, picture
symbols / icons, or photographs.
 EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORAL DISORDER
Students who suffer from Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, or EBD, often find it very
difficult to control their behavior and focus on their work in the classroom. EBD students
also commonly lack the impulse control and the emotional balance that is necessary to handle
social interactions with other students effectively.
Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies
Here are five effective strategies you can use to help EBD work well in an inclusive classroom:
1. Keep class rules/activities simple and clear
2. Reward positive behaviors
3. Allow for mini-breaks
4. Fair treatment for all
5. Use motivational strategies
• While you will, at times, have to discipline children for improper behavior, remember
that rewarding positive behavior is ultimately far more effective in the long run. Many
students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder tend to take any discipline as a personal
attack, and because of this, they often learn very little from it.
• Try to celebrate the successes of these students more than you reprimand or punish their
mistakes. When they receive positive feedback and rewards, they start to see that there is
a positive benefit to good behavior. They will then start to see you as more of an ally than
an adversary, and this will in turn motivate them to want to behave and do well in your
classroom.
33 | P a g e
• Take time to periodically stop teaching and allow students to catch up if need be. Give
them time to finish their assignment, and allow those who have finished to stretch, get out
of their seats, and move around a bit. This will allow them to burn off any excess energy
that might have built up from sitting still for a long period of time. (And it’s good time
for you to stretch, too!)
 VISUAL IMPAIRMENT
Some of the same instruction strategies could be used with the child who has a visual
impairment. However, his learning will take place primarily through his own
actions/experiences and information he receives auditorily. He can learn many things through
group instruction with minimal support. Unlike the child with hearing impairment, this child
will need more instruction that occurs through real experience. Imaginary play may be
difficult for him, reducing the effectiveness of role play as an instructional tool. Language
instruction for this child should be paired with ongoing activities. The use of pictures and
print would be of limited value.
Using the example of a unit on farm animals, the child with visual impairments would likely
have less knowledge of animals to begin with than the child who is deaf. He would not have
seen the television programs or watched animals playing in his yard. He might have a pet and
perhaps has some knowledge about caring for an animal. This unit may be most meaningful
for him if the visit to the farm was scheduled before beginning classroom instruction.
Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies
 Adjust teaching methods to accommodate your visual learner’s needs by writing all
homework assignments, class instructions and procedural changes on the board.
 Arrange desks in a circular pattern if possible so hearing impaired students can see other
students. This is especially important if they need to read lips.
 Provide students with an outline of the daily lesson and printed copies of the notes,
allowing them to focus on discussions and questions while you are teaching. Students can
then be more engaged in learning and can easily review the notes at a later time. Since
vision becomes a hearing impaired student’s primary means for receiving information,
utilize visual aids whenever you can. Consider using posters, charts, flash cards, pictures,
manipulatives, graphic organizers, artifacts or any visual items to illustrate concepts.
Communication Considerations
• Look directly at the student and face him or her when communicating or teaching.
• Say the student’s name or signal their attention in some way before speaking.
• Assign the student a desk near the front of the classroom, or where you plan to deliver
most of your lectures.
• Speak naturally and clearly. Remember speaking louder won’t help.
• Do not exaggerate your lip movements, but slowing down a little may help some
students.
34 | P a g e
• Use facial expressions, gestures and body language to help convey your message, but
don’t overdo it.
• Some communication may be difficult for the hard of hearing student to understand.
Explicitly teach idioms and explain jokes and sarcasm.
• Young hearing impaired children often lag in the development of social graces. Consider
teaching specific social skills such as joining in to games or conversation, maintaining
conversations, and staying on topic.
• Male teachers should keep moustaches well groomed.
• Be sure that the student wears his or her amplification device and you are wearing your
microphone.
• Keep in mind that few people are totally Most have some sort of residual hearing, and we
want to utilize it fully.
• Make sure your student has preferential seating with a direct view of your face and
mouth.
• Don’t yell at your student. Speak in a normal tone. Remember the microphone you have
on?
• If your student has an interpreter, then give him or her a copy of the lesson in advance.
• Remember that there is no need to talk to the interpreter.
• Don’t speak while writing on the board.
• Use lots of pictures and graphic organizers. These kids are visual learners.
• Repetition is key, as is the use of hands-on activities.
• Every lesson is a language lesson. Hearing-impaired kids often lack necessary language
skills, so every word counts.
 ADHD/ADD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects children and teens and can continue into
adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children. Children with
ADHD may be hyperactive and unable control their impulses. Or they may have trouble paying
attention.
ADHD students tend not to learn well from traditional lectures, so teachers should modify their
instructional styles and curriculums as necessary. Experiential and interactive strategies are great
for students with limited attention spans and impulsivity. Staying flexible, positive and being
open to alternative teaching approaches are also important when teaching students with Attention
Deficit Disorder.
A person with ADHD is generally very intelligent and will learn new information quickly as
long as they find it interesting. They do very well in situations in which they have to come up
with creative solutions to meaningful problems, especially if the problem solving involves
hands-on work. If you can capture their attention they have incredible stamina. If you notice they
35 | P a g e
are engaged in a small project, it could be worthwhile to turn it into a longer project for them.
Working on it could be a reward for positive behavior throughout the year, and they will have
completed a long-term project which is something they have more than likely decided they could
never do.
Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies
• Encourage a student with ADHD to choose library or classroom books that reflect his or
her personal interests. Children will often respond well to reading about topics that they
enjoy and will be more willing to work with a teacher on developing literacy skills if they
are interested in the reading material.
• Explain ahead of time what skills and knowledge you expect the child to learn from the
reading assignment. It is often helpful to make a list of “learning objectives" for a
particular lesson and review those with the student prior to beginning a lesson. These
objectives can include definitions of vocabulary words, the meaning of the story, etc.
• Communicate verbally with the student in regard to a book's characters and plot. Ask
questions about what is happening throughout the course of the story, why the characters
are behaving or acting a certain way, how the student thinks the characters are feeling,
and whether or not the student recognizes the main themes of the book.
• Take a brief break after each chapter or section and request that the student summarize
what has just been read.
• Assign a classroom partner to take turns with an ADHD student in reading a story. When
working in small groups, students are motivated by their peers and can more effectively
stay on task. These are often called “peer tutors" and the teacher can have these pairs quiz
each other about story content and meaning.
• Allow a student with ADHD to underline or highlight the most relevant portions of a
written assignment or story. Use color-coding for highlighting. For example, have the
child highlight all of the vocabulary words in yellow, information about the setting in
green, and character descriptions in blue.
• Separate longer reading assignments into smaller sections, and offer the student breaks in
between. Children diagnosed with ADHD respond well to positive reinforcement, so
offer praise freely when he or she reads a passage correctly.
• Computer programs can provide wonderful opportunities for students to drill with
particular skills, such as phonics or grammar.
• reducing the length of homework assignments;
• allowing the child extra time on tests;
• simplifying instructions about assignments;
• providing specific assistance with planning and organizational skills;
• or using behavioral management techniques in the classroom;
• use of tape recorders
• computer-aided instructions
36 | P a g e
These exercises and adaptations are useful for children with ADHD who struggle to complete
written assignments and who have difficulty in mastering writing skills:
• Always allow the student the opportunity to sit near the teacher or at the front of the
class.
• When possible, have the student read the instructions out loud to the class or to the
teacher.
• Modify classroom assignments and homework assignments for ADHD students so that
less writing is required. For instance, if most students are asked to write 12 spelling
words and five sentences, a child with ADHD can be asked to write eight spelling words
and three sentences.
• Extend completion deadlines when giving an ADHD student written assignments. Offer
extra time in the classroom for finishing written work and give the student an extra day or
two to turn in a written homework assignment.
• When possible, assign short creative writing assignments that allow a child with ADHD
to express his or her interests through words.
• If available, give the student the option of using a word processing device for writing
exercises. This lessens the motor control demands if a child has difficulty with writing,
and allows the student to focus more on the content and writing techniques.
• Have the student keep a current list of frequently misspelled words available at all times
to use as a reference.
• Use movement activities when teaching spelling, especially with words that are
particularly challenging. For example, take the students outdoors and write the words on
the pavement in sidewalk chalk. Have the students “hop" from letter to letter while
spelling the word out loud.
• Provide manipulatives such as letter tiles so that the student can use them to spell out
challenging vocabulary words.
• Give students the opportunity to proofread their own work. Have them identify and
correct their own mistakes. At first, it can be helpful if you tell the child what the mistake
is related to, for example a capitalization or punctuation error. It is also beneficial to
inform the student on which line the error occurs.
• Use visual cues, such as gestures, to remind the student to stay on task. This can be as
simple as touching the child on the shoulder, or tapping the student’s desk when you
notice off task behavior. Be sure to explain the meaning of these cues to the student prior
to using them.

More Related Content

What's hot

Inclusion and supporting learners with SEN
Inclusion and supporting learners with SENInclusion and supporting learners with SEN
Inclusion and supporting learners with SENdringl01
 
Middle Childhood (Pt 1)
Middle Childhood (Pt 1)Middle Childhood (Pt 1)
Middle Childhood (Pt 1)Alex Holub
 
Defintion of special need children
Defintion of special need childrenDefintion of special need children
Defintion of special need childrenNusrat Zerin
 
Article Review
Article ReviewArticle Review
Article ReviewBritnierae
 
Global developmental delay & Intellectual disability
Global developmental delay & Intellectual disabilityGlobal developmental delay & Intellectual disability
Global developmental delay & Intellectual disabilityDrDilip86
 
Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]
Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]
Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]libra1984
 
Introduction to early childhood education.
Introduction to early childhood education.Introduction to early childhood education.
Introduction to early childhood education.Self-employment
 
Child development, chapter 11, paduano
Child development, chapter 11, paduanoChild development, chapter 11, paduano
Child development, chapter 11, paduanoCaprice Paduano
 
Handicapped children and medical problems
Handicapped children and medical problemsHandicapped children and medical problems
Handicapped children and medical problemssaad alani
 
Lifespan Chapter 7 Online Stud
Lifespan Chapter 7 Online StudLifespan Chapter 7 Online Stud
Lifespan Chapter 7 Online StudMossler
 
9 10 middle late childhood
9 10 middle late childhood9 10 middle late childhood
9 10 middle late childhoodjessicayanes
 
Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...
Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...
Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...Dr Lendy Spires
 
Learning Disabilities and Your Child
Learning Disabilities and Your ChildLearning Disabilities and Your Child
Learning Disabilities and Your ChildGrand River Academy
 
Series i developmentaldelay_eng
Series i developmentaldelay_engSeries i developmentaldelay_eng
Series i developmentaldelay_engHellen Kyakuwaire
 
Developmental Assessment in Infancy
Developmental Assessment in InfancyDevelopmental Assessment in Infancy
Developmental Assessment in InfancyFatima Farid
 
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)Breona Smith
 
Global Developmental Delay (GDD)
Global Developmental Delay (GDD)Global Developmental Delay (GDD)
Global Developmental Delay (GDD)OmarAbdelhadi3
 

What's hot (20)

Inclusion and supporting learners with SEN
Inclusion and supporting learners with SENInclusion and supporting learners with SEN
Inclusion and supporting learners with SEN
 
Middle Childhood (Pt 1)
Middle Childhood (Pt 1)Middle Childhood (Pt 1)
Middle Childhood (Pt 1)
 
Defintion of special need children
Defintion of special need childrenDefintion of special need children
Defintion of special need children
 
Article Review
Article ReviewArticle Review
Article Review
 
Global developmental delay & Intellectual disability
Global developmental delay & Intellectual disabilityGlobal developmental delay & Intellectual disability
Global developmental delay & Intellectual disability
 
Special needs
Special needsSpecial needs
Special needs
 
Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]
Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]
Sc506 middleandlatechildhoodpp[1]
 
Introduction to early childhood education.
Introduction to early childhood education.Introduction to early childhood education.
Introduction to early childhood education.
 
Ch9
Ch9Ch9
Ch9
 
Child development, chapter 11, paduano
Child development, chapter 11, paduanoChild development, chapter 11, paduano
Child development, chapter 11, paduano
 
Handicapped children and medical problems
Handicapped children and medical problemsHandicapped children and medical problems
Handicapped children and medical problems
 
Lifespan Chapter 7 Online Stud
Lifespan Chapter 7 Online StudLifespan Chapter 7 Online Stud
Lifespan Chapter 7 Online Stud
 
9 10 middle late childhood
9 10 middle late childhood9 10 middle late childhood
9 10 middle late childhood
 
Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...
Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...
Development milestones and the early years learning framework and the nationa...
 
Learning Disabilities and Your Child
Learning Disabilities and Your ChildLearning Disabilities and Your Child
Learning Disabilities and Your Child
 
Series i developmentaldelay_eng
Series i developmentaldelay_engSeries i developmentaldelay_eng
Series i developmentaldelay_eng
 
Developmental Assessment in Infancy
Developmental Assessment in InfancyDevelopmental Assessment in Infancy
Developmental Assessment in Infancy
 
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Chat)
 
HANDICAPPED CHILDREN
HANDICAPPED CHILDRENHANDICAPPED CHILDREN
HANDICAPPED CHILDREN
 
Global Developmental Delay (GDD)
Global Developmental Delay (GDD)Global Developmental Delay (GDD)
Global Developmental Delay (GDD)
 

Similar to Compilation in Introduction to Special Education

Understand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docx
Understand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docxUnderstand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docx
Understand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docxmarilucorr
 
SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1
SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1 SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1
SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1 Kaitlin Smoot
 
SPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) Presentation
SPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) PresentationSPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) Presentation
SPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) PresentationKaitlin Smoot
 
School Law Research Presentation
School Law Research PresentationSchool Law Research Presentation
School Law Research PresentationPamela Mabry
 
Least restrictive environmen1
Least restrictive environmen1Least restrictive environmen1
Least restrictive environmen1khadijahtgo
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for Everybody
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for EverybodyINCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for Everybody
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for EverybodySydelleABucayaniMaba
 
Essay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papers
Essay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papersEssay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papers
Essay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papersBid4Papers
 
Presentaition Learner Rights and Teacher Responsibilities
Presentaition Learner Rights and Teacher ResponsibilitiesPresentaition Learner Rights and Teacher Responsibilities
Presentaition Learner Rights and Teacher ResponsibilitiesRoselleKiaraBay
 
Special education least restrictive environmen
Special education least restrictive environmenSpecial education least restrictive environmen
Special education least restrictive environmenWilliam Kritsonis
 
Sped 413 chapter one
Sped 413   chapter oneSped 413   chapter one
Sped 413 chapter onemeganbettin
 
Special Education Least Restrictive Environmen
Special Education Least Restrictive EnvironmenSpecial Education Least Restrictive Environmen
Special Education Least Restrictive EnvironmenWilliam Kritsonis
 
Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...
Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...
Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...William Kritsonis
 
Modifications and accomodations why should we
Modifications and accomodations why should weModifications and accomodations why should we
Modifications and accomodations why should weLisa Stack
 
Special Education in the US: A History & Systems of Support
Special Education in the US: A History & Systems of SupportSpecial Education in the US: A History & Systems of Support
Special Education in the US: A History & Systems of SupportFHI 360
 
Inclusive education & School
Inclusive education & SchoolInclusive education & School
Inclusive education & SchoolAbu Bashar
 
Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...
Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...
Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...William Kritsonis
 

Similar to Compilation in Introduction to Special Education (20)

Understand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docx
Understand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docxUnderstand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docx
Understand the history of IDEA and the reasons f.docx
 
SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1
SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1 SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1
SPE/513 IDEA Workshop 1
 
Sped in usa ppt gpb
Sped in usa  ppt gpbSped in usa  ppt gpb
Sped in usa ppt gpb
 
SPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) Presentation
SPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) PresentationSPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) Presentation
SPE/513 Learning Team C IDEA (2004) Presentation
 
School Law Research Presentation
School Law Research PresentationSchool Law Research Presentation
School Law Research Presentation
 
Least restrictive environmen1
Least restrictive environmen1Least restrictive environmen1
Least restrictive environmen1
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for Everybody
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for EverybodyINCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for Everybody
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION- Teaching for Everybody
 
Essay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papers
Essay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papersEssay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papers
Essay on imperfect implamantation and students right to a fape bid4papers
 
Presentaition Learner Rights and Teacher Responsibilities
Presentaition Learner Rights and Teacher ResponsibilitiesPresentaition Learner Rights and Teacher Responsibilities
Presentaition Learner Rights and Teacher Responsibilities
 
Special education least restrictive environmen
Special education least restrictive environmenSpecial education least restrictive environmen
Special education least restrictive environmen
 
Sped 413 chapter one
Sped 413   chapter oneSped 413   chapter one
Sped 413 chapter one
 
Special Education Least Restrictive Environmen
Special Education Least Restrictive EnvironmenSpecial Education Least Restrictive Environmen
Special Education Least Restrictive Environmen
 
Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...
Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...
Special Education - Least Restrictive Environment - Dr. William Allan Kritson...
 
Modifications and accomodations why should we
Modifications and accomodations why should weModifications and accomodations why should we
Modifications and accomodations why should we
 
Idea
IdeaIdea
Idea
 
Idea
IdeaIdea
Idea
 
Special Education in the US: A History & Systems of Support
Special Education in the US: A History & Systems of SupportSpecial Education in the US: A History & Systems of Support
Special Education in the US: A History & Systems of Support
 
Inclusive education & School
Inclusive education & SchoolInclusive education & School
Inclusive education & School
 
Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...
Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...
Chp[1]. 3 special_education - Social environment - Lectures Notes William All...
 
Chp[1]. 3 special_education
Chp[1]. 3 special_educationChp[1]. 3 special_education
Chp[1]. 3 special_education
 

Recently uploaded

Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4JOYLYNSAMANIEGO
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptxmary850239
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsPooky Knightsmith
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxMichelleTuguinay1
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalssuser3e220a
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleCeline George
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17Celine George
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Seán Kennedy
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxDhatriParmar
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operational
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 

Compilation in Introduction to Special Education

  • 1. 1 | P a g e INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL EDUCATION Prepared by: Claire Ann B. Pangilinan, LPT Submitted to: Dr. Aida S. Damian, Ed.D
  • 2. 2 | P a g e I. Philosophy, History, Laws and Principles of Special Education Basic Philosophy of Special Education: “Every individual is valuable in his own right and should be afforded equal opportunities to develop his full potential. Equal opportunities do not mean the same educational experiences but rather different experiences based on the child’s unique needs. The right to education cannot be denied a person if only because of his disabilities.” Mission as a Special Educator My mission as a special educator is to provide the best to all those having disabilities as much as I can. Also open every door I possibly can for every incapable child in the society since ‘Education should be a lifelong adventure’ (Hastings 2003). Laws in Special Education 1. Education for All Handicapped Children Act Passed by Congress in 1975, this was the first special education law directed at students with physical and mental disabilities. The law stated that public schools must provide children with special needs with the same opportunities for education as other children. It also required any public school that received federal funds to provide one free meal a day for these children. The mission of this act was to:  make special education services accessible to children who require them;  maintain fair and appropriate services for disabled students;  institute systematic evaluation requirements for special education; and  endow federal resources to public schools for the education of disabled students. 2. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, was created in 1990 and is a modification of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. This law ensures that special needs students receive appropriate free public education in the least restrictive environment necessary to meet those students’ needs. It helps students receive the extra assistance they need but allows them to participate in the same activities as children without special needs whenever possible. 3. No Child Left Behind In 2001, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, commonly known as the No Child Left Behind Act, called for schools to be accountable for academic performance of all students, whether or not they had disabilities. The act requires schools in every state to develop routine assessments of students’ academic skills. While it does not stipulate that these assessments meet a national standard, the law does oblige each state to come up with its own criteria for
  • 3. 3 | P a g e evaluation. No Child Left Behind provides incentives for schools to demonstrate progress in students with special needs. It also allows for students to seek alternative options if schools are not meeting their academic, social or emotional needs. 4. Individualized Education Programs The IDEA maintains that parents and teachers of children who qualify for special education must develop an Individualized Education Program, or IEP, that helps establish specific education for a child’s explicit needs. This requires caregivers to meet initially to determine a child’s eligibility for an IEP and to come together annually to develop and assess the educational plan. The student’s educational strategy must be designated in writing and should include an evaluation and description of the current academic status, measurable goals and objectives, designation of an instructional setting and placement within that setting and transition services for children aged 16 or older. An IEP gives parents the right to dispute any issues with the school district through a neutral third party. 5. Students with Disabilities and Postsecondary School The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 forbid discrimination in schools based on disability. This applies to colleges and universities as well as elementary, middle and high schools. Many students with special needs go on to study at the postsecondary level, but the laws are slightly different for postsecondary schools. The law does not require postsecondary schools to provide a free appropriate public education to students, but it does oblige schools to offer suitable academic adjustments and accessible housing to students with disabilities. Whether you’re a student with disabilities or you’re looking to teach children with disabilities, it’s important to know special education laws. These laws preserve the rights of students and their families and help integrate students with special needs into society without segregating them. Although the laws differ slightly from state to state, the acts passed by Congress help to standardize the treatment of students with special needs across the country.
  • 4. 4 | P a g e History of Special Education • In the Philippines Sped begun in 1901 where Mrs Rice an American teacher established the School for the Deaf and the blind located in Pasay City. • A Philanthropist and Pediatrician by the name Dr Jose Fabella established “Children’s Village at Welfaireville Compound in 1926 at Mandaluyong which catered to children with mental retardation, abandoned infants, unwed teenage mothers, wayward girls juvenile delinquent boys, orphans. Children of lepers, and the aged. • This institution was under the care of the SWA- DSWD, and that time, Dr Fabella was the Secretary of SWA. • While these children were undergoing rehabilitation, there were teachers who were hired to teach. • With the advent of the dispersal, the different institutions of the said Village, the DSWD put up instituitons such as , Elsie Gaches, Village, for ID located at Alabang, The Training School for Girls, also known as Marilac Hills, at Alabang, Nayon ng Kabataan at MIA RD, National Training School for Boys in Tanay Rizal, Reception and Study Center , located in QC. NOH, school for Crippled Children at Banawe QC. For children with physical disabiities, these comprise the four National Special School. • Today, the division office is now in-charge of the programs in special education by putting up their respective division sped center. Mandated by the Department of Education
  • 5. 5 | P a g e 7 Major Principles under IDEA NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS 1. Informed Consent 2. Zero Reject 3. Free and Appropriate Public School Education-FAPE 4. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation 5. LRE-Least Restrictive Environment 6. Individualized Education Program (IEP) 7. Due Process Safeguards  Informed Consent Before any evaluations, testing, and placement can be done, there must be parental informed consent. Informed consent is defined as the following: 1. The parent has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought, in his or her native language, or other mode of communication. 2. The parent understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of the activity for which his or her consent is sought, and the consent describes that activity and lists the records (if any) which will be released and to whom. 3. The parent understands that the gaining of consent is voluntary and may be revoked at any time  Zero Reject All students have the right to a public school education and cannot be excluded because of a disability. Before IDEA, school officials who felt that they were not equipped to address the special needs of particular students would not accept such students into their schools.  Free Appropriate Public School Education - All students have the right to a public school education at no cost to the parents regardless of the extent of the disability. - “Free” is easy to understand - But what is “Appropriate”?  Non-Discriminatory Evaluations The evaluation for a suspected disability for a suspected disability must be non- discriminatory.  IDEA and Evaluations Under IDEA, 5 criteria must be met in order for an evaluation for a suspected disability to be considered a non-discriminatory evaluation: 1. Multidisciplinary Team When considering eligibility for special education, the evaluation must be done by a multi-disciplinary team.
  • 6. 6 | P a g e 2. Racial and Culturally Discriminatory Issues All testing materials and procedures used for the purposes of evaluation and placement of children with disabilities must be selected and administered so as not to be racially or culturally discriminatory. 3. Validity All tests and other evaluation materials have been validated for the specific purpose for which they are used. Validity- Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure? Reliability- Consistency of results 4. Administration by Trained Personnel Tests and other evaluation materials must be administered by trained personnel in conformance with the instructions provided by their producer. 5. More than One Criterion Must be Used No single procedure can be used as the sole criterion for determining an appropriate educational program for a child. 6. Native Language Tests must be given and reports must be written in the native language: When doing assessment, all tests must be given in the child’s native language and all reports must be written in the parent’s native language.  Least Restrictive Environment Rule: All students in special education must be placed in the least restrictive environment: Students with disabilities need to place in the environment that is most suited for their educational needs, or as it was termed: The Least Restrictive one. LRE- The provision in IDEA states that students with disabilities are to be educated with their non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. Full Inclusion-An interpretation of the principle of the LRE advocating that “all” pupils with disabilities are to be educated in the general education classroom. It involves the delivery of appropriate specialized services to students with disabilities in a general education classroom. Continuum of Placements under Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Under IDEA, a continuum of placements, ranging from the general classroom to homebound and hospital programs, needs to be developed by schools.  Regular Classroom  Resource Room  Separate Class  Separate School  Residential Facility  Home/Hospital
  • 7. 7 | P a g e Resource Room An educational placement option for students with disabilities involving specialized instruction for a specified time period during the day to address the student’s needs. Most of the student’s day, however, is spent in the general education classroom. Special Education Classroom A classroom setting under the supervision of a qualified special educator that provides specially designed instruction to meet the needs of a student with a disability. Also known as a self-contained classroom. **Self-Contained refers to a type of classroom _____ :______: _____ 8:1:2 means 8 students, 1 teacher, and 2 aides Special Schools - A general term applied to a separate educational placement for students with disabilities outside of a general education school. 96% of students with disabilities between the ages of 6 to 21 receive their education in a general education school building.  Individualized Education Programs All students in special education must have an **individualized education program (IEP) **If a student is determined to be eligible for special education an IEP will be developed. - All students in special education are required to have an individualized education program designed to meet their needs. - The IEP includes both short-term and long-term goals, along with how and where services will be provided. - The IEP MUST be written by a TEAM COMPONENTS OF IEP: 1. The child’s Present levels of educational performance 2. Measurable annual goals-including benchmarks (short-term objectives) 3. An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will NOT participate with non- disabled children 4. Related Services- Services necessary to ensure that students with disabilities benefit from their educational experience. Related services include: Speech pathology, psychological services, counseling, physical and occupational therapy, special transportation, and etc. 5. The projected date of the beginning of related services, and the frequency, location, and duration of the related services. 6. Any modifications in the administration of state or district wide testing. 7. How the child’s progress towards the annual goals will be measured and how the parents will be regularly informed of their child’s progress 8. Beginning at age 16, a statement of needed transition services Transition services- Services that assist the adolescent with a disability to successfully move from school to post-school activities
  • 8. 8 | P a g e  Due Process Parents are entitled to due process: All students and their parents are afforded due process. This means that if a conflict or disagreement ensues concerning a student’s eligibility for special education placement or services, no changes can be made until the issue has been settled by mediation or an impartial hearing. - Try Mediation first Mediation is a discussion between families and school districts over a point of disagreement for the purposes of resolving the disagreement before a due process hearing is held. - IDEA does not require mediation, and mediation may not be used to deny or delay the right to a due process hearing - A due process hearing is an administrative hearing (similar to a mini trial) conducted before a person charge with making an objective decision. II. 13 Disabilities According to IDEA and the Causes What is the difference between disability and handicap? DISABILITY- refers to inability of an individual to do something in a certain way; an incapacity to perform as other individuals due to impairment in sensory, physical, cognitive, and other areas of functioning 1. reduce to the loss or reduced function of a particular body part. 2. Synonymous to impairment HANDICAP - refers to the problems that individual with a disability encounters as he or she attempts to function or interact in his environment This is the consequence of disability or impact imposed on the individual by his or her disability 13 TYPES OF DISABILITIES ACCORDING TO IDEA 1. autism 2. deaf-blindness 3. deafness 4. emotional disturbance 5. hearing impairment 6. intellectual disability 7. multiple disabilities 8. orthopedic impairment 9. other health impairment 10. specific learning disability 11. speech or language impairment 12. traumatic brain injury 13. visual impairment (including blindness)
  • 9. 9 | P a g e AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER • Conditions in which certain areas of psychological development are delayed, • A person affected with ASD is affected in many ways to varying degrees including: difficulties in talking to and understanding other people , trouble with friendship relationships and other social interactions unusual behavior and a great need for routine and sometime unusual sensory reactions. • A person with ASD often finds their environment a confusing place in which to function. • Most persons with ASD have difficulties throughout their life span. Most children who are diagnosed at an early stage improved in their social, language and other skills. In some cases the improvement is significant. • The amount of progress a child makes is usually dependent on cognitive ability, dependent on language skills, access to appropriate educational programming, parent involvement in treatment and education and the degree to which any oppositional, aggressive or interfering behaviors can be brought under control. 1. Multiple etiologies: genetic and environmental 2. Lifelong disorder: a) Different appearance (e.g., peer interactions change throughout life) b) Importance of early diagnosis c) Need for sustained support 3. Selective or greater impairment in social interaction DEAF-BLINDNESS It means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. DEAFNESS It means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification that adversely affects a child's educational performance. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCES / BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
  • 10. 10 | P a g e CAUSES: • BIOLOGICAL – includes physical illness, malnutrition, brain damage • HEREDITARY FACTORS – may be acquired from family or runs in the family • DYSFUNCTIONAL PARENTING – factors related to individual home’s life such as emotional upset at home, coercion from parents, unhealthy or inconsistent discipline style HEARING IMPAIRMENT Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear. A deaf person has little to no hearing. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. Hearing loss can be categorized as mild, moderate, moderate-severe, severe, or profound. 1. Definition according to IDEA: - An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.” Characteristics: • Speech delays • Communication difficulties • Selective hearing • Difficulty to produce speech sounds • Uncomfortable in a larger group 2. Causes of Hearing Impairment • ACCIDENT OR TRAUMA - described as the injury or damage to the central nervous system • PRENATAL - drug intoxication, viral diseases, congenital malformation, blood incompatibility, maternal bleeding during the first trimester pregnancy • PERINATAL - traumatic experience during birth lack of oxygen • POSTNATAL - diseases after birth such as meningitis, measles, other viral infections like mumps, chicken pox, influenza and etc. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY It means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
  • 11. 11 | P a g e One of the most complex types of disabilities. It has three significant deviations; social, mental and physical. There are three significant conditions present: 1. Sub-average in intellectual functioning 2. Deficit in adaptive behavior 3. These two conditions should occur during the developmental period (0-18) duration of occurrence CAUSES: Medical / Psychological: - Infection and intoxication - Trauma or physical agent - Nutritional problem - Metabolic Disorder - Chromosomal abnormalities - Environmental Influence - Unspecified conditions MULTIPLE DISABILITIES Is a concomitant [simultaneous] impairment (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness. CAUSES: • Chromosomal Abnormalities A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA. • Premature birth Some long-term disabilities caused by premature birth include: Behavior problems, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also called ADHD) and anxiety. Neurological disorders, like cerebral palsy, that affect the brain, spinal cord and nerves throughout the body. • Poor development of the brain or spinal cord Birth defects of the brain result in problems that can range from mild to severe. They can affect one part or many parts of the central nervous system. • Infections Worldwide, infections are among the leading causes of chronic, developmental disabilities in children, along with and sometimes interacting with genetic and nutritional causes (Institute of Medicine, 2001). • Genetic Disorders A genetic disorder is a condition that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's DNA. ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENT
  • 12. 12 | P a g e This is a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures) OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENT Means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that result in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that: (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance. SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY The conditions in this group affect a child’s ability to read, write, listen, speak, reason or do math. Here are some of the issues that could fall in this group: • Dyslexia • Dysgraphia • Dyscalculia • Auditory processing disorder • Nonverbal learning disability Definition according to IDEA: - A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Causes of Specific learning disability (SLD) Experts aren’t exactly sure what causes learning disabilities. Some possibilities include: • ACQUIRED TRAUMA Described the injury or damage to the central nervous system that may have occurred from: - Prenatal (Before birth) - Perinatal (During birth) - Postnatal (After birth) • GENETICS/HEREDITARY INFLUENCES Often, learning disabilities run in the family, so it’s not uncommon to find that people with learning disabilities have parents or other relatives with similar difficulties.
  • 13. 13 | P a g e • BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES This may due to allergic reaction to certain food colorings, flavorings or additives that contained in may food products. For example, Feingold (1975, 1976) claimed that artificial colorings and flavorings in many of the foods children eat can cause learning disabilities and hyperactivity. • ENVIRONMENTAL POSSIBILITES Particularly impoverished living conditions early in a child’s life and poor instruction, probably contribute to the achievement deficits experienced by many children in this special education category. Children cannot learn if they have not been properly taught. Quality schools and excellent teachers count. Oftentimes children who have received low-quality schooling are misdiagnosed with learning disabilities. SPEECH OR LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT Means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. VISUAL IMPAIRMENT INCLUDING BLINDESS It is impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
  • 14. 14 | P a g e III. IDENTIFICATION, DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT
  • 15. 15 | P a g e
  • 16. 16 | P a g e
  • 17. 17 | P a g e
  • 18. 18 | P a g e
  • 19. 19 | P a g e
  • 20. 20 | P a g e
  • 21. 21 | P a g e
  • 22. 22 | P a g e
  • 23. 23 | P a g e
  • 24. 24 | P a g e
  • 25. 25 | P a g e
  • 26. 26 | P a g e
  • 27. 27 | P a g e IV. EDUCATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS AND TEACHING STRATEGIES  AUTISM As mentioned the autism spectrum disorder characteristics are quite varied. As a teacher we really are only looking for slight progress and teaching to the needs of each student. You also need to make sure that you are very flexible because it may take time and different styles before you find the best educational consideration. About 42% of students with autism are in separate classrooms and 29% are in general education classrooms. Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies Some considerations for students with autism are: DIRECT INSTRUCTION This should include a highly structured and direct approach that uses basic principles of behavior psychology. a highly structured approach that focuses on teaching functional skills and continuous assessment programs emphasizes positive reinforcement or rewarding of desired behaviors. VISUAL INSTRUCTIONS Using visual instructions makes it very clear for what students are to do and they are able to see everything right in front of them. Photographic cues are able to help the student learn and it gets stored in their memory for easy access. When visual aids are used students can refer back to them to reread or go over what they have forgotten, when things are spoken out loud they may have missed it or have already forgotten INSTRUCTION IN NATURAL SETTINGS Learning should be taught in the same settings that children without disabilities enjoy. Natural interaction with other students is a key because students are able to learn social skills and second hand language. Direct Instruction Visual Instructions Instruction in Natural Settings Behavioral Management Pivotal Response Teaching (PRT) Service Delivery Models Fidget Toys
  • 28. 28 | P a g e BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT Students with severe autism sometimes display inappropriate behaviors such as biting. Authorities recommend that a combination of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral intervention and support (PBIS) to eliminate these behaviors. FBA involves determine the consequences (purpose of the behavior), antecedents (things that trigger the behavior), and setting events that maintain such behaviors (contextual factors on why the behavior occurs). PBIS involves finding ways to support positive behaviors of the student rather then punishment for bad behaviors. PIVOTAL RESPONSE TEACHING Based on assumptions that some skills are critical, or pivotal, for functions in other areas. Focusing the intervention on these pivotal skills the effects of the intervention can more easily spread to other skill areas. Some pivotal areas are motivation, self-management, and responding to multiple cues. PTI fosters motivation by emphasizing on natural rewards of the child's own choosing. SERVICE DELIVERY MODELS General and special education teachers work together to meet the needs of the student. There is not one route to take that is the most effective just that the idea of collaboration is key. One on one teaching or small group work is preferred for autistic students. FIDGET TOYS This is a great idea because many students just need to keep moving in the classroom or may get antsy at times. These toys allow them to become more calm without distracting other students in the classroom.  MULTIPLE DISABILITIES These students may exhibit weakness in auditory processing and have speech limitations. Physical mobility will often be an area of need. These students may have difficulty attaining and remembering skills and or transferring these skills from one situation to another. Support is usually needed beyond the confines of the classroom. There are often medical implications with some of the more severe multiple disabilities which could include students with cerebral palsy and severe autism and brain injuries. There are many educational implications for these students. Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies • Multiple disabilities have interactional, rather than additive, effects, making instruction and learning complex. • Assessment relevant to the education/training of students with multiple disabilities is different from the assessment for children with mild disabilities. Many children with multiple disabilities must first learn basic skills, such as, eating, walking, communicating, toileting, dressing and interacting socially. The overall instructional goal is to develop skills which enable the child with multiple disabilities to be independent or semi-
  • 29. 29 | P a g e independent as early as possible. These children are sometimes completely dependent upon others for most/all of their daily needs. • Remember that students with disabilities are people first. The school PE curriculum should be similar whether it is taught in a segregated or inclusive class. Students with disabilities in a segregated setting are still part of the school community; to take away their opportunity to learn what their peers are learning is not pedagogically sound. If a ninth-grade high-school curriculum consists of eight units, then the instructor for the segregated or inclusive class should teach eight units. The students with disabilities should learn the same eight units as their peers. The standards set forth by NASPE are specific. NASPE standard 1 states that students must develop competency in a variety of physical activities. Standards 2 and 3 address a similar concept. Students with severe disabilities must also be taught a variety of units and cannot just learn one or two units in a year. These students have the right to learn the same units as their peers. It is up to the physical educator, the paraeducators, and the multidisciplinary team to make the modifications necessary to make this possible. • As noted earlier, students with severe and multiple disabilities learn best in a one-on-one situation. Whether they are in a segregated or inclusive class, they require additional support in order for them to receive individualized instruction, feedback, and physicalassistance. For example: Maya, who has cerebral palsy, is deaf and visually impaired and uses a walker; she will benefit from having a support person to guide her in the locomotor skills unit. In addition, she should automatically have a partner when the class pairs up for various activities.  LEARNING DISABILITIES Learning disabilities should not be equated with intellectual disabilities or psychiatric disabilities, although learning disabilities can coexist with other conditions such as ADHD or a psychiatric disability. Common accommodations for students with learning disabilities include alternative print formats, taped lectures, notetakers, alternative plans to complete assignments, course substitutions, time extensions for assignments and exams, priority registration, and consultations regarding study skills and strategies. Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies • Keep instructions as brief and uncomplicated as possible. Repeat exactly without paraphrasing. • Assist the student in finding effective note takers from the class Allow the student to tape record lectures. • Clearly define course requirements, the dates of exams, and when assignments are due. Provide advance notice of any changes. • Present lecture information in both an auditory and a visual format (e.g., chalkboard, overheads, PowerPoint slides, handouts). • Use more than one way to demonstrate or explain information.
  • 30. 30 | P a g e • Have copies of the syllabus ready no less than 6 weeks prior to the beginning of the semester so textbooks can be transcribed to tape in as timely a manner as possible • When teaching, review previous lessons and summarize periodically. • Allow time for clarification of directions and essential information. • Provide study guides or review sheets for exams. • Provide assistance with proofreading written work. • Stress organization and ideas rather than mechanics when grading in-class writing assignments. • Allow the use of spell-check and grammar assistive devices when appropriate to the course. • When in doubt about how to assist the student, ask him or her as privately as possible without drawing attention to the student or the disability.  INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES An intellectual disability, formerly referred to as “mental retardation”, is not an inherent trait of any individual, but instead is characterized by a combination of deficits in both cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. The severity of the intellectual disability is determined by the discrepancy between the individual's capabilities in learning and in and the expectations of the social environment. It should be noted that while the term “mental retardation” is still widely used within education and government agencies; however, many advocacy groups feel that this label has too many negative connotations. The newer terms of intellectual disability or developmental disability are becoming far more accepted and prevalent within the field. Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies  Use concrete items and examples to explain new concepts and provide practice in existing skill areas.  Role model a desired behavior and clearly identify what behaviors you expect in the classroom.  Plan ahead with your class activities.  Use appropriate communication methods such as Makaton signing for pre-verbal students or those with beginning language.  Do not overwhelm a student with multiple or complex instructions.  Use strategies such as chunking, backward shaping and role modeling as helpful teaching approaches.  Be explicit about what it is you want a student to do.  Learn about the needs and characteristics of your student, but do not automatically assume they will behave the same way today as they did yesterday.
  • 31. 31 | P a g e  Ask for their input about how they feel they learn best, and help them to be as in control of their learning as possible.  Put skills in context so there is a reason for learning tasks.  Involve families and significant others in learning activities, planning and special days, as well as in informing you about the needs of their young person.  One such strategy is to break down learning tasks into small steps. Each learning task is introduced, one step at a time. This avoids overwhelming the student. Once the student has mastered one step, the next step is introduced. This is a progressive, step-wise, learning approach. It is characteristic of many learning models. The only difference is the number and size of the sequential steps.  A second strategy is to modify the teaching approach. Lengthy verbal directions and abstract lectures are ineffective teaching methods for most audiences. Most people are kinesthetic learners. This means they learn best by performing a task "hands-on."  Third, people with ID do best in learning environments where visual aids are used. This might include charts, pictures, and graphs. These visual tools are also useful for helping students to understand what behaviors are expected of them. For instance, using charts to map students' progress is very effective.  A fourth teaching strategy is to provide direct and immediate feedback. Individuals with ID require immediate feedback. This enables them to make a connection between their behavior and the teacher's response.  Use short and simple sentences to ensure understanding.  Repeat instructions or directions frequently.  Ask student if further clarification is necessary.  Keep distractions and transitions to a minimum.  Teach specific skills whenever necessary.  Provide an encouraging and supportive learning environment.  Use alternative instructional strategies and alternative assessment methods.  Explicitly teach organizational skills.  Keep conversations as normal as possible for inclusion with peers.  Teach the difference between literal and figurative language.  Direct student’s attention to critical differences when teaching concepts.  Remove distractions that may keep student from attending.  Increase difficulty of tasks over time.  Teach student decision-making rules for discriminating important from unimportant details.
  • 32. 32 | P a g e  Use strategies for remembering such as elaborative rehearsal and clustering information together.  Use strategies such as chunking, backward shaping (teach the last part of a skill first), forward shaping.  Use mnemonics (words, sentences, pictures, devices, or techniques for improving or strengthening memory).  Intermix high probability tasks (easier tasks) with lower probability tasks (more difficult tasks). *Social Stories can be used to teach social skills to children with such disabilities as autism or intellectual disability. A situation, which may be difficult or confusing for the student, is described concretely. The story highlights social cues, events, and reactions that could occur in the situation, the actions and reactions that might be expected, and why. Social stories can be used to increase the student’s understanding of a situation, make student feel more comfortable, and provide appropriate responses for the situation. We recommend that you incorporate visuals into the stories as well. These visuals can be drawings created by the student, imported images from Google, picture symbols / icons, or photographs.  EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORAL DISORDER Students who suffer from Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, or EBD, often find it very difficult to control their behavior and focus on their work in the classroom. EBD students also commonly lack the impulse control and the emotional balance that is necessary to handle social interactions with other students effectively. Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies Here are five effective strategies you can use to help EBD work well in an inclusive classroom: 1. Keep class rules/activities simple and clear 2. Reward positive behaviors 3. Allow for mini-breaks 4. Fair treatment for all 5. Use motivational strategies • While you will, at times, have to discipline children for improper behavior, remember that rewarding positive behavior is ultimately far more effective in the long run. Many students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder tend to take any discipline as a personal attack, and because of this, they often learn very little from it. • Try to celebrate the successes of these students more than you reprimand or punish their mistakes. When they receive positive feedback and rewards, they start to see that there is a positive benefit to good behavior. They will then start to see you as more of an ally than an adversary, and this will in turn motivate them to want to behave and do well in your classroom.
  • 33. 33 | P a g e • Take time to periodically stop teaching and allow students to catch up if need be. Give them time to finish their assignment, and allow those who have finished to stretch, get out of their seats, and move around a bit. This will allow them to burn off any excess energy that might have built up from sitting still for a long period of time. (And it’s good time for you to stretch, too!)  VISUAL IMPAIRMENT Some of the same instruction strategies could be used with the child who has a visual impairment. However, his learning will take place primarily through his own actions/experiences and information he receives auditorily. He can learn many things through group instruction with minimal support. Unlike the child with hearing impairment, this child will need more instruction that occurs through real experience. Imaginary play may be difficult for him, reducing the effectiveness of role play as an instructional tool. Language instruction for this child should be paired with ongoing activities. The use of pictures and print would be of limited value. Using the example of a unit on farm animals, the child with visual impairments would likely have less knowledge of animals to begin with than the child who is deaf. He would not have seen the television programs or watched animals playing in his yard. He might have a pet and perhaps has some knowledge about caring for an animal. This unit may be most meaningful for him if the visit to the farm was scheduled before beginning classroom instruction. Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies  Adjust teaching methods to accommodate your visual learner’s needs by writing all homework assignments, class instructions and procedural changes on the board.  Arrange desks in a circular pattern if possible so hearing impaired students can see other students. This is especially important if they need to read lips.  Provide students with an outline of the daily lesson and printed copies of the notes, allowing them to focus on discussions and questions while you are teaching. Students can then be more engaged in learning and can easily review the notes at a later time. Since vision becomes a hearing impaired student’s primary means for receiving information, utilize visual aids whenever you can. Consider using posters, charts, flash cards, pictures, manipulatives, graphic organizers, artifacts or any visual items to illustrate concepts. Communication Considerations • Look directly at the student and face him or her when communicating or teaching. • Say the student’s name or signal their attention in some way before speaking. • Assign the student a desk near the front of the classroom, or where you plan to deliver most of your lectures. • Speak naturally and clearly. Remember speaking louder won’t help. • Do not exaggerate your lip movements, but slowing down a little may help some students.
  • 34. 34 | P a g e • Use facial expressions, gestures and body language to help convey your message, but don’t overdo it. • Some communication may be difficult for the hard of hearing student to understand. Explicitly teach idioms and explain jokes and sarcasm. • Young hearing impaired children often lag in the development of social graces. Consider teaching specific social skills such as joining in to games or conversation, maintaining conversations, and staying on topic. • Male teachers should keep moustaches well groomed. • Be sure that the student wears his or her amplification device and you are wearing your microphone. • Keep in mind that few people are totally Most have some sort of residual hearing, and we want to utilize it fully. • Make sure your student has preferential seating with a direct view of your face and mouth. • Don’t yell at your student. Speak in a normal tone. Remember the microphone you have on? • If your student has an interpreter, then give him or her a copy of the lesson in advance. • Remember that there is no need to talk to the interpreter. • Don’t speak while writing on the board. • Use lots of pictures and graphic organizers. These kids are visual learners. • Repetition is key, as is the use of hands-on activities. • Every lesson is a language lesson. Hearing-impaired kids often lack necessary language skills, so every word counts.  ADHD/ADD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects children and teens and can continue into adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children. Children with ADHD may be hyperactive and unable control their impulses. Or they may have trouble paying attention. ADHD students tend not to learn well from traditional lectures, so teachers should modify their instructional styles and curriculums as necessary. Experiential and interactive strategies are great for students with limited attention spans and impulsivity. Staying flexible, positive and being open to alternative teaching approaches are also important when teaching students with Attention Deficit Disorder. A person with ADHD is generally very intelligent and will learn new information quickly as long as they find it interesting. They do very well in situations in which they have to come up with creative solutions to meaningful problems, especially if the problem solving involves hands-on work. If you can capture their attention they have incredible stamina. If you notice they
  • 35. 35 | P a g e are engaged in a small project, it could be worthwhile to turn it into a longer project for them. Working on it could be a reward for positive behavior throughout the year, and they will have completed a long-term project which is something they have more than likely decided they could never do. Educational Considerations/Teaching Strategies • Encourage a student with ADHD to choose library or classroom books that reflect his or her personal interests. Children will often respond well to reading about topics that they enjoy and will be more willing to work with a teacher on developing literacy skills if they are interested in the reading material. • Explain ahead of time what skills and knowledge you expect the child to learn from the reading assignment. It is often helpful to make a list of “learning objectives" for a particular lesson and review those with the student prior to beginning a lesson. These objectives can include definitions of vocabulary words, the meaning of the story, etc. • Communicate verbally with the student in regard to a book's characters and plot. Ask questions about what is happening throughout the course of the story, why the characters are behaving or acting a certain way, how the student thinks the characters are feeling, and whether or not the student recognizes the main themes of the book. • Take a brief break after each chapter or section and request that the student summarize what has just been read. • Assign a classroom partner to take turns with an ADHD student in reading a story. When working in small groups, students are motivated by their peers and can more effectively stay on task. These are often called “peer tutors" and the teacher can have these pairs quiz each other about story content and meaning. • Allow a student with ADHD to underline or highlight the most relevant portions of a written assignment or story. Use color-coding for highlighting. For example, have the child highlight all of the vocabulary words in yellow, information about the setting in green, and character descriptions in blue. • Separate longer reading assignments into smaller sections, and offer the student breaks in between. Children diagnosed with ADHD respond well to positive reinforcement, so offer praise freely when he or she reads a passage correctly. • Computer programs can provide wonderful opportunities for students to drill with particular skills, such as phonics or grammar. • reducing the length of homework assignments; • allowing the child extra time on tests; • simplifying instructions about assignments; • providing specific assistance with planning and organizational skills; • or using behavioral management techniques in the classroom; • use of tape recorders • computer-aided instructions
  • 36. 36 | P a g e These exercises and adaptations are useful for children with ADHD who struggle to complete written assignments and who have difficulty in mastering writing skills: • Always allow the student the opportunity to sit near the teacher or at the front of the class. • When possible, have the student read the instructions out loud to the class or to the teacher. • Modify classroom assignments and homework assignments for ADHD students so that less writing is required. For instance, if most students are asked to write 12 spelling words and five sentences, a child with ADHD can be asked to write eight spelling words and three sentences. • Extend completion deadlines when giving an ADHD student written assignments. Offer extra time in the classroom for finishing written work and give the student an extra day or two to turn in a written homework assignment. • When possible, assign short creative writing assignments that allow a child with ADHD to express his or her interests through words. • If available, give the student the option of using a word processing device for writing exercises. This lessens the motor control demands if a child has difficulty with writing, and allows the student to focus more on the content and writing techniques. • Have the student keep a current list of frequently misspelled words available at all times to use as a reference. • Use movement activities when teaching spelling, especially with words that are particularly challenging. For example, take the students outdoors and write the words on the pavement in sidewalk chalk. Have the students “hop" from letter to letter while spelling the word out loud. • Provide manipulatives such as letter tiles so that the student can use them to spell out challenging vocabulary words. • Give students the opportunity to proofread their own work. Have them identify and correct their own mistakes. At first, it can be helpful if you tell the child what the mistake is related to, for example a capitalization or punctuation error. It is also beneficial to inform the student on which line the error occurs. • Use visual cues, such as gestures, to remind the student to stay on task. This can be as simple as touching the child on the shoulder, or tapping the student’s desk when you notice off task behavior. Be sure to explain the meaning of these cues to the student prior to using them.