Lifespan Chapter 7 Online Stud

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Lifespan Chapter 7 Online Stud

  1. 1. 1 Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
  2. 2. 2 Physical Development  Physical growth  The only stage when girls are taller than boys  Nutrition can affect growth
  3. 3. 3 Proper nutrition is linked to positive personality traits
  4. 4. 4 More nutritious diets = more energy & self confidence.
  5. 5. 5 Physical Activity > increased overall attention AND greater cog dev’t Meanwhile, hours of physical activity have been decreasing and obesity rates have been rising.
  6. 6. 6 Safety in Cyberspace • How do you monitor children’s internet access?
  7. 7. 7 Health, Illness, Disease, Accidents, and Injuries  Disease, injury, death less prevalent than other periods in childhood and adolescenceMost common? What else?
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 Obesity in Children
  10. 10. 10 Balanced Diet? Recent studies have found that children’s diets are almost opposite the diet recommended by the USDA. How obsessed should we be?
  11. 11. Most common chronic disease in children?
  12. 12. 12 Children With Special Needs 13.2% of age 3-21 in U.S. receive special ed services; 61% LD or speech and lang 1.3% movement
  13. 13. 13 Historical Educational Issues  1975 -- Public Law 94-142 (the Education for all Handicapped Children Act): — all students with disabilities must be given a free, appropriate public education. Now: IDEA - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990;  Revised again in 2004 — Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act  IEP  Least restrictive environment (LRE) • Inclusion
  14. 14. 14 Children with Special Needs –Auditory Impairment  Loss in infancy is more severe than after age 3. [Why?]  Abstract thinking may be affected.  Noise Induced Hearing Loss
  15. 15. 15 Children with Special Needs –Speech  50% of what most 2-year-olds say should be understood by an unfamiliar listener;  75% of what most 3-year-olds say;  100% of what most 4-year-olds say. Stuttering  NOT an emotional Dx  Not related to low IQ  Not caused by anxiety  Often a family history
  16. 16. 16 Children with Special Needs –Learning Disabilities  What is it?  LD diagnosis  Dyslexia
  17. 17. 17 Approaches to Teaching Reading  Whole-language approach parallels natural language learning  Phonics approach basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds
  18. 18. Children with Special Needs –LD and ADHD–  ADHD: A learning disability?  ~5 to 12 percent of school-age children?  Ritalin, Dexedrine (Adderall), Pemoline (Cylert)  ADHD and learning disabilities should be evaluated by a specialist  A real problem, but probably overdiagnosed in some classrooms/schools/neiborhoods
  19. 19. 19 Mental Retardation  Mental retardation is typically measured by IQ tests.  Four levels of retardation  Mild  Moderate  Severe  Profound
  20. 20. Distribution of IQ Scores
  21. 21. 21 Distribution of IQ Scores [and next]
  22. 22. 22 Intellectually Gifted 3 to 5 % of school-age children are Gifted and talented Two options: • Acceleration • Enrichment
  23. 23. 23 Intellectual Development: Piaget  Concrete Operations. • active, appropriate use of logic.  Conservation problems easily solved—logic used over appearance.  Decentering  Reversability  Classification  Mental seriation using logic (transitivity)
  24. 24. –Decentering– Piaget’s Matchstick Problem Make 6 equilateral triangles out of six matchsticks.
  25. 25. 25 Vygotsky in the Classroom Focus on [?]:
  26. 26. 26 Language Development During Middle Childhood  Metalinguistic Awareness  Over 10% of US student population are ELLs.  Of that number, ~80% are Spanish speaking.  Being bilingual may have cognitive advantages:  greater cognitive flexibility  greater metalinguistic awareness  improvement on IQ tests is equivocal
  27. 27. 27 Multicultural Education ―In recent years a considerable amount of thought has gone into establishing multicultural education, a form of education in which the goal is to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original culture.‖
  28. 28. 28 Intelligence  Alfred Binet 1) Intelligence – that which his test measured 2) IQ tests should be reasonable indicators of school success. 3) X = 100 ?
  29. 29. 29 Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence  Fluid Intelligence  Crystallized Intelligence
  30. 30. 30 Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  31. 31. 31 Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (Frames of Mind) Each are relatively independent

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