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SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi
An Engineering Solution to the Crisis of
Massive Volume Requirements…
A Complex Blend of Simple Ideas….
A crisis of More Area than the Required Heat
Exchanging Surface Area
Why a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger?
• Shell and tube heat exchangers are the most widespread
and commonly used basic heat exchanger configuration in
the process industries.
• The reasons for this general acceptance are several.
• The shell and tube heat exchanger provides a
comparatively large ratio of heat transfer area to volume
and weight.
• It provides this surface in a form which is relatively easy to
construct in a wide range of sizes.
Better Concurrence….
• It is mechanically rugged enough to withstand normal shop
fabrication stresses, shipping and field erection stresses,
and normal operating conditions.
• The shell and tube exchanger can be reasonably easily
cleaned, and those components most subject to failure -
gaskets and tubes – can be easily replaced.
• Shop facilities for the successful design and construction
of shell and tube exchangers are available throughout the
world.
Simple Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
Inner Details of S&T HX
Components of STHEs
• It is essential for the designer to have a good working
knowledge of the mechanical features of STHEs and how
they influence thermal design.
• The principal components of an STHE are:
• shell; shell cover;
• tubes; tubesheet;
• baffles; and nozzles.
• Other components include tie-rods and spacers, pass
partition plates, impingement plate, longitudinal baffle,
sealing strips, supports, and foundation.
Types of Shells
Fixed tube sheet
U-Tube STHE
Floating Head STHE TEMA S
Floating Head STHE TEMA T
A New Part…. Only for SHTE
Cross Baffles
• Baffles serve two purposes:
• Divert (direct) the flow across the bundle to obtain a higher
heat transfer coefficient.
• Support the tubes for structural rigidity, preventing tube
vibration and sagging.
• When the tube bundle employs baffles,
• the heat transfer coefficient is higher than the coefficient for
undisturbed flow around tubes without baffles.
• For a baffled heat exchanger the higher heat transfer
coefficients result from the increased turbulence.
• the velocity of fluid fluctuates because of the constricted area
between adjacent tubes across the bundle.
Types of Baffle Plates : Segmental Cut Baffles
• The single and double segmental baffles are most frequently used.
•They divert the flow most effectively across the tubes.
•The baffle spacing must be chosen with care.
•Optimal baffle spacing is somewhere between 40% - 60% of the
shell diameter.
•Baffle cut of 25%-35% is usually recommended.
Types of Baffle Plates
Triple Segmental Baffles
Double Segmental Baffles
The triple segmental baffles are used for low pressure
applications.
Types of Baffle Plates
Types of Baffle Plates
Disc and ring baffles are composed of alternating outer rings
and inner discs, which direct the flow radially across the tube
field.
§ The potential bundle-to-shell bypass stream is eliminated
§ This baffle type is very effective in pressure drop to heat
transfer conversion
Types of Baffle Plates
In an orifice baffle shell-side-fluid flows through the
clearance between tube outside diameter and baffle-hole
diameter.
Therm-Hydraulic Analysis of Heat Exchanger
• Initial Decisions.
• Tube side Thermal Analysis.
• Thermal analysis for Shell side.
• Overall Heat Transfer coefficient.
• Hydraulic Analysis of Tube side.
• Hydraulic Analysis of Shell side.
Fluid Allocation : Tube Side
• Tube side is preferred under these circumstances:
• Fluids which are prone to foul
• The higher velocities will reduce buildup
• Mechanical cleaning is also much more practical for tubes than for
shells.
• Corrosive fluids are usually best in tubes
• Tubes are cheaper to fabricate from exotic materials
• This is also true for very high temperature fluids requiring alloy
construction
• Toxic fluids to increase containment
• Streams with low flow rates to obtain increased velocities and
turbulence
• High pressure streams since tubes are less expensive to build strong.
• Streams with a low allowable pressure drop
Fluid Allocation : Shell Side
• Shell side is preferred under these circumstances:
• Viscous fluids go on the shell side, since this will usually
improve the rate of heat transfer.
• On the other hand, placing them on the tube side will
usually lead to lower pressure drops. Judgment is needed.
• Low heat transfer coefficient:
• Stream which has an inherently low heat transfer
coefficient (such as low pressure gases or viscous liquids),
this stream is preferentially put on the shell-side so that
extended surface may be used to reduce the total cost of
the heat exchanger.
Options for Shell-Side Thermal Analysis
• Kern's integral method
• Bell-Delaware method
• Stream analysis method
• Recent Methods
Kern Method of
SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER Analysis
Knowledge for Solving True Industrial Problems :
Donald Q Kern
• True believer of providing knowledge for use of solving
run-of-the-mill problems.
• Donald Q. Kern Award: AIChE.
• In honor of Donald Q. Kern, pioneer in process heat
transfer, the Division recognizes an individual's expertise
in a given field of heat transfer or energy conversion.
• There is no true flow area by which the shell-side mass
velocity can be computed.
• Fictitious values for equivalent diameter and mass velocity
are to be defined.
• These are borne out by experiment.
Flow Past Tube Bundles : Outside Film Coefficient
Kern’s Integral Method
• The initial attempts to provide methods for calculating shell-
side pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient were based on
experimental data for typical heat exchangers.
• One of these methods is the well-known Kern method, which
was an attempt to correlate data for standard exchangers by a
simple equation analogous to equations for flow in tubes.
• This method is restricted to a fixed baffle cut (25%) and
cannot adequately account for baffle-to-shell and tube-to-
baffle leakages.
• Although the Kern equation is not particularly accurate, it does
allow a very simple and rapid calculation of shell-side
coefficients and pressure drop to be carried out
Major Steps in Design
• Initial Decisions.
• Tube side Thermal Analysis.
• Thermal analysis for Shell side flow.
• Overall Heat Transfer coefficient.
• Hydraulic Analysis of Tube side.
• Hydraulic Analysis of Shell side.
Initial Decisions
• Spatial allocation of fluid.
• Determination of flow velocity.
• Initial guess for number of tubes.
• Correction for standard tube diameter.
• Effect of number of tubes on tube length….

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SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

  • 1. SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department I I T Delhi An Engineering Solution to the Crisis of Massive Volume Requirements… A Complex Blend of Simple Ideas….
  • 2. A crisis of More Area than the Required Heat Exchanging Surface Area
  • 3. Why a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger? • Shell and tube heat exchangers are the most widespread and commonly used basic heat exchanger configuration in the process industries. • The reasons for this general acceptance are several. • The shell and tube heat exchanger provides a comparatively large ratio of heat transfer area to volume and weight. • It provides this surface in a form which is relatively easy to construct in a wide range of sizes.
  • 4. Better Concurrence…. • It is mechanically rugged enough to withstand normal shop fabrication stresses, shipping and field erection stresses, and normal operating conditions. • The shell and tube exchanger can be reasonably easily cleaned, and those components most subject to failure - gaskets and tubes – can be easily replaced. • Shop facilities for the successful design and construction of shell and tube exchangers are available throughout the world.
  • 5. Simple Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
  • 7. Components of STHEs • It is essential for the designer to have a good working knowledge of the mechanical features of STHEs and how they influence thermal design. • The principal components of an STHE are: • shell; shell cover; • tubes; tubesheet; • baffles; and nozzles. • Other components include tie-rods and spacers, pass partition plates, impingement plate, longitudinal baffle, sealing strips, supports, and foundation.
  • 13. A New Part…. Only for SHTE
  • 14. Cross Baffles • Baffles serve two purposes: • Divert (direct) the flow across the bundle to obtain a higher heat transfer coefficient. • Support the tubes for structural rigidity, preventing tube vibration and sagging. • When the tube bundle employs baffles, • the heat transfer coefficient is higher than the coefficient for undisturbed flow around tubes without baffles. • For a baffled heat exchanger the higher heat transfer coefficients result from the increased turbulence. • the velocity of fluid fluctuates because of the constricted area between adjacent tubes across the bundle.
  • 15. Types of Baffle Plates : Segmental Cut Baffles • The single and double segmental baffles are most frequently used. •They divert the flow most effectively across the tubes. •The baffle spacing must be chosen with care. •Optimal baffle spacing is somewhere between 40% - 60% of the shell diameter. •Baffle cut of 25%-35% is usually recommended.
  • 16. Types of Baffle Plates Triple Segmental Baffles Double Segmental Baffles The triple segmental baffles are used for low pressure applications.
  • 17. Types of Baffle Plates
  • 18. Types of Baffle Plates Disc and ring baffles are composed of alternating outer rings and inner discs, which direct the flow radially across the tube field. § The potential bundle-to-shell bypass stream is eliminated § This baffle type is very effective in pressure drop to heat transfer conversion
  • 19. Types of Baffle Plates In an orifice baffle shell-side-fluid flows through the clearance between tube outside diameter and baffle-hole diameter.
  • 20. Therm-Hydraulic Analysis of Heat Exchanger • Initial Decisions. • Tube side Thermal Analysis. • Thermal analysis for Shell side. • Overall Heat Transfer coefficient. • Hydraulic Analysis of Tube side. • Hydraulic Analysis of Shell side.
  • 21. Fluid Allocation : Tube Side • Tube side is preferred under these circumstances: • Fluids which are prone to foul • The higher velocities will reduce buildup • Mechanical cleaning is also much more practical for tubes than for shells. • Corrosive fluids are usually best in tubes • Tubes are cheaper to fabricate from exotic materials • This is also true for very high temperature fluids requiring alloy construction • Toxic fluids to increase containment • Streams with low flow rates to obtain increased velocities and turbulence • High pressure streams since tubes are less expensive to build strong. • Streams with a low allowable pressure drop
  • 22. Fluid Allocation : Shell Side • Shell side is preferred under these circumstances: • Viscous fluids go on the shell side, since this will usually improve the rate of heat transfer. • On the other hand, placing them on the tube side will usually lead to lower pressure drops. Judgment is needed. • Low heat transfer coefficient: • Stream which has an inherently low heat transfer coefficient (such as low pressure gases or viscous liquids), this stream is preferentially put on the shell-side so that extended surface may be used to reduce the total cost of the heat exchanger.
  • 23. Options for Shell-Side Thermal Analysis • Kern's integral method • Bell-Delaware method • Stream analysis method • Recent Methods
  • 24. Kern Method of SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER Analysis
  • 25. Knowledge for Solving True Industrial Problems : Donald Q Kern • True believer of providing knowledge for use of solving run-of-the-mill problems. • Donald Q. Kern Award: AIChE. • In honor of Donald Q. Kern, pioneer in process heat transfer, the Division recognizes an individual's expertise in a given field of heat transfer or energy conversion. • There is no true flow area by which the shell-side mass velocity can be computed. • Fictitious values for equivalent diameter and mass velocity are to be defined. • These are borne out by experiment.
  • 26. Flow Past Tube Bundles : Outside Film Coefficient
  • 27. Kern’s Integral Method • The initial attempts to provide methods for calculating shell- side pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient were based on experimental data for typical heat exchangers. • One of these methods is the well-known Kern method, which was an attempt to correlate data for standard exchangers by a simple equation analogous to equations for flow in tubes. • This method is restricted to a fixed baffle cut (25%) and cannot adequately account for baffle-to-shell and tube-to- baffle leakages. • Although the Kern equation is not particularly accurate, it does allow a very simple and rapid calculation of shell-side coefficients and pressure drop to be carried out
  • 28. Major Steps in Design • Initial Decisions. • Tube side Thermal Analysis. • Thermal analysis for Shell side flow. • Overall Heat Transfer coefficient. • Hydraulic Analysis of Tube side. • Hydraulic Analysis of Shell side.
  • 29. Initial Decisions • Spatial allocation of fluid. • Determination of flow velocity. • Initial guess for number of tubes. • Correction for standard tube diameter. • Effect of number of tubes on tube length….