Brain Development—<br />Addiction<br />By: Anthony Marth<br />Issues in the Brain<br />August 7th, 2011<br />
Addiction<br />The characteristics of addiction are as follows<br />Craving for the object of addiction<br />Loss of contr...
Addiction Cont.<br />Addiction: <br />1. Is especially strong<br />2. Occurs in a particular context and set of social rel...
How can the daily use of a drug or doing an activity form an addiction?<br />Located in the nucleus accumbens <br />the br...
Addiction<br />The brain registers all pleasures the same way, whether it is really good food, a drug, getting paid, or ha...
Adaptations <br />Addiction causes a person’s brain receptors to become overwhelmed. <br />The result of this, is the brai...
So now it’s not enough…<br />When an addict’s usual DOC loses euphoric stimulation, the addict has a few options. <br />Th...
Withdrawals <br />Usually the absence of the drug or behavior results in the addict suffering from withdrawal symptoms.<br...
Cravings <br />Repeated drug use produces a long-lasting physical and chemical rewiring of the brain that appears to drive...
This is what happens…<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IIqijmzJ9SI&NR=1<br />(Youtube, Facts about drug addiction, 2011...
Annotated Bibliography<br />1.	Foddy, Bennett, and Julian Savulescu. "Addiction Is Not An Affliction: Addictive Desires Ar...
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Anthony marth s_presentation

  1. 1. Brain Development—<br />Addiction<br />By: Anthony Marth<br />Issues in the Brain<br />August 7th, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Addiction<br />The characteristics of addiction are as follows<br />Craving for the object of addiction<br />Loss of control over its use<br />Continual involvement with the it despite adverse consequences<br />(Harvard Mental Health Letter, 1-3, 2011)<br />
  3. 3. Addiction Cont.<br />Addiction: <br />1. Is especially strong<br />2. Occurs in a particular context and set of social relationships that triggers the anticipation of pleasure and a strong drive to satisfy the desire<br /> 3. Is socially unacceptable, usually because it threatens the welfare of the individual or challenges some set of social norms.<br />(Foddy& Savulescu, 29-32, 2011)<br />
  4. 4. How can the daily use of a drug or doing an activity form an addiction?<br />Located in the nucleus accumbens <br />the brains pleasure center<br />a small group of nerve cells right under the cerebral cortex <br />Dopamine!<br />Chemically, pleasure is known as the neurotransmitter Dopamine.<br />(Harvard Mental Health Letter ,1-3, 2011)<br />
  5. 5. Addiction<br />The brain registers all pleasures the same way, whether it is really good food, a drug, getting paid, or having sex.<br />When a person abuses an addictive drug, the cells in the brain release two to ten times the normal amount of dopamine that natural rewards do.<br />This also happens faster and more reliably <br />This is how addiction high-jacks the brain<br />(Harvard Mental Health Letter, 1-3, 2011)<br />
  6. 6. Adaptations <br />Addiction causes a person’s brain receptors to become overwhelmed. <br />The result of this, is the brain producing a smaller amount of dopamine or shutting down dopamine receptors .<br />This is similar to turning down the volume on the television when it’s too loud<br />Because of this, dopamine is no longer as fulfilling to the nucleus accumbens (the brain’s reward center). <br />All of this results in an addict’s usual drug of choice (DOC) not being as pleasurable as it once was. <br />(Harvard Mental Health Letter, 1-3, 2011). <br />
  7. 7. So now it’s not enough…<br />When an addict’s usual DOC loses euphoric stimulation, the addict has a few options. <br />They can:<br />Up the dosage in the attempt to regain the once rewarding high<br />Choose a different DOC <br />Or suffer withdrawals <br />
  8. 8. Withdrawals <br />Usually the absence of the drug or behavior results in the addict suffering from withdrawal symptoms.<br />These can include:<br />Irritability - Nausea<br />Vomiting - Diarrhea<br />Cold sweats - Joint and muscle pain<br />Anxiety - Increased heart rate<br />
  9. 9. Cravings <br />Repeated drug use produces a long-lasting physical and chemical rewiring of the brain that appears to drive tolerance and cravings.<br />Stress causes release of hormones that bind specific receptors in the pleasure circuit and this is likely to cause cravings. (Linden )<br />(Linden, 2011 )<br />
  10. 10. This is what happens…<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IIqijmzJ9SI&NR=1<br />(Youtube, Facts about drug addiction, 2011)<br />
  11. 11. Annotated Bibliography<br />1. Foddy, Bennett, and Julian Savulescu. "Addiction Is Not An Affliction: Addictive Desires Are Merely Pleasure- Oriented Desires." American Journal of Bioethics 7.1 (2007): 29-32. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 7 Aug. 2011.<br />The definition of addiction isn't clear and concise. I wanted to provide two definitions so that the audience could have a better understanding of the idea of addiction. I found that this source had a very good understanding of the main points of addiction.<br />"How addiction hijacks the brain." Harvard Mental Health Letter28.1 (2011): 1-3. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 7 Aug. 2011.<br />This source broke down the steps the brain takes to form an addiction. It was easy to read so I could understand the material and gave me a guide for the slide show. It also provided the majority of the subject matter in the power point.<br />3. Linden, David. The Compass of Pleasure. 1st ed. New York, New York: Viking Adult, 2011. Print.<br />I read three chapters of the book so I could get an idea about what will trigger the addict to relapse. I needed to find what caused cravings in the addict. The idea of stress as a trigger was just what I needed.<br />4. "Facts About Drug Addiction." youtube. Web. 7 Aug 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IIqijmzJ9SI&NR=1>.<br />The video I added at the end was something I thought would sum up the power point perfectlly. The visual shows the audience the process of the dopamine receptors interacting with a drug and explains the process of the chemical aspect of addiction.<br />

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