Stages of Sleep• Non-REM Stage one: Light Sleepa. As theta wave activity increases and alpha wave activity fades away, people are said to be entering stage one of sleep.b. This stage has a phenomenon called hypnagogic images. 1. These images are bits and pieces of what may eventually become dreams, but are most often flashes of light 2. Have you ever had those moments when you are watching TV and your going in and out of sleep trying to stay awake? What you are experiencing are hypnagogic images.c. Another very common event likely to happen during this stage of sleep is called the Hypnic jerk. 1. The hypnic jerk is something everyone has experienced at one point in their life. Have you ever been drifting off into sleep and your knees, legs, or whole body just gives out a violent jerk? The theory behind this is that our ancestors use to sleep in trees. The relaxation of the muscles once someone drifts off into sleep causes a ‘falling” sensation, which is why the body jerks awake to prevent the “fall” from the hypothetical tree! 2. If you don’t know what I am talking about, then check out the movie Inception on this link! They use the word “kick” instead of jerk ,but the concept is kind of the same! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HM5YBXkE9s&feature=related Citation: Ciccarelli, Psychology Seventh Edition, Pages 142-144. (This is for slides done on stages of sleep)
Stages of Sleep Con’d• Non-REM Stage Two: Sleep spindles a. Theta waves still predominate in this stage, but if people are awakened during this stage, they will be aware that they were asleep. b. During this stage the heart rate slows, breathing becomes more shallow and irregular, and the EEG will show the first signs of sleep spindles 1. Sleep spindles are brief bursts of activity lasting only a second or two. •The diagram to the left shows brain activity during sleep. A sleep spindle is a burst of activity and you can see it if you look closely. It is the bigger waves of activity, which basically looks like a burst, but you can tell they don’t last long.
Stages of sleep Con’d• Non-REM Stage Three a. During this stage, the slowest and largest waves begin to appear. These waves are called Delta Waves. 1. In this stage of sleep, delta waves only make up about 20-50 percent of the brain wave patterns. b. During this stage you are definitely asleep! 1. If woken up during this stage you will feel groggy and disoriented for several minutes before you fully wake up.
Stages of Sleep Cont’d• Non-REM Stage Four a. During this stage delta waves account for more than 50 percent of total brain activity. This is the deepest stage of sleep! b. During this stage growth hormones are released from the pituitary gland and reach their peak 1. This is the stage that helps young kids grow. This stage also allows our brain to comprehend everything we have done and learned in the day. 2. We need this stage very much because it helps our body recuperate from the days activity. This stage is what gives us the sense of refreshment in the morning. c. This stage is the deepest stage of sleep there is and it is very hard to awaken someone from deep sleep.
REM Sleep• REM stands for Rapid Eye Movement. a. During REM sleep, people have at least 90% of their dreams. b. Nightmares and night terrors occur during this stage. c. It is possible for us to have nightmares during deep sleep and non REM sleep, but it’s very unlikely.• REM sleep is needed for emotionally demanding days rather than physical. a. As I mentioned before, non REM deep sleep helps allow your body to recover from physical activity and helps you grow. That is why someone who has a more physically demanding day is more likely to spend more time in non-REM sleep than in REM sleep. b. Someone who has had a more emotionally demanding day is more likely to spend more time in REM sleep. The theory behind this is that the dreams people have in REM sleep are a way of dealing with the stresses and tensions of the day, rather than physical activities wanting to recover during non-REM sleep. Citations: Ciccarelli, Psychology Seventh Edition, Pages 144-145 and 141 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, Seventh Edition, Pages 252 and 596
Sleep Deprivation• Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep. It can be either chronic or acute.• This adversely affects the brain and cognitive functions.• This can effect ones cognitive functions, physical growth, your healing process, and it also effects your physical appearance.• Movies such as “The Nightmare on Elm Street” are all about sleep deprivation, so if you don’t know, check them out and you will see!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2SulpWn6Glk• Here is a scholarly article written by a variety of doctors and psychologist on sleep deprivation and the affects it has on learning http://doug06.free.fr/DIU%20Sommeil/Mazza/403655a0.pdfCitations: Ciccarelli, Psychology Second Edition, Pages 139Linden, The Effects of Sleep Deprivation On Brain and Behavior
Disasters linked with sleep deprivation• 1979 nuclear meltdown at The Three Mile High nuclear power plant• The massive Exxon Valdez oil spill• The 1986 nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl• The 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
Sleep disorders• Sleep apnea a. Characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing or instances of abnormally low breathing during sleep, causing less oxygen to the brain. b. Each pause in breathing is called an apnea and can last from a few seconds to minutes!• Insomnia a. When someone can’t sleep or reports having sleep difficulties. b. Insomnia is usually followed by functional impairment while awake c. Hallucinations and abnormal behavior occur. d. Sleep deprivation begins to play a part e. Check out this movie trailer for “The Machinist”, its about a guy who deals with insomnia and has all the symptoms of it! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0fuHY4U1UA Citations: Ciccarelli, Psychology Second Edition, 147-149 Melinda, Robinson, Segal, Sleep Disorders and Sleep Problems
Sleep Disorders Cont’d• Restless legs syndrome a. A sleep disorder that causes an almost irresistible urge to move your legs or arms. b. Usually occurs when you are resting or laying down and begins because you are uncomfortable, tingly, aching, or have a creeping sensation.• Narcolepsy a. A disorder that involves excessive, uncontrollable daytime sleepiness. b. It is causes by a dysfunction of the brain mechanism that controls sleeping and waking. c. Normally happens when one gets excited about something. Citations: Ciccarelli, Psychology Second Edition, page 148 Terzaghi, MicheleRatti, PietroManni, FrancescoManni, Raffaele. "Sleep Paralysis In Narcolepsy: More Than Just A Motor Dissociative Phenomenon?."
Nightmares Vs Night terrors (First Nightmares)• Nightmares are bad dreams, and some nightmares can be incredibly terrifying.• Nightmares occur during REM sleep• Children tend to have more nightmares than adults do because they spend more of their time in the REM state.• REM behavior disorder a. A rare disorder in which the brain mechanisms that normally inhibit the voluntary muscles fail, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares. b. Usually seen in men over age 60, but it can happen to people younger and to women. c. People have actually committed murder while they were sleep walking and acting out a nightmare and have actually gotten away with it. Here is a link to a case involving this! http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/criminal_mind/psychology/automatism/1_index.html Citations: Smith, Melinda, Robinson, Segal. "Sleep Disorders and Sleeping Problems." Hobson, REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness
Nightmares Vs. Night Terrors (Night Terrors)• A relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully.• Most people do not remember what happened during a night terror episode, but some people can remember vivid images and terror that they experience.• Night terrors occur during deep non-REM sleep, which means people don’t move around during nightmares compared to people going crazy during night terrors.• Here is a video showing real life night terrorshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSVwmSzxKtU
• Books Bibliography a. Ciccarelli, Saundra K. "Chapter 4/Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs." Psychology. Second Edition ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. 137-50. Print. 1. This book is actually a text book for Intro to Psychology, but it touches on each an every aspect of psychology. The portion of sleep and the different events within it were very good and appropriate for this PowerPoint. I got a lot out of chapter 4 for REM sleep and the stages of sleep b. "Chapter 18/Disorders of Aging and Cognition." Abnormal Psychology. Seventh Edition ed. New York: Worth Publishers, 1992. 596-600. Print. 1. This book is actually a text book as well that I came across in the library. It is used for Abnormal Psychology class offered at SPSCC. I used this book for the sleep disorders. It touches on sleep apnea and Narcolepsy. c. Wilson, Sue. "Chapter 3 and 7." Sleep Disorders. Ed. David J. Nutt. New York: Oxford UP, 2008. 44-50+. Print. 1. This book was a very good one that I found in the library. It shows how to diagnose and treat different types of sleep disorders. I used this book to help with my research on nightmares, might terrors, and narcolepsy.• Peer Review Articles a. Hobson, J. (2009). REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(11), 803-813. 1. This peer review article was a great article on sleep and dreams. The progress in dream research and how we dream in different stages. What kind of nightmares or night terrors people are more likely to have. b. Terzaghi, MicheleRatti, PietroManni, FrancescoManni, Raffaele. "Sleep Paralysis In Narcolepsy: More Than Just A Motor Dissociative Phenomenon?." Neurological Sciences 33.1 (2012): 169-172. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 5 Aug. 2012. 1. This article was used for the portion of narcolepsy and how it affects our daily life. How to treat narcolepsy and what the major causes and effects it can have on an individual.
Bibliography Cont’d• Websites/Articles (Non Peer Review) a. Smith, Melinda, Lawrence Robinson, and Robert Segal. "Sleep Disorders and Sleeping Problems." : Symptoms, Treatment, and Help. N.p., 2 June 2012. Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://www.helpguide.org/life/sleep_disorders.htm>. 1. This website was a good overview on each sleeping disorder there is. I used it for nightmares, night terros, sleep apnea, narcolepsy. It has a good overview of symptoms and causes for each disorder b. Linden, Serena P. "The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior." Serendip Home. N.p., Mar. 2007. Web. 06 Aug. 2012. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1690 1. This website was all about sleep deprivation. It had its causes and what can happen if people don’t get enough sleep. This helped me with finding disasters that were related or caused by sleep deprivation c. Ramsland, Katherine. "Automatism: The Sleepwalkers Defense." â€” Attack in the Night â€” Crime Library on TruTV.com. Crime Library, n.d. Web. 04 Aug. 2012. <http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/criminal_mind/psychology/automatism/1_index.html>. 1. I used this webiste/article as an example of people participating in violence when they were asleep. This individual was having an nightmare and actually got up and acted it out while he was asleep and ended up murdering his wife, but used sleep walking in his defense in court and was found not guilty.• Videos a. Youtube.com Videos 1. Night Terrors 2. The Machinist Trailer 3. The Nightmare on Elm Street Trailer 4. Inception Dream Collapsing Scene