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  1. 1. PUMPING NEURONS Tana Santiago ECE-PSY 275
  2. 2. PUMPING NEURONSWhat Are Normal Brain Changes?To understand cognitive and physical brainchanges that lead to cognitive aging and dementia,first we must understand normal age-relatedbrain changes. The parietal, frontal, and temporalcortices all experience significant tissue lossthroughout life. Healthy adults lose approximately15 percent of their neocortical tissuebetween ages thirty and ninety, with disproportionatelyhigher losses in areas crucial forexecutive control (Raz, 2000).
  3. 3. PUMPING NEURONS• Adopting a physically active lifestyle early on may be the best way to prevent brain decay• Aging increases the prevalence of cognitive impairment.• (Ratey, 2008)
  4. 4. PUMPING NEURONS In contrast to medications, aerobic exercise is consistently associated with increased cognitive performance and greater brain volume. (Crone 2010)• Aerobic exercise is thought to improve brain health by creating new brain cells , blood vessels and by enhancing communication between neurons. (Ratey, 2008)
  5. 5. PUMPING NEURONSBlood flow increases and the transport of nutrients to newly formed cells result in better brain function and increased brain mass.One prospective longitudinal study found that midlife physical activity levels increased more gray matter volume twenty-one years later, even in individuals with cognitive problems, (Rovio et al., 2010).
  6. 6. PUMPING NEURONS• Aerobic exercise not only slowed, but reversed, typical age-related atrophy.• Modest amounts of aerobic exercise can protect against brain atrophy.• Walking one mile a day can prevent atrophy.
  7. 7. PUMPING NEURONS• While exercise preserves brain tissue, it also helps you think better. In a recent study, people who exercised regularly got better at planning and paying attention.• Athletic activity helps young exercisers also with increased ability to handle complex problems and relief of knowing their brains are protected as they get older.• (Gullar,2006)
  8. 8. PUMPING NEURONS• Exercise also has a positive effect on mental health.• Physical activities have been found to have holistic benefits such as, social interaction, positive emotional experiences and sense of achievement (Crone et al., ).• Very few studies have been done on younger age groups. Of the few studies that have been conducted, Ahmadi et al. (2005) It was reported that body building, swimming and taekwondo control groups had lower levels of depression than the group who did no physical activity.
  9. 9. PUMPING NEURONS• Exercise gets rid of stress, improves your mood, increases memory, makes you smarter and able to function better.• Exercise reconfigures your brain to help you perform at your highest level.• Exercise is a free and easy way to fight off the effects of depression, ADD and memory loss. (Ratey, 2008)
  10. 10. PUMPING NEURONS• As you have read physical activity is beneficial in many ways:• It increases brain function and mass.• It fights off depression.• When you are feeling overwhelmed take a few minutes, go for a walk do some aerobics. You will be thinking clearer and become more relaxed and protecting your brain for the future.
  11. 11. PUMPING NEURONSGuallar E, Podewils L. Mens Sana in Corpore Sano. Annals of Internal Medicine [serial online]. January 17, 2006:135, W24. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed July 14, 2012.APA(American Psychological Assoc.) ReferencesKeith Laws, et al. "Physical Activity And Mental Health In A Student Population." Journal Of Mental Health 19.6 (2010): 492-499. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 July 2012.Vancouver/ICMJE References
  12. 12. PUMPING NEURONSMoghaddam J, Hefzollesan M, Salehian M, Shirmohammadzadeh M. Effect of Different Exercises on Reducing Male Students Depression. Annals Of Biological Research [serial online]. June 2012;3(3):1231-1235. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed July 14, 2012.APA(American Psychological Assoc.) ReferencesRatey, J. J., & Hagerman, E. (2008). Spark: The revolutionary new science of exercise and the brain. New York, NY: Little, Brown. Spark explains the science of exercise and the biological relationship between the body, the brain, and the mind.
  13. 13. PUMPING NEURONSTyson, P, Wilson, K, Crone, D, Brailsford, R, & Laws, K 2010, Physical activity and mental health in a student population, Journal Of Mental Health, 19, 6, pp. 492- 499, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 July 2012.MLA(Modern Language Assoc.) Works Cited