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High Performance (Product) Matters

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Keynote for the 2015 North American Wood Window & Door Symposium, looking at the importance of windows to achieve high performance buildings.

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High Performance (Product) Matters

  1. 1. High Performance Matters How and why we need to change our current window design for Comfort, Health & Profit Bronwyn Barry Design Director - One Sky Homes Co-President: Passive House California Co-President: North American Passive House Network
  2. 2. Agenda • How Windows can Change the World • An Introduction to your Colleagues • Inspiration Gallery
  3. 3. Herring Haus (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) Slab on Grd 0.178 32 0.03 Walls to Amb. 0.106 54 0.02 Wall to Grnd 0.179 32 0.03 Roof 0.057 100 0.01 Av. U-Window 0.99 6 0.17 Window Area (m2) 30 322 sf Airtightness ACH 0.6
  4. 4. Climate & Location
  5. 5. What is our biggest Loser?
  6. 6. The following became constant: • Window Area: 12m2 • Airtightness: 0.2 ach What if we optimize this? http://www.passivhaus.protolife.com
  7. 7. 0 0.5 1 Slab on Grd Walls to Amb. Wall to Grnd Roof Av. U- Window 0.22 0.16 0.22 0.07 0.4 0.178 0.106 0.179 0.057 0.99 AFTER: (W/m2K) BEFORE: (W/m2K) BEFORE: AFTER: U R U U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) Slab on Grd 0.178 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Walls to Amb. 0.106 54 0.02 0.16 35 0.03 Wall to Grnd 0.179 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Roof 0.057 100 0.01 0.07 81 0.01 Av. U-Window 0.99 6 0.17 0.4 14 0.07 Window Area (m2) 30 322 sf 12 129 sf Airtightness ACH 0.6 0.2 Windows are our BEST opportunity!
  8. 8. BEFORE: AFTER: U R U U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) Slab on Grd 0.178 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Walls to Amb. 0.106 54 0.02 0.16 35 0.03 Wall to Grnd 0.179 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Roof 0.057 100 0.01 0.07 81 0.01 Av. U-Window 0.99 6 0.17 0.4 14 0.07 Window Area (m2) 30 322 sf 12 129 sf Airtightness ACH 0.6 0.2 And offer a complex set of choices! # Units Total Area Htg Dmd m2 W/m2a (BTU/hr.ft2.°F) kWh/m2a 0.99 0.17 40 0.45 0.08 31 0.99 0.17 37 0.45 0.08 25 Before Optimized 19 30.45 13.028 Av. U-w U-Window & Total Area Comparison But is this possible?
  9. 9. Can Herring Haus Meet the Passive House Standard?
  10. 10. Only if we have better Windows! AFTER: Slab on Grd Walls to Amb. Wall to Grnd Roof Av. U-Window Window Area (m2) Airtightness ACH U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) 0.22 26 0.04 0.16 35 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 0.07 81 0.01 0.4 14 0.07 12 129 sf 0.2
  11. 11. Evolution of a Passive House Window: Pazen ENERsign bf: 100 mm Uw,: 0,68 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,106 W/(mK) Efficiency class : phA Pazen: ENERsignPlus bf: 94 mm UW,: 0,65 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,02 W/(mK) Efficiency class : phA Winter ewitherm bf: 154/169 mm UW,: 0,77 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,170 W/(mK) Efficiency class: phC Pazen: Arctis bf: 94/94 mm UW,: 0,45 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,08 W/(mK) Efficiency class : phA • Frames went from tall to wide • Performance improved with less frame
  12. 12. Source: ARCHnews Green Column, June 2009. Dan Johnson, danjoh99@gmail.com • Can it Drip? • Will it Drain? • Can you set it back into the wall? Looking from our Perspective
  13. 13. Psi Spacer Htg Dmd W/mK W/m2a (BTU/hr.ft2.°F) kWh/m2a 0.04 0.97 0.17 40 0.03 0.95 0.17 39 0.025 0.93 0.16 39 0.022 0.93 0.16 39 Psi-Spacer Comparison TGI Thermix Swiss Spacer V Av. U-w Super Spacer Triseal What if we changed the Spacer?
  14. 14. Never Mind Exterior Water… Mould Perfect Spacer: aluminium Stainless steel Plastic Condensate Illustration © PHI Condensate Illustration © PHI Illustration © PHI Illustration © PHI Condensate Illustration © PHI -10°C 20°C, 14°F 68 °F 50%rh Manage your interior condensation for: Durability Health
  15. 15. θmin=14.93 °C Ψe = 0.019 W/(mK) θmin=14.93 °C Ψe = 0.018 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 0.86 W/(m²K) θmin=15.05 °C Ψe = 0.010 W/(mK) θmin=15.02 °C Ψe = 0.017 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 0.84 W/(m²K) θmin=15.15 °C Ψe = 0.123 W/(mK) θmin=15.09 °C Ψe = 0.204 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 1.22 W/(m²K) Location, location, location! Manage your location for: Performance Durability Health
  16. 16. Consider the ‘Halfie’ (the mid-wall installation) Psi Install Htg Dmd W/mK W/m2a (BTU/hr.ft2.°F) kWh/m2a 0.019 0.9 0.16 39 0.01 0.87 0.15 38 0.123 1.24 0.22 45 Psi-Installation Comparison Av. U-w Outside edge Middle of Wall Interior Wall Install θmin=15.05 °C Ψe = 0.010 W/(mK) θmin=15.02 °C Ψe = 0.017 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 0.84 W/(m²K)
  17. 17. http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/429524?format=EBOK Be cautious with Interior Insulation!
  18. 18. Historic Renovations are Still Possible Model carefully to eliminate potential cold surfaces
  19. 19. What windows am I using? First Net Zero Energy new home in California
  20. 20. How’s are they performing? http://oneskyhomes.com/about/presentations/cottle-zne-home-measures-plus-energy-performance Local vs Imports show up on the thermal camera…
  21. 21. Retrofit in Sunnyvale, CA Passive House is the perfect target for retrofits…
  22. 22. Remove the Nailing Flange Saving the siding from future removal Creating better drainage at the Sill
  23. 23. Uw,e 0,85 Requirements for windows Climate region Hygiene criterion fRsi =0,25 m²K/W ≥ UW [W/(m²K)] UW,installed [W/(m²K)] Glazing Arctic 0.80 0.40 0,07 0.45 0,08 Quadruple/Vacuum Cold 0.75 0.60 0,106 0.65 0,114 Triple/Quadruple Cool, temperate 0.70 0.80 0,14 0.85 0,15 Triple Warm, temperate 0.65 1.00 0,176 1.05 0,185 Double/Triple Warm 0.55 1.20 0,21 1.25 0,22 Double Hot 0.55 1.20 0,21 1.25 0,22 Double anti sun Very hot 0.65 1.00 0,176 1.05 0,185 Triple anti sun UW,installed ≤ 1.05 W/(m²K) 0.85 W/(m²K) 1.05 W/(m²K) UW,installed ≤ 0.65 W/(m²K) UW,installed ≤ 0.45 W/(m²K) UW,installed ≤ 1.25 W/(m²K) 0,22 BTU/(hft²F) What performance level does North America need?
  24. 24. Design temperature θa for fRsi: minimum average temperature over several days Maximum water activity: aW ≤ 0.80 Water activity higher than 0.80 can lead to mold growth. To prevent mold growth, the minimum temperature of inner surfaces must be higher than 12.6 °C, when rHi is 50%. The lower the designed for ambient temperature (θa), the more is required of the exterior envelope. The temperature factor fRsi [-] is a good indicator for the hygiene criterion. To prevent mold growth, fRsi must increase with decreasing temperature fRsi = qsi -qa qi -qa Source: With Permission from the Passive House Institute θi = 20°C 68°F danger of mold growth mold growth free LA 0.51 Washington 0.70 Minneapolis 0.75 Winnipeg 0.79 Design temperature θa for fRsi: minimum average temperature over several days Low U-value is not enough…
  25. 25. Comfort is KING (of sales) Minimum temperature of inner surfaces: θsi ≥ θop -4,2 K Due to comfort, this criterion limits the minimum average temperature of the surface of a building component. Minimum surface temperature can deviate from average operative room temperature by a maximum of 4.2 Kelvin. A larger difference can lead to cold air drafts and radiant heat loss. This criterion defines the maximum thermal transmittance coefficient of a building component: )(/² 2,4 KKWKmR K U aopsi    RSi =0.13 m²K/W, θop = 22°C 0,738 hft²/(BTU) 71,6°F Los Angeles 1.35 W/(m²K) 0,238 BTU/(hft²F) Washington 0.85 W/(m²k) 0,15 BTU/(hft²F) Minneapolis 0.67 W/(m²K) 0,118 BTU/(hft²F) Winnipeg 0.60 W/(m²K) 0,106 BTU/(hft²F) Mexico-City 2,0 W/(m²K) 0,35 BTU/(hft²F) (min.12hmeanvalue) [°C] Information on different climates
  26. 26. Radiator to balance low surface temperatures and to stop the cold- air No radiator necessary, if surface temperature is not more than 4.2 K below the operative room temperature The Passive House Standard is defined by thermal comfort! “A Passive House is a building, for which thermal comfort (ISO 7730) can be achieved solely by post- heating or post-cooling of the fresh air mass, which is required to achieve sufficient indoor air quality conditions – without the need for additional recirculation of air.”
  27. 27. The SmartWin Co-operative Founded by Franz Freundorfer Fourteen small producers operating across EU
  28. 28. SmartWin Historical Passive House Window renovation for a 600 year old building
  29. 29. http://www.passiv.de/komponentendatenbank/files/pdf/zertifikate/zd_propassivhausfenster_smartwin-historic_en.pdf SmartWin Historic: U-window = 0.7 W/m2K
  30. 30. SmartWin Phased Retrofit Profile Designed for the Building to be insulated later…
  31. 31. SmartWin Arctic: U-window = 0.6 W/m2K http://www.passiv.de/komponentendatenbank/files/pdf/zertifikate/zd_propassivhausfenster_smartwin-arctic_en.pdf
  32. 32. Optiwin – the other Cooperative Passive House Windows from Ireland to Austria (and coming soon to North America?)
  33. 33. Optiwin LIGNUMA: U-window = 0.79 W/m2K http://www.passiv.de/komponentendatenbank/files/pdf/zertifikate/zd_optiwin_lignuma_en.pdf
  34. 34. The Innovator behind ENERsign Günter Pazen has been designing Passive House windows for 25 Years!
  35. 35. Pazen Arctis: U-window = 0.6 W/m2K http://www.passiv.de/komponentendatenbank/files/pdf/zertifikate/zd_pazen_enersign-arctis-stern_en.pdf
  36. 36. Synergist, California (Making it Local!) Source: www.synergistwindows.com
  37. 37. Synergist Window: U-window = 0.79 W/m2K http://www.passiv.de/komponentendatenbank/files/pdf/zertifikate/zd_casagrande_synergist_en.pdf
  38. 38. Fat moves in Thinner Frames… Image 1: SmartWin(Propassivhausfenster.net) 2.Enersign.de, Image 3: passivehausfenster.at , Image 4: walchfenster.at Good Frame Design Includes: • Strength • Durability • Insulation, • Drainage • and various options for installation.
  39. 39. Big Moves in Thin Glass Maximum total gas gap: 36 mm; minimum emissivity: 3 % Beyond state of the art: • Anti dew (hard)-coating on the outside • Vacuum glazing • Multi-foil glazing Requirement Ug [W/(m²k)] Ug [W/(m²k)] g [-] Ug [W/(m²k)] g [-] cool-temperate 0,75 0,52 0,28 cold 0,55 0,55 0,28 arctic 0,35 0,58 0,29 By the use of low-iron-glass 2% better g-values Glazing: State of the art Region 2 * 18 mm 90% Argon 2 * low-e-coating (3%) 3 * 12 mm 90% Krypton 3 * low-e-coating (3%) 0,50 0,46 0,75 W/(m²K)=0,132 BTU/(hft²F) 0,55W/(m²K)=0,1 BTU/(hft²F) 0,35W/(m²K)=0,06 BTU/(hft²F) 0,52 0,29
  40. 40. Crystal Ball Gazing… Super Performance from Thin Film Source: SuperWindows.eu Invis 160 = Ug 0.15 W/m2K U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) 0.15 38 0.03
  41. 41. Frame Venting and Corner Glazing… Source: Presenters own images from International Passive House Conference, Germany
  42. 42. Blast from the Past Source: Presenters own images from Aachen, Germany
  43. 43. Resources to Learn More: Passive House Institute www.passivehouse.com North American Passive House Network www.naphnetwork.org http://naphn15.canphi.ca/
  44. 44. Customers of the Future:
  45. 45. Bronwyn Barry Design Director - One Sky Homes Co-President: Passive House California Co-President: North American Passive House Network Thank You!

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