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Introducing Primary Energy Renewables: a look at New England's PER Factors

What is PER, why do we need it, and how does it apply to us here? This presentation provides a high level introduction to the new framework for viewing primary energy generated via an all-renewable energy grid. It includes a comparison of specific PER factors for all major New England cities, plus the seven largest cities in California.

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Introducing Primary Energy Renewables: a look at New England's PER Factors

  1. 1. Bronwyn Barry, RA, CPHD Passive House MA, Boston January, 2018 Introducing PRIMARY ENERGY + RENEWABLES A Building Framework for the All-Renewable Energy Future: As Developed by:
  2. 2. OVERVIEW  Intro: The fuzzy math of ‘Net Zero’  Fundamentals: What is Source (Primary) Energy?  What’s a Primary Energy ‘factor’  Why factors are local, regional & season-specific  Designing for an All-Renewable Energy Future  Why Primary Energy Renewable (PER)?  What this looks like in your region  A few building examples  Where to find more info
  3. 3. PROJECT EXAMPLE ( ONE OF MY OWN DESIGNS) SOURCE: One Sky Homes ALAMO PASSIVHAUS
  4. 4. ALL ELECTRIC (INDUCTION COOKTOP & LED’S)
  5. 5. PROJECT STATS Alamo - CA Climate Zone 12 HDD & CDD 2602 1578 Area & TFA 2968 SF 2342 SF Net Annual Energy Use & Production 10,707 kWh 12,767 kWh PV 7.5 kW Gas/Electric Split All Electric Mech systems Heat Pump, HRV Heat Pump WH NOMINALY THIS IS A PLUS ENERGY HOME…
  6. 6. ASSEMBLIES (hr.ft2.F/BTU) ROOF/CLG: R-38 CODE REQ’D R-46 WALLS: R-19 R-28 WINDOWS: U-0.57 FLOOR/SLAB: R-0 R-14 U-0.3 AS BUILT AIR TIGHTNESS: 3 ACH n50 0.3 ACH COMPARED TO 2016 T-24 CODE REQUIREMENTS
  7. 7. EUI = 9.5 -15000 -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 PV Production HouseUse EV Charger Net + kWh/yr WITH NET METERING MATH THE NUMBERS LOOK GREAT!
  8. 8. BUT PRACTICALLY THIS HOME STILL IMPORTS ENERGY
  9. 9. BUT PRACTICALLY THIS HOME STILL IMPORTS ENERGY Annual Energy Use vs Generation Gap
  10. 10. PRIMARY ENERGY ACCOUNTING SOURCE: Illustration from ‘California’s All Renewable Energy Future’ by Bronwyn Barry ‘SOURCE’ vs ‘SITE’ ENERGY
  11. 11. PRIMARY ENERGY ACCOUNTING SOURCE: Illustration from ‘California’s All Renewable Energy Future’ by Bronwyn Barry ‘SOURCE’ vs ‘SITE’ ENERGY ‘SITE NET ZERO’ IS FUZZY MATH!
  12. 12. WHAT IS A UTILIZATION FACTOR FOR ELECTRICITY? SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use
  13. 13. WHAT IS A UTILIZATION FACTOR FOR ELECTRICITY? SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use
  14. 14. SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use WHAT IS A UTILIZATION FACTOR FOR ELECTRICITY?
  15. 15. WHAT’S YOUR REGIONAL(SOURCE) ENERGY FACTOR? SOURCE: Image - http://www.theenergycollective.com/aqgilbert/2322195/us-electricity-system-15-maps, Data: Passive House Academy kWh of Source Energy per kWh of delivered electricity (2004) National: 3.315
  16. 16. WHAT’S YOUR REGIONAL(SOURCE) ENERGY FACTOR? SOURCE: Image - http://www.theenergycollective.com/aqgilbert/2322195/us-electricity-system-15-maps, Data: Passive House Academy kWh of Source Energy per kWh of delivered electricity (2004) National: 3.315 ERCOT: 3.574 Alaska: 3.568 Hawaii: 3.1917 Eastern: 3.394
  17. 17. SOURCE: Image - http://www.theenergycollective.com/aqgilbert/2322195/us-electricity-system-15-maps, Data: Passive House Academy kWh of Source Energy per kWh of delivered electricity (2004) National: 3.315 Western: 2.853 ERCOT: 3.574 Alaska: 3.568 Hawaii: 3.1917 Eastern: 3.394 WHAT’S YOUR REGIONAL(SOURCE) ENERGY FACTOR?
  18. 18. HOW DIRTY(OR CLEAN) IS YOUR GRID? Nuclear North East Hydro North West Windy Great Plains Coal Midwest Solar Coasts Gas Everywhere! Solar Coasts Gas Everywhere!
  19. 19. SHIFTING DESIGN INCENTIVES TO FAVOR RENEWABLES SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use
  20. 20. SHIFTING DESIGN INCENTIVES TO FAVOR RENEWABLES SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use
  21. 21. SHIFTING DESIGN INCENTIVES TO FAVOR RENEWABLES SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use ✕
  22. 22. SHIFTING DESIGN INCENTIVES TO FAVOR RENEWABLES SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use  ✕
  23. 23. SHIFTING DESIGN INCENTIVES TO FAVOR RENEWABLES SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use  ✕ Renewables 3x better site utilization
  24. 24. SHIFTING DESIGN INCENTIVES TO FAVOR RENEWABLES SOURCE: https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/measuring-building-energy-use  ✕ Renewables 3x better site utilization But non-Renewables look equally good
  25. 25. SOURCE: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment, VISUALIZINGAN ALL RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURE
  26. 26. VISUALIZINGAN ALL RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURE SOURCE: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment,
  27. 27. VISUALIZINGAN ALL RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURE SOURCE: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment,
  28. 28. VISUALIZINGAN ALL RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURE SOURCE: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment,
  29. 29. VISUALIZINGAN ALL RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURE SOURCE: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment,
  30. 30. VISUALIZINGAN ALL RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURE SOURCE: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment, New Design Incentives Needed
  31. 31. RETHINKINGPRIMARY (SOURCE) ENERGY Heating/Cooling Demand: Peak Heat Load: Air-tightness: Total Primary Energy: 15 kWh/m2yr or 4.75 kBTU/hr.ft2 10 W/m2 or 3.2 BTU/hr.ft2 n50 < 0.6 ACH Primary Energy Renewables (PER) Factors 3 Certification Levels Incentivizes RENEWABLE ENERGY sources SOURCE: Image – Team Germany 2009 Solar Decathlon Passivhaus supplies 200% of it’s energy via renewable energy. Creates a CARBON EMISSIONS focus Cooling Limits adjusted for Humid Climates:
  32. 32. THREE RENEWABLE ENERGY CERTIFICATION LEVELS Energy Supply from Renewable Resources Final Energy Demand at the BuildingPER = INCENTIVIZES: 1. Total Demand Reduction & Peak Load Shifting 2. Fuel switching to all-electric with heat pumps 3. Regional renewable grid efficiencies 4. Allows local and off-site renewable credits 5. Seasonal storage of renewables at utility scale 6. Urban density & equitable renewable credit for all buildings SOURCE: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment
  33. 33. BUILDINGAN ALL-RENEWABLE ENERGY FRAMEWORK SOURCE: Illustrations by Bronwyn Barry, info: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessment 1. Total Demand Reduction Separated into:  Electricity  Hot Water  Heating  Cooling  Dehumidification 2. Seasonal Energy Demand 3. Regional Grid Renewable Supply Account for:  Wind  Solar PV & HW  Hydro ~ Biomass ~ District Heat 4. Building Site & Size 6. Renewable Storage Calculated kWh of:  Short-term &  Long-term energy 5. Regional Peak Load Considers localized use:  Demand Type  Daily Peak Use  Seasonal Peak 7. Appliance Energy Source Incentivizes fuel switching Factor & incentivize:  Local renewable availability  Building size vs roof area  Supply vs Demand balance  Viable short- vs long-term storage
  34. 34. FRAMEWORKFOR NEW ENGLAND 5. Regional Peak Load SOURCE: PHPP v.9.7 IP
  35. 35. FRAMEWORKFOR NEW ENGLAND 5. Regional Peak Load SOURCE: PHPP v.9.7 IP
  36. 36. FRAMEWORKFOR NEW ENGLAND 5. Regional Peak Load SOURCE: PHPP v.9.7 IP
  37. 37. FRAMEWORKFOR NEW ENGLAND 5. Regional Peak Load SOURCE: PHPP v.9.7 IP
  38. 38. FRAMEWORKFOR TRI-STATE REGION 5. Regional Peak Load SOURCE: PHPP v.9.7 IP
  39. 39. FRAMEWORKFOR CALIFORNIA 5. Regional Peak Load
  40. 40. APPLIED TO A HOME IN MAINE SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/harrmann/the-new-phpp-version-9-project-specific-cause-effect
  41. 41. SUMMARIZINGPRIMARY ENERGY RENEWABLE BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. Manages ‘Loss’ 1. Driven by: Comfort Quality Durability 3. Credits renewables separately PRIORITIZES DEMAND REDUCTION Renewable sources given beneficial ‘Primary Energy Renewable’ factors Credits allocated to: On-site generation Off-site generation Green Roofs (Regional grid supply factored into this calculus.) SOURCE: Image – California’s All Renewable Energy Future by Bronwyn Barry, CPHD
  42. 42. EQUITABLECALCULATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. Manages ‘Loss’ 1. Driven by: Comfort Quality Durability 3. Credits renewables separately SOURCE: Image – California’s All Renewable Energy Future by Bronwyn Barry, CPHD RENEWABLE CREDITS ALLOCATED BY Projected Building Footprint Incentivizes large-scale and micro-grid renewable supply. Off-site generation allowed for Premium Tier. Does not penalize commercial, tall, shaded or urban infill projects with no site generation capacity.
  43. 43. LEARN MORE HERE:http://www.naphnetwork.org http://www.naphnetwork.org
  44. 44. LEARN MORE HERE: http://www.naphnconference2018.com/
  45. 45. LEARN MORE HERE: https://passivhaustagung.de/en/
  46. 46. FURTHERREADING, THANKS AND CREDITS SOURCE MATERIAL:  Passive House Institute, passivehouse.com  ‘The PER Sustainability Assessment,’ Passipedia.org  Andre Harrmann, CertiPHiers & Harrmann Consulting  Bronwyn Barry, ‘California’s All-Renewable Energy Future’ RECOMMENDED READING: https://passipedia.org/certification/passive_house_categories/per#the_per_sustainability_assessme nt https://passipedia.org/basics/passive_house_- _assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply/passive_house_the_next_decade SOURCE: Image – Alamo Passive House, One Sky Homes THANK YOU Bronwyn Barry, RA, CPHD Email: info@naphnetwork.org Website: http://naphnetwork.org/

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