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High Performance (Product) Matters



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High Performance (Product) Matters

  1. 1. High Performance Matters How and why we need to change our current window design for Comfort, Health & Profit Bronwyn Barry Design Director - One Sky Homes Co-President: Passive House California Co-President: North American Passive House Network
  2. 2. Agenda • How Windows can Change the World • An Introduction to your Colleagues • Inspiration Gallery
  3. 3. Herring Haus (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) Slab on Grd 0.178 32 0.03 Walls to Amb. 0.106 54 0.02 Wall to Grnd 0.179 32 0.03 Roof 0.057 100 0.01 Av. U-Window 0.99 6 0.17 Window Area (m2) 30 322 sf Airtightness ACH 0.6
  4. 4. Climate & Location
  5. 5. What is our biggest Loser?
  6. 6. The following became constant: • Window Area: 12m2 • Airtightness: 0.2 ach What if we optimize this?
  7. 7. 0 0.5 1 Slab on Grd Walls to Amb. Wall to Grnd Roof Av. U- Window 0.22 0.16 0.22 0.07 0.4 0.178 0.106 0.179 0.057 0.99 AFTER: (W/m2K) BEFORE: (W/m2K) BEFORE: AFTER: U R U U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) Slab on Grd 0.178 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Walls to Amb. 0.106 54 0.02 0.16 35 0.03 Wall to Grnd 0.179 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Roof 0.057 100 0.01 0.07 81 0.01 Av. U-Window 0.99 6 0.17 0.4 14 0.07 Window Area (m2) 30 322 sf 12 129 sf Airtightness ACH 0.6 0.2 Windows are our BEST opportunity!
  8. 8. BEFORE: AFTER: U R U U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) Slab on Grd 0.178 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Walls to Amb. 0.106 54 0.02 0.16 35 0.03 Wall to Grnd 0.179 32 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 Roof 0.057 100 0.01 0.07 81 0.01 Av. U-Window 0.99 6 0.17 0.4 14 0.07 Window Area (m2) 30 322 sf 12 129 sf Airtightness ACH 0.6 0.2 And offer a complex set of choices! # Units Total Area Htg Dmd m2 W/m2a (BTU/hr.ft2.°F) kWh/m2a 0.99 0.17 40 0.45 0.08 31 0.99 0.17 37 0.45 0.08 25 Before Optimized 19 30.45 13.028 Av. U-w U-Window & Total Area Comparison But is this possible?
  9. 9. Can Herring Haus Meet the Passive House Standard?
  10. 10. Only if we have better Windows! AFTER: Slab on Grd Walls to Amb. Wall to Grnd Roof Av. U-Window Window Area (m2) Airtightness ACH U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) 0.22 26 0.04 0.16 35 0.03 0.22 26 0.04 0.07 81 0.01 0.4 14 0.07 12 129 sf 0.2
  11. 11. Evolution of a Passive House Window: Pazen ENERsign bf: 100 mm Uw,: 0,68 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,106 W/(mK) Efficiency class : phA Pazen: ENERsignPlus bf: 94 mm UW,: 0,65 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,02 W/(mK) Efficiency class : phA Winter ewitherm bf: 154/169 mm UW,: 0,77 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,170 W/(mK) Efficiency class: phC Pazen: Arctis bf: 94/94 mm UW,: 0,45 W/(m²K) Ψopak: 0,08 W/(mK) Efficiency class : phA • Frames went from tall to wide • Performance improved with less frame
  12. 12. Source: ARCHnews Green Column, June 2009. Dan Johnson, • Can it Drip? • Will it Drain? • Can you set it back into the wall? Looking from our Perspective
  13. 13. Psi Spacer Htg Dmd W/mK W/m2a (BTU/hr.ft2.°F) kWh/m2a 0.04 0.97 0.17 40 0.03 0.95 0.17 39 0.025 0.93 0.16 39 0.022 0.93 0.16 39 Psi-Spacer Comparison TGI Thermix Swiss Spacer V Av. U-w Super Spacer Triseal What if we changed the Spacer?
  14. 14. Never Mind Exterior Water… Mould Perfect Spacer: aluminium Stainless steel Plastic Condensate Illustration © PHI Condensate Illustration © PHI Illustration © PHI Illustration © PHI Condensate Illustration © PHI -10°C 20°C, 14°F 68 °F 50%rh Manage your interior condensation for: Durability Health
  15. 15. θmin=14.93 °C Ψe = 0.019 W/(mK) θmin=14.93 °C Ψe = 0.018 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 0.86 W/(m²K) θmin=15.05 °C Ψe = 0.010 W/(mK) θmin=15.02 °C Ψe = 0.017 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 0.84 W/(m²K) θmin=15.15 °C Ψe = 0.123 W/(mK) θmin=15.09 °C Ψe = 0.204 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 1.22 W/(m²K) Location, location, location! Manage your location for: Performance Durability Health
  16. 16. Consider the ‘Halfie’ (the mid-wall installation) Psi Install Htg Dmd W/mK W/m2a (BTU/hr.ft2.°F) kWh/m2a 0.019 0.9 0.16 39 0.01 0.87 0.15 38 0.123 1.24 0.22 45 Psi-Installation Comparison Av. U-w Outside edge Middle of Wall Interior Wall Install θmin=15.05 °C Ψe = 0.010 W/(mK) θmin=15.02 °C Ψe = 0.017 W/(mK) Uw,installed = 0.84 W/(m²K)
  17. 17. Be cautious with Interior Insulation!
  18. 18. Historic Renovations are Still Possible Model carefully to eliminate potential cold surfaces
  19. 19. What windows am I using? First Net Zero Energy new home in California
  20. 20. How’s are they performing? Local vs Imports show up on the thermal camera…
  21. 21. Retrofit in Sunnyvale, CA Passive House is the perfect target for retrofits…
  22. 22. Remove the Nailing Flange Saving the siding from future removal Creating better drainage at the Sill
  23. 23. Uw,e 0,85 Requirements for windows Climate region Hygiene criterion fRsi =0,25 m²K/W ≥ UW [W/(m²K)] UW,installed [W/(m²K)] Glazing Arctic 0.80 0.40 0,07 0.45 0,08 Quadruple/Vacuum Cold 0.75 0.60 0,106 0.65 0,114 Triple/Quadruple Cool, temperate 0.70 0.80 0,14 0.85 0,15 Triple Warm, temperate 0.65 1.00 0,176 1.05 0,185 Double/Triple Warm 0.55 1.20 0,21 1.25 0,22 Double Hot 0.55 1.20 0,21 1.25 0,22 Double anti sun Very hot 0.65 1.00 0,176 1.05 0,185 Triple anti sun UW,installed ≤ 1.05 W/(m²K) 0.85 W/(m²K) 1.05 W/(m²K) UW,installed ≤ 0.65 W/(m²K) UW,installed ≤ 0.45 W/(m²K) UW,installed ≤ 1.25 W/(m²K) 0,22 BTU/(hft²F) What performance level does North America need?
  24. 24. Design temperature θa for fRsi: minimum average temperature over several days Maximum water activity: aW ≤ 0.80 Water activity higher than 0.80 can lead to mold growth. To prevent mold growth, the minimum temperature of inner surfaces must be higher than 12.6 °C, when rHi is 50%. The lower the designed for ambient temperature (θa), the more is required of the exterior envelope. The temperature factor fRsi [-] is a good indicator for the hygiene criterion. To prevent mold growth, fRsi must increase with decreasing temperature fRsi = qsi -qa qi -qa Source: With Permission from the Passive House Institute θi = 20°C 68°F danger of mold growth mold growth free LA 0.51 Washington 0.70 Minneapolis 0.75 Winnipeg 0.79 Design temperature θa for fRsi: minimum average temperature over several days Low U-value is not enough…
  25. 25. Comfort is KING (of sales) Minimum temperature of inner surfaces: θsi ≥ θop -4,2 K Due to comfort, this criterion limits the minimum average temperature of the surface of a building component. Minimum surface temperature can deviate from average operative room temperature by a maximum of 4.2 Kelvin. A larger difference can lead to cold air drafts and radiant heat loss. This criterion defines the maximum thermal transmittance coefficient of a building component: )(/² 2,4 KKWKmR K U aopsi    RSi =0.13 m²K/W, θop = 22°C 0,738 hft²/(BTU) 71,6°F Los Angeles 1.35 W/(m²K) 0,238 BTU/(hft²F) Washington 0.85 W/(m²k) 0,15 BTU/(hft²F) Minneapolis 0.67 W/(m²K) 0,118 BTU/(hft²F) Winnipeg 0.60 W/(m²K) 0,106 BTU/(hft²F) Mexico-City 2,0 W/(m²K) 0,35 BTU/(hft²F) (min.12hmeanvalue) [°C] Information on different climates
  26. 26. Radiator to balance low surface temperatures and to stop the cold- air No radiator necessary, if surface temperature is not more than 4.2 K below the operative room temperature The Passive House Standard is defined by thermal comfort! “A Passive House is a building, for which thermal comfort (ISO 7730) can be achieved solely by post- heating or post-cooling of the fresh air mass, which is required to achieve sufficient indoor air quality conditions – without the need for additional recirculation of air.”
  27. 27. The SmartWin Co-operative Founded by Franz Freundorfer Fourteen small producers operating across EU
  28. 28. SmartWin Historical Passive House Window renovation for a 600 year old building
  29. 29. SmartWin Historic: U-window = 0.7 W/m2K
  30. 30. SmartWin Phased Retrofit Profile Designed for the Building to be insulated later…
  31. 31. SmartWin Arctic: U-window = 0.6 W/m2K
  32. 32. Optiwin – the other Cooperative Passive House Windows from Ireland to Austria (and coming soon to North America?)
  33. 33. Optiwin LIGNUMA: U-window = 0.79 W/m2K
  34. 34. The Innovator behind ENERsign Günter Pazen has been designing Passive House windows for 25 Years!
  35. 35. Pazen Arctis: U-window = 0.6 W/m2K
  36. 36. Synergist, California (Making it Local!) Source:
  37. 37. Synergist Window: U-window = 0.79 W/m2K
  38. 38. Fat moves in Thinner Frames… Image 1: SmartWin(, Image 3: , Image 4: Good Frame Design Includes: • Strength • Durability • Insulation, • Drainage • and various options for installation.
  39. 39. Big Moves in Thin Glass Maximum total gas gap: 36 mm; minimum emissivity: 3 % Beyond state of the art: • Anti dew (hard)-coating on the outside • Vacuum glazing • Multi-foil glazing Requirement Ug [W/(m²k)] Ug [W/(m²k)] g [-] Ug [W/(m²k)] g [-] cool-temperate 0,75 0,52 0,28 cold 0,55 0,55 0,28 arctic 0,35 0,58 0,29 By the use of low-iron-glass 2% better g-values Glazing: State of the art Region 2 * 18 mm 90% Argon 2 * low-e-coating (3%) 3 * 12 mm 90% Krypton 3 * low-e-coating (3%) 0,50 0,46 0,75 W/(m²K)=0,132 BTU/(hft²F) 0,55W/(m²K)=0,1 BTU/(hft²F) 0,35W/(m²K)=0,06 BTU/(hft²F) 0,52 0,29
  40. 40. Crystal Ball Gazing… Super Performance from Thin Film Source: Invis 160 = Ug 0.15 W/m2K U R U (W/m2 K) (hr.ft2 .°F/BTU) (BTU/hr.ft2 .°F) 0.15 38 0.03
  41. 41. Frame Venting and Corner Glazing… Source: Presenters own images from International Passive House Conference, Germany
  42. 42. Blast from the Past Source: Presenters own images from Aachen, Germany
  43. 43. Resources to Learn More: Passive House Institute North American Passive House Network
  44. 44. Customers of the Future:
  45. 45. Bronwyn Barry Design Director - One Sky Homes Co-President: Passive House California Co-President: North American Passive House Network Thank You!

Editor's Notes

  • With an indoor temperature of 20°C and a relative indoor air humidity of 50%, there may be problems relating to mould if the surface temperature falls below 12.6°C. In the Central European (cool, temperate) climate, in order to ensure an adequate surface temperature a temperature factor of at least 0.7 is necessary at the glazing edge (fRsi).
    The size of the linear thermal bridge at the glazing edge (Ψg -value) depends on the window construction as well as the material used.
    The construction of Passive House windows can be optimised by a deeper glazing rebate upstand; however this often entails larger frame widths, which has a negative effect on the potential solar gains through the windows. Insulation inserts on the outside which shield the glazing edge from the cold are advantageous in this case.
    The second option is to choose suitable materials for the warm edge, i.e. the thermally separated glazing edge seal. Many manufacturers of profiles for spacers at the glazing edge have developed products made of materials (stainless steel foil or a combination of stainless steel and plastic) which allow a high standard of thermal separation. In contrast with aluminium profiles, heat losses can be greatly reduced with these.
    The slide shows that absence of mould (in cool temperate climates) can only be achieved by means of a plastic spacer.

    Additional information:
    The materials for glazing edge seals have been improved considerably since the development of the Passive House window. Stainless steel spacers are at least as durable as aluminium spacers, the use of which can no longer be justified.
    Even less heat loss occurs with plastic spacers in which a metal foil is used to seal the gas filling. Today metal foils are located on the outside of the plastic body and the spacers are just as durable as the conventional solutions. Same is valid for a new generation of spacers, working with a plastic film, which is coated by a very thin metal layer to be absolutely tight.
  • If a window is positioned properly in the insulation layer and if the frame is well-covered with insulation, then the value Ψinstallation (linear thermal bridge due to installation) will be below 0 W/(mK), because the extended insulation of the frame makes the frame values “better” than the entered values.
    Improper installation can lead to a Ψinstallation value much greater than 0.05 W/(mK). The diagram shows the considerable worsening of the U-values of the installed windows due to the increase in the installation thermal bridge.
    The effect on the installation thermal bridge by the chosen window position in the wall or the insulation is apparent:
    The optimum installation position in the middle reduces the installation Psi-value to 0.01 or 0.017 W/(mK). Here the window is positioned in the insulation layer and the frame is completely covered with insulation.
    Installation flush with the interior surface has a disastrous effect; heat losses are increased by a third. Solar gains decrease simultaneously (not shown here) due to the greater amount of shading by the reveal.
    Installation flush with the facade only leads to a slight worsening of the installation thermal bridge in this particular case (window is insulated on the outside). There is no shading by the reveal, so in terms of thermal efficiency, this type of installation may be more favourable than installation in the insulation layer. However, there is the question of the practicability of this type of installation.
    As a compromise between the installation thermal bridge and the cost-effectiveness of the installation, the PHI recommends installation directly in front of the wall in the insulation layer (inner side of the frame level fixed to the wall).
  • A less risky implementation variant is the installation of casement windows. However casement windows are much more expensive than ordinary Passive House windows.
  • Green values: BTU/(hft²F)
  • The hygiene criterion is mainly about moisture. If there is too much moisture, mould can appear. For reasons of hygiene and to prevent damage to the historic substance, conditions, under which mould can grow, should be avoided. In the actual context important kinds of mould and fungus can grow, if the moisture in a pore of a material or at the surface of the material is over 80% rh. Because the relative moisture varies by the temperature, at a given relative indoor air humidity and indoor air temperature (i), the temperature of the inner surface is crucial whether mould can grow or not. A proper indicator for the temperature and by that for the hygiene criterion is the temperature factor fSi.
    As well as for the comfort criterion, the hygiene criterion depends on the outside temperature, because at a given window, the temperature of the inner surface (Si) of the window is directly influenced by the outside temperature. For mould needs some time to grow, not the average temperature of the coldest day but the average temperature of coldest several days is decisive for the specific design outside temperature (a) to determine the temperature factor. The figure shows the temperature factor for mould free conditions plotted against the design outside temperature and the required factors for some European cities. The coldest point at the inner surface of a window is in most cases the glass edge. To achieve the hygiene criterion, different measures are needed in the climates of Europe. Warm glass edges are recommended anyway.
  • The temperature of the inner surface depends on the outside temperature, different measures has to be taken in different climates. Besides the outside temperature, the inner surface temperature depends on the thermal quality of an element, indicated by its U-value [W/(m²K)]. This fact results in different u-values for different climates. Depending on the design-outside temperature (average temperature of the coldest day in a year), the U-value, required to achieve the comfort criterion can be calculated by the equation in the slide, Where is:
    Rsi: The internal heat transfer resistance (in case of vertical windows 0,13 m²K/W) op: Operative (perceived) room temperature [°C] a: Design-outside temperature [°C]
  • State of the art for glazing is the triple pane glazing with two low e coatings and argon filling Ug = 0,70 – 0,52 possible
    To achieve the requirement in terms of comfort and hygiene for arctic regions, quadruple panes with krypton fillings will be necessary
  • Rvalue: 38 (Invis) and Rvalue: R10 (ENERsign)
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