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Grammar review


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a brief review on grammar rules

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Grammar review

  1. 1. Grammar Review Presented by Batch Natano Instructor, Eng 1
  2. 2. <ul><li>ADJECTIVE </li></ul>
  3. 3. Adjective <ul><li>Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Kinds of Adjectives <ul><li>Descriptive adjective-words that describe or give quality or condition to a person, a place or thing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. the tall  professor ; the lugubrious  lieutenant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limiting adjectives-words that which specify WHAT or WHICH person, place or thing is described and HOW MAY persons, place or things are described. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kinds of limiting adjectives <ul><li>The article a, an or the </li></ul><ul><li>The numerical adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be CARDINAL (e.g one, two), or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORDINAL (e.g. first, second third) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. THAT house; THIS book; THOSE students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That house on the hill is ours. (THAT points to only one house </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interrogative adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A word that asks a questions and at the same time modifies a noun. (e.g. what, which, whose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT time will the program start? (WHAT asks and modifies time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHICH umbrella is yours? (WHICH asks and at the same time modifies the noun umbrella) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Comparison of adjective <ul><li>Use POSITIVE degree to describe a noun/pronoun w/o any comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Use COMPARATIVE degree to compare the quality or quantity of two nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Use SUPERLATIVE degree to compare the quality or quantity of a noun to 3 or more nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Use AS before and after the adjective to compare two nouns of equal rank. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Use the words in the table in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>example: </li></ul><ul><li>Randy is a TALL boy. </li></ul><ul><li>Randy is TALLER THAN Andy. </li></ul><ul><li>Randy is the TALLEST AMONG his friends. </li></ul>POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE Tall Taller Tallest Big Bigger Biggest Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful Terrible Less terrible Least terrible
  8. 8. Some irregular adjectives for comparison: <ul><li>Use the words in the table in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>example: </li></ul><ul><li>Carla is good in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Carla is better that Carlo in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Carla is the best among her classmates. </li></ul>POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE Good Better Best Bad, ill Worse Worst Much More Most Many More Most Little Less Least Old Older, elder Oldest, eldest Far Farther, further Farthest, furthest
  9. 9. The Order of Adjectives in a Series <ul><li>The categories in the following table can be described as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners  — articles and other limiters. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation  — post determiners and limiter adjectives (e.g., a real hero, a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e.g., beautiful, interesting) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Size and Shape  — adjectives subject to objective measure (e.g., wealthy, large, round) </li></ul><ul><li>Age  — adjectives denoting age (e.g., young, old, new, ancient) </li></ul><ul><li>Color  — adjectives denoting color (e.g., red, black, pale) </li></ul>The Order of Adjectives in a Series
  11. 11. <ul><li>Origin  — denominal adjectives denoting source of noun (e.g., French, American, Canadian) </li></ul><ul><li>Material  — denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of (e.g., woolen, metallic, wooden) </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifier  — final limiter, often regarded as part of the noun (e.g., rocking chair, hunting cabin, passenger car, book cover) </li></ul>The Order of Adjectives in a Series
  12. 12.   THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADJECTIVES  Determiner Observation Physical Description Origin Material Qualifier Noun   Size Shape Age Color   a beautiful     old   Italian   touring car an expensive     antique     silver   mirror four gorgeous   long- stemmed   red   silk   roses her     short   black       hair our   big   old   English     sheepdog those     square       wooden hat boxes that dilapidated little           hunting cabin several   enormous   young   American   basketball players some delicious         Thai     food
  13. 13. Formed order of adjective <ul><li>A beautiful old Italian touring car… </li></ul><ul><li>An expensive antique silver mirror… </li></ul><ul><li>Four long-stemmed red silk roses… </li></ul>
  14. 14. Give us much as adjectives as you can: Source: Source:
  15. 15. Arrange the ff. adjective in correct order 1. THE WOMAN DARK-SKINNED THIRTY YEAR OLD BRITISH 2. A TWENTY-SIX RED SWEET LITTLE CHERRIES ANSWER: The little thirty-year old dark-skinned British woman… ANSWER: A sweet little red twenty-six cherries…
  16. 16. ADVERB
  17. 17. Adverbs <ul><li>Adverbs are words that modify </li></ul><ul><li>a  verb  (He drove  slowly . — How did he drive?) </li></ul><ul><li>an  adjective  (He drove a  very  fast car. — How fast was his car?) </li></ul><ul><li>another adverb (She moved  quite  slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Uses of adverbs <ul><li>Use an adverb of manner to describe HOW an action is done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Slowly, perfectly, fast, frantically, quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher teaches EFFEICIENTLY. ( efficiently tells how the teacher teaches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The actor performed his role PERFECTLY. ( perfectly describes or modifies the action performs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use an adverb of time to describe WHEN the action happens. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Every morning, daily, soon, lately, often, again, sometimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy delivers newspapers EVERY MORNING. (Every morning tells when the boy delivers the newspapers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Father writes me OFTEN. (often modifies writes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use an adverb of place and direction to tell WHERE the action takes place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Here/there, below, above, everywhere, far/near </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The man on horseback went NORTHWARD. (northward tells where the man went) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use adverb of degree and measure to tell the extent of the action or how much had been done. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Too, hardly, completely, very, merely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The box is TOO heavy for me to carry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The floods COMPLETELY destroyed the crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use adverbs of number to tell how many times or where the actions takes place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Two, once, first, second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He visited me TWICE in the dormitory. (twice tells how many times was the visit done) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I got FOUR perfect scores out of five. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Preposition <ul><li>We use  AT  to designate specific times. Ex. The train is due at 12:15 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>We use  ON  to designate days and dates. Ex. My brother is coming on Monday. </li></ul><ul><li>We use  IN  for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. Ex. She likes to jog in the morning. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>TOWARD and TOWARDS are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you. Ex. We're moving toward the light. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>We use FOR when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years). Ex. He held his breath for seven minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>We use  SINCE  with a specific date or time. Ex. He's worked here since 1970. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty </li></ul>
  23. 23. Exercise: Identify the correct preposition for the ff. sentences. <ul><li>My best friend lives (in : on : at) Boretz Road. </li></ul><ul><li>I'll be ready to leave (in : on : at) about twenty minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Since he met his new girlfriend, Juan never seems to be (in : on : at) home.  </li></ul><ul><li>The child responded to his mother's demands (with : by : from) throwing a tantrum </li></ul><ul><li>I think she spent the entire afternoon (in : on : at) the phone. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>I will wait ( from : at : until) 6:30, but then I'm going home.  </li></ul><ul><li>The police caught the thief ( at : at : from) the corner of Cascade and Plum Streets.  </li></ul><ul><li>My fingers were injured so my sister had to write the note (for : with : to) me.  </li></ul><ul><li>I am not interested (to : for : in) buying a new car now.  </li></ul><ul><li>What are the main ingredients (for : on : of) this casserole?  </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>THE USES OF VERBS </li></ul>Source: Ganir, Virginia P., Ph.D. 2005. English plus manual. Book Atbp. Publishing Corp. Mandaluyong City, Philippines
  26. 26. <ul><li>Teresa (come, comes) early for work. </li></ul><ul><li>A verb must agree with the subject in number and person. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ S’ added to a verb if the subject is singular. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ S’ is not added to a verb if the subject is plural. </li></ul>The teachers (agrees, agree) with Anne. RULE 1
  27. 27. <ul><li>You (are, is) the first visitor today. </li></ul><ul><li>a plural verb is always required after YOU, even when YOU is singular. </li></ul><ul><li>The pronoun I is used with the base form of the verb. </li></ul>RULE 2 I (writes, write) poems and short stories.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Singular form of the verb- add ‘S’ or ‘ES’ </li></ul><ul><li>Singular form of the noun WITHOUT ‘S’ or ‘ES’ </li></ul><ul><li>Plural form of the verb- add ‘S’ or ‘ES’ </li></ul><ul><li>Plural form of the noun WITH ‘S’ or ‘ES’ </li></ul>MODIFICATIONS
  29. 29. <ul><li>Enclosed (is, are) my bio-data. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though the verb precedes the subject, it must agree with the subject. </li></ul>RULE 3
  30. 30. RULE 4 THERE (is, are) many MEMBERS, who cannot attend the meeting. <ul><li>When the sentence begins with THERE IS, THERE ARE, HERE IS or HERE ARE, the verb must agree with the REAL SUBJECT, which follows the verb. </li></ul>HERE (is, are) your PEN.
  31. 31. RULE 5 One OF THOSE WHO came here (look, looks) like my cousin. <ul><li>The phrase ONE OF THOSE WHO and ONE OF THE THINGS THAT…should be followed by SINGULAR VERB because the noun refers to only ONE. </li></ul>One OF THE THINGS THAT(attract, attracts) people to this place is its peaceful environment.
  32. 32. RULE 6 The FIVE PESOS on the table (is, are) for your allowance today. (represents total amount) The FIVE PESOS on the table (were, was) found by the janitor. (represents separate units) TEN YEARS of absence (mean, means) eternity for me. (represents period of time) FIVE KILOS of rice (is, are) too heavy for me to carry. (represents quantity) ONE HUNDRED METERS (is, are) a long distance for a newly operated patient. (represents distance)
  33. 33. <ul><li>Use a SINGULAR VERB when the noun expresses DISTANCE, QUANTITY, PERIOD OF TIME or AMOUNT OF MONEY REPRESENTS TOTAL AMOUNT; however when these represent individual units, a plural verb should be used. </li></ul>RULE 6
  34. 34. RULE 7 The man AND woman (need, needs) advice. <ul><li>Singular subjects joined by AND or by BOTH require a plural verb. </li></ul>Both apples AND oranges (is, are) delicious.
  35. 35. RULE 7 ( exemption to the rule) Bread AND butter (IS, ARE) his favorite breakfast. <ul><li>However, if the subjects mean ONE UNIT, a singular verb is required. </li></ul>The president and treasurer of our company (IS, ARE) my mother.
  36. 36. RULE 7 ( exemption to the rule) EVERY boy AND girl (has, have) a right to grow to full capacity. <ul><li>Also, when said subjects are modified by EACH and EVERY, though these are connected by the conjunction AND, a singular verb is needed. </li></ul>EACH officer AND member (attend, attends) the meeting.
  37. 37. RULE 8 The box AS WELL AS the envelopes (is, are) on the table. <ul><li>Intervening phrase does not affect the number of the subject and its ‘agreement’ to the verb. Phrases like AS WELL AS, TOGETHER WITH, IN ADDITION TO, and words like WITH, INCLUDING, BETWEEN and BY. </li></ul>Ana, TOGETHER WITH her friends, (go, goes) to the party.
  38. 38. RULE 9 EITHER Ben OR Tony (is, are) the hero. <ul><li>Two or more singular subjects of the same person joined by the conjunction OR, NOR, EITHER… OR, NEITHER… NOR need a singular verb. </li></ul><ul><li>If joined by plural the verb should take plural form of the verb. </li></ul>NEITHER the managers NOR the laborers (begin, begins) the protest.
  39. 39. RULE 9 A book OR flowers usually (make, makes) an appropriate gift. <ul><li>When a singular and a subject are joined together the verb agrees to the nearer subject. </li></ul>NEITHER the managers NOR the laborer (begin, begins) protest.
  40. 40. RULE 10 The apples FROM THE BOX (is, are) rotten. <ul><li>A prepositional phrase that follows the subject does not affect the number of the verb. </li></ul>ONE OF THE pupils’ notebooks (is, are)neatly covered. (though ‘notebooks’ is plural, the verb is singular because of ONE)
  41. 41. RULE 11 The NEWS (is, are)alarming. <ul><li>There are nouns which are plural in form( with ‘s’) but singular in meaning. These nouns take singular form of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of these nouns are MEANS, SUMMONS, WORKS, MEASELS, MUMPS, NEWS, CIVICS, PHYSICS, MATHEMATICS… etc. </li></ul>MEASLES (is, are)an infectious disease.
  42. 42. RULE 12 Her RICHES (help, helps) the poor. <ul><li>Other nouns that are plural in form require a plural verb even of they are singular in meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are: PROCEEDS, REAMANS, RICHES, VALUABLES, WAGES…etc. </li></ul>Their WAGES (is, are) given every end of the month.
  43. 43. RULE 13 My scissors (is, are) sharp. <ul><li>Nouns that denote pairs are always in plural and require plural form of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of these nouns are pliers, trousers, pants, scissors… etc. </li></ul>The trousers (fit, fits) her waist.
  44. 44. RULE 14 ‘ Pride and Prejudice’ (make, makes) her heart beats fast. <ul><li>A title of a play, book, film, painting or musical composition is always singular and should take singular form of the verb. </li></ul>‘ Cinderella and the Seven Dwarves’ (fascinates, fascinate) her.
  45. 45. RULE 15 Five plus five (is, are) ten. <ul><li>In the agreement of the subject and verb for mathematical expressions: </li></ul><ul><li>If the answer in a mathematical expression is ten and less, ‘IS’ is used. </li></ul><ul><li>If the answer is above ten, ‘ARE’ is used. </li></ul>Seven and seven (is, are) fourteen.
  46. 46. RULE 16 THE NUMBER of errors (is, are) diminishing. <ul><li>The phrase A NUMBER, is generally plural unless it means a mathematical number. </li></ul>A NUMBER of our teachers (is, are) doing well.
  47. 47. RULE 17 The children (doesn’t , don’t ) seem nervous. <ul><li>Don’t is use with all plural subject including ‘I’ and ‘YOU’ </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t is use with all singular subjects except for ‘I’ and ‘YOU’ </li></ul>Kim (doesn’t, don’t) ride the bus.
  48. 48. RULE 18 <ul><li>The class (was, were) divided in their opinions of the play. (referred to the members of the class) </li></ul><ul><li>The class (has, have) decided to have a science fair in November. (referred to the class itself) </li></ul><ul><li>Collective noun may be either singular or plural. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective noun is singular in the form but names a group of persons, animals, or things. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes singular verb when the noun refers to the group as unit. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes plural when the noun refers to the individual parts of the group. </li></ul>
  49. 49. RULE 19 <ul><li>Some of the crowd (has, have) left. (some is singular because it means ‘a part’ of the crowd.) </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the fans (is, are) getting autographs. (some is plural because it refers to more than one fan) </li></ul><ul><li>The indefinite pronouns such as all, any, most, none and some maybe either singular or plural. </li></ul><ul><li>Its number is determined by the number of the object in the prepositional phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>If pronoun refers to singular, it’s singular; it’s the same thing with plural. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Sentence