Ultrasound value• High sensitivity and specificity (95-100% respectively).• Large ..5 X 2,5 cm• Rapid learning curve even for unexperienced sonographers,residents or radiologists.• Many typical signs.
Preprocedure Checklist• 1. The patient should be stabilized clinically with an intravenous line in place.• 2. The patient should not have a clinical contraindication (peritonitis or perforation).• 3. The following supplies should be prepared:• a. Enema ring to prevent spills;• b. Saline (1–2 L)or Hartmann solution, warmed to body temperature, in an enema bag;• c. Foley catheter, the largest possible based on age; – the following can be used as a guide: – younger than 6 months…. 18F; 6 to 12 months … 20F; 12 to 24 months … 22F; and older than 24 months … 24F. d. A 20-mL syringe with water to inflate the Foley catheter balloon; and e. Water-resistant tape to seal the buttocks.
Reduction steps• 1. Place child in the left lateral or prone position. Insert the catheter, and inflate the balloon, checking the position on sonography. Seal the buttocks tightly using water-resistant tape.• 2. Transfer the child to the supine position. Scan the patient to confirm the expected location of the intus- susception, and document and localize any free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. Elevate the enema bag to 3 ft above the bed to generate approximately 80 mm Hg of pressure. Observe the flow of fluid from the rec- tum and colon on sonography to facilitate visualiza- tion of leading edge of the intussusception .
• Follow the progression of intussusception until it is completely reduced, 5 minutes is reached, or perfo- ration is suspected.• Scan the abdomen and pelvis intermittently to look for the presence of a sudden increase in free fluid that would suggest perforation.• In a case of bowel perforation, abort immediately and drain the fluid out by lowering the enema bag below the bed. Refer to surgery.
Repeat attempts• If unsuccessful after 5 minutes of continuous moni-toring, lower the enema bag to relieve the pressure, and “rest the bowel” for 2 minutes.• 2. During this time, scan the pelvis to confirm that the Foley catheter is in place; assess for leaks; drain/clean the enema ring; and retape the buttocks if necessary.• 3. Once rested, raise the bag an extra 1 ft for every attempt, up to a maximum of 5.5 ft (for ≈120 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure).• Repeat attempts may be performed up to 5 times.• 4. If there is progressive reduction during several attempts, and difficulty is encountered at the ileocecal valve, a delayed attempt may be performed after resting the bowel for 30 to 60 minutes.
• If there is progression after the delayed attempt, a second delayed attempt can be performed. If there is no progression, consider aborting the procedure.• 5. If there is no progression during the first 3 attempts, and the head of the intussusception is still at or distal to the splenic flexure, consider aborting the procedure.• 6. To abort the procedure, lower the enema bag to drain the colon to relieve the pressure, and remove the Foley catheter. Refer the patient for surgical intervention.
Successful Reduction• 1. Follow the intussusception until successful reduction is attained, defined by the following criteria:• a. Visualization of the entire cecum and disappear- ance of the intussusception• b. Visualization of a thickened but patent ileocecal valve• and c. Free flow of fluid into the distal small bowel• 2. After successful reduction, continue flow for 15 to 30 seconds to fill the small bowel and evaluate for small- bowel intussusception.• Stop the flow of fluid while carefully scanning for any lead points (eg, polyps, Meckel diverticulum, and duplication cyst).• At the end of the procedure, lower the enema bag to drain the colon, and remove the Foley catheter.• Scan the pelvis for free fluid.
Pros and cons• High sensitivity and • New=learning curve. specificity of US • Writing PPG diagnosis of • Nurses orientation. intussusception. • Room availability .• Available resources. • Logistic issues.• No transportation and re-arrangements=save • Confidence bridge. time.