ChangeManagement Presented By: BABASAB PATIL LOGO
What is Change Management? It consists of: The task of managing change (from a reactive or a proactive stance) An area of professional practice (with considerable variation of knowledge and skills between practitioners) A body of knowledge (consisting of models, methods, techniques and other tools)
Change management Software systems are subject to continual change requests: From users; From developers; From market forces. Change management is concerned with keeping track of these changes and ensuring that they are implemented in the most cost-effective way.
Leading Change “The rate of change is not going to slow Down anytime soon. If anything, competition In most industries will probably speed up Even more in the next few decades.” LOGO
Leading the Change Process Generate Apply Science of solution Learning & Human options and Performance metrics Conduct effectiveness Translate job & cost requirements into analysis competencies (K, S, A, T) Performance Consultants Make recommend- ations
Creating Major Change The 8 Stage Process of Creating Major Change 1. Establishing a Sense of Urgency 2. Creating a Guiding Coalition 3. Developing a Vision & Strategy 4. Communicating the Change Vision 5. Empowering Broad-Based Action 6. Generating Short-Term Wins 7. Consolidating Gains & Producing More Change 8. Anchoring New Approaches in the CultureSource: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998
Establishing a Sense of Urgency (Importance)• Examining the market & competitive realities• Identifying & discussing crisis, potential crisis, major opportunities Creating a Guiding Coalition (Combination) • Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change • Getting the group to work together like a team Developing a Vision & Strategy • Creating a vision to help direct the change effort • Developing strategies for achieving that visionSource: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998
Communicating the Change Vision • Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision & strategies • Having the guiding coalition role model the behavior expected of employees Empowering Broad-Based Action • Getting rid of obstacles • Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision • Encouraging risk taking & non-traditional ideas, activities & actions Generating Short-Term Wins • Planning for visible improvements in performance, or “wins” • Creating those wins • Visibly recognizing & rewarding people who made the win possibleSource: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998
Consolidating Gains & Producing More Change • Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures & policies that don’t fit together and don’t fit the transformation strategy • Hiring, promoting, & developing people who can implement the change vision • Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes & change agents Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture • Creating better performance through customer- & productivity oriented behavior, more and better leadership, & more effective management • Articulating the connections between new behavior & organizational success • Developing means to ensure leadership development & successionSource: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998
The 3-phase process gives structure to the steps projectteams should take
Outputs of Phase 1: Outputs of Phase 2: Outputs of Phase 3:• Change characteristics • Communication plan • Reinforcement profile • Sponsor roadmap mechanisms• Organizational • Training plan • Compliance audit attributes profile • Coaching plan reports• Change management • Resistance • Corrective action strategy management plan plans• Change management team structure • Individual and• Sponsor group recognition assessment, structure approaches and roles • Success celebrations • After action review
Facilitating Change Encouraging others to seek and act upon opportunities for different and innovative approaches to addressing problems and opportunities; critically analyzing evolving and fluid situations; facilitating the implementation and acceptance of change within the workplace; actively engaging with resistance to change
Skills and BehaviorsValues sound approaches: Consistently remains open to ideas offered by others. Values diverse opinions and approaches. Recognizes supports and uses good ideas to solve problems or address issues.Rewards change: Recognizes and rewards others who make useful changes.
Conti…,Addresses change resistance: Seeks to understand underlying causes that lead to change resistance. Helps individuals overcome resistance to change. Facilitates change within CARE by targeting the appropriate audience and ensuring access to relevant information. Shows empathy with people who feel loss as a result of change.
Conti..,Manages complexity and contradictions:Tries to minimize complexities, contradictions, and paradoxes or reduce their impact.Clarifies direction and smoothes the process of change.
Resistance and Barriers To ChangeResistance to change A degree of resistance is normal since change is: Disruptive (Troublesome) Stressful (Demanding, worrying) Moreover a degree of scepticism can be healthy especially where there are weaknesses in the proposed changes. However resistance will also impede (hinder) the achievement of organizational objectives.
Four basic reasons why change is resisted1. Parochial self interest (Narrow-Minded)2. Misunderstanding3. Low tolerance of change4. Disagreement over the need for change
Organisational barriers to changeStructural inertiaExisting power structuresResistance from work groupsFailure of previous change initiatives
Individual barriers to change Tradition and set ways: Loyalty to existing relationships Failure to accept the need for change Insecurity Different person ambitions Fear of: Loss of power , income, skills. The unknown
Conti..,Preference for the existing arrangementsBreak up of work groupsRedundancyInability to perform as well in the new situation
Inappropriate change management Change is often resisted because of failures in the way it is introduced Failure to explain the need for change Failure to provide information Failure to consult, negotiate and offer support and training Lack of involvement in the process Failure to build trust and sense of security Poor employee relations
Why change should be welcomed Change can produce positive benefits for the individual: Opportunities for personal change and development Provides a new challenge Reduces the boredom of work Opportunity to participate and shape the outcome
Change management requiresboth an individual and anorganizational perspective
Individual change management Organizational change managementUnderstanding how one person makes a change Understanding what tools we have to helpsuccessfully individuals make changes successfullyOrganizations dont change, individuals do. No While change happens one person at a time, therematter how large of a project you are taking on, the are processes and tools that can be used to facilitatesuccess of that project ultimately lies with each this change. Tools like communication and trainingemployee doing their work differently, multiplied are often the only activities when no structuredacross all of the employees impacted by the change. approach is applied. When there is an organizationalEffective change management requires an change management perspective, a process emergesunderstanding for and appreciation of how one for how toscale change management activities andperson makes a change successfully. Without an how to use the complete set of tools available forindividual perspective, we are left with activities but project leaders and business managers.no idea of the goal or outcome that we are trying toachieve.