NS2 3.5 Weather Forecasting

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Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science Two Lesson Weather Forecasting

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NS2 3.5 Weather Forecasting

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 WEATHER FORECASTING
  2. 2. Weather Forecast A prediction of weather conditions expected at a place, within an area, or along a route for a specified time or during a specified period
  3. 3. The civilian weather agency is the National Weather Service.
  4. 4. National Weather Service An agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasts, storm, and flood warnings, etc.
  5. 5. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is part of the Department of Commerce.
  6. 6. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration A division of the Department of Commerce, created in 1970, that conducts research on the world’s oceans and atmosphere
  7. 7. The National Weather Service is composed of a headquarters at Camp Springs, Maryland, six national support centers, and six regional headquarters.
  8. 8. The six regional headquarters support field activities throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and on some of the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
  9. 9. Clovis 13 North Clovis, NM The National Weather Service also receives weather data from some 12,000 substations, most of which are manned by volunteers.
  10. 10. Chief among the six national support centers is the National Centers for Environmental Prediction.
  11. 11. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction are a group of nine specialized centers that focus on one aspect of the overall national warning and forecasting process. They include: • Aviation Weather Center, Kansas City, MO • Climate Prediction Center at the NWS headquarters, Camp Springs, MD • Space Environment Center, Boulder, CO • Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK • Tropical Prediction Center (also known as the National Hurricane Center), Miami, FL
  12. 12. The National Weather Service: • Employs several thousand people • Operates 400 weather facilities in the U.S. • Operates 13 weather facilities overseas National Weather • Has weather facilities Service on 21 ships Tallahassee, FL
  13. 13. Each day, the National Weather Service processes: • 12,000 synoptic reports and 25,000 hourly reports from surface observation stations • 1,400 reports from ships • 1,500 atmospheric soundings • 2,500 reports from aircraft • Cloud and temperature data from weather satellites
  14. 14. Synoptic Pertaining to or constituting a synopsis; affording or taking a general view of the principal parts of a subject
  15. 15. The National Weather Service provides weather information to newspapers, radio and television stations, and other media for the general public.
  16. 16. The National Weather Service makes studies of climate and conducts basic and applied research to improve future forecasts and services, and to advance the science of meteorology itself.
  17. 17. Much of the National Weather Service's day-to-day activity is geared to the service of aviation. Several High Altitude Forecast Centers have been set up to forecast high- altitude conditions for commercial airlines.
  18. 18. The National Weather Service, as part of NOAA, is within what U.S. department? a. Commerce b. Interior c. State d. Treasury
  19. 19. The National Weather Service, as part of NOAA, is within what U.S. department? a. Commerce b. Interior c. State d. Treasury
  20. 20. The National Hurricane Center in Miami is also known as the ________ ________ Center. a. Aviation Weather b. Kennedy Space c. Storm Prediction d. Tropical Prediction
  21. 21. The National Hurricane Center in Miami is also known as the ________ ________ Center. a. Aviation Weather b. Kennedy Space c. Storm Prediction d. Tropical Prediction
  22. 22. Each of the services maintains its own weather agency. The Navy Weather Service is part of the Navy Meteorology and Oceanography Command.
  23. 23. Navy Meteorology and Oceanography Command U.S. Navy command whose mission is to collect, interpret and apply global meteorological and oceanographic data and information for safety at sea, strategic and tactical warfare and weapons system design, development and deployment
  24. 24. The U.S. Navy is an active participant in the World Meteorological Organization.
  25. 25. World Meteorological Organization Coordinates weather data collection and analysis by more than 178 member nations and territories; based in Geneva, Switzerland
  26. 26. Navy weather units are maintained: • With all major aviation units • With certain major combatant and auxiliary vessels, and flagships • At most naval shore activities
  27. 27. Trained enlisted aerographer's mates and meteorological officers are assigned to weather units.
  28. 28. On ships that do not carry aerographers and meteorologists, weather observations and reporting are carried out by the ship's navigator, assisted by trained quartermasters.
  29. 29. The Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Centers (NMOCs) use basic information acquired from various sources, compile it into weather broadcasts and warnings, and transmit it to operating forces within their area of responsibility.
  30. 30. The NMOCs are located at: • Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • San Diego, California • Norfolk, Virginia • Yokosuka, Japan • Rota, Spain • Bahrain in the Persian Gulf The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center is located in Monterey, California.
  31. 31. What organization serves as the weather agency for the U.S. Navy? a. Naval Meteorology Bureau b. Naval Weather Command c. Navy Meteorology and Oceanography Command d. Navy Weather Service
  32. 32. What organization serves as the weather agency for the U.S. Navy? a. Naval Meteorology Bureau b. Naval Weather Command c. Navy Meteorology and Oceanography Command d. Navy Weather Service
  33. 33. How many Naval Meteorological and Oceanographic Centers are there? a. Three b. Four c. Five d. Six
  34. 34. How many Naval Meteorological and Oceanographic Centers are there? a. Three b. Four c. Five d. Six
  35. 35. The National Weather Service publishes many kinds of weather forecasts: • 24-hour detailed forecasts • 5-day forecasts
  36. 36. The National Weather Service publishes many kinds of weather forecasts: • 30-day general outlooks
  37. 37. The National Weather Service publishes many kinds of weather forecasts: • 12-hour aviation forecasts • Special bulletins, weather maps, and storm and frost warnings
  38. 38. Newspapers, TV, and radio weather reports rely on many of the National Weather Service forecasts.
  39. 39. Complete weather reports are given to pilots. They also receive in-flight updates of weather information.
  40. 40. There are two kinds of weather reporting, local and long-range forecasting.
  41. 41. The long-range study is more concerned with an overall view of the climate and with predictions a year or more in the future. Almanacs provide long-range weather predictions.
  42. 42. Almanac A publication containing astronomical or meteorological information
  43. 43. Local weather is predicted up to a month or so in advance. The accuracy of these predictions is dependent upon timely readings taken at many reporting stations. It is not an exact science.
  44. 44. Weather Reporting Stations, Weather Ships, Balloons, and Weather Satellites
  45. 45. Elements of the Navy Meteorology and Oceanography Command prepare several types of forecasts: • Area • Local • Route • Flight • Terminal • Storm Warnings • Special Warnings
  46. 46. Major units afloat and ashore prepare area forecasts. They provide: • Synopsis of weather conditions • Report of all pressure systems and associated weather, including position, intensity, direction of movement
  47. 47. Ships and stations plan and use local forecasts. They provide: • Brief summary of synoptic pressure situation, fronts, severe weather, fog • Normally 36-hour predictions • Specific details affecting operations such as flying conditions, ceilings
  48. 48. The route forecast refers to weather conditions along a specific route.
  49. 49. The flight forecast pertains to the weather conditions on successive stages of a flight.
  50. 50. The terminal forecast concerns itself with the landing and takeoff conditions at fields en route.
  51. 51. Storm warnings are included in scheduled broadcasts to both the fleet and merchant marine. Thunderstorms, tornadoes, local windstorms, and major cyclonic storms are reported.
  52. 52. Special warnings are issued for hurricanes.
  53. 53. What commercial publications provide long-range weather predictions for the year ahead? a. Almanacs b. Annual Weather Bulletins c. National Weather Prediction Bulletins d. Newspapers
  54. 54. What commercial publications provide long-range weather predictions for the year ahead? a. Almanacs b. Annual Weather Bulletins c. National Weather Prediction Bulletins d. Newspapers
  55. 55. What type of forecast do major Navy units provide for their operating region? a. Area b. Flight c. Local d. Route
  56. 56. What type of forecast do major Navy units provide for their operating region? a. Area b. Flight c. Local d. Route
  57. 57. TIROS I - Television Infrared Observation Satellite I Weather satellites began service in 1960.
  58. 58. The newest satellites are equipped with cameras that transmit pictures of cloud formations by day or night. Other sensors relate surface temperatures, fronts, storms, snow, sea ice, and cloud heights.
  59. 59. Weather satellites are positioned about 900 miles from the Earth's surface, orbit the Earth every 115 minutes, and view the entire Earth three times a day.
  60. 60. Geosynchronous satellites hover 22,300 miles above the equator and photograph an entire hemisphere every half an hour.
  61. 61. Geosynchronous or Geostationary Satellites (GOES) A series of United States satellites that remain above a fixed point on the Earth Meteorological satellites that collect data for worldwide weather forecasting
  62. 62. GOES provide spectacular pictures of whole hurricane systems and frontal weather patterns that are now a regular part of weather forecasting.
  63. 63. Geosynchronous weather satellites hover how far above the earth? a. 22,300 feet b. 110,150 feet c. 11,150 miles d. 22,300 miles
  64. 64. Geosynchronous weather satellites hover how far above the earth? a. 22,300 feet b. 110,150 feet c. 11,150 miles d. 22,300 miles
  65. 65. Geosynchronous weather satellites photograph an entire hemisphere how many times a day? a. 3 b. 12 (every two hours) c. 24 (once an hour) d. 48 (every half hour)
  66. 66. Geosynchronous weather satellites photograph an entire hemisphere how many times a day? a. 3 b. 12 (every two hours) c. 24 (once an hour) d. 48 (every half hour)
  67. 67. Weather maps are printed and distributed by the National Weather Service.
  68. 68. All symbols used on the maps are explained in map legends.
  69. 69. Isobaric forecasting is possible by careful reading of weather maps, since all frontal zones and wind directions are carefully charted.
  70. 70. What type of forecasting is possible by careful reading of weather maps? a. Isobaric b. Long-range c. Metabolic d. Synoptic
  71. 71. What type of forecasting is possible by careful reading of weather maps? a. Isobaric b. Long-range c. Metabolic d. Synoptic
  72. 72. The weather symbol, ══, indicates what type of weather condition? a. Fog b. Heavy snow c. Rain d. Thunderstorm
  73. 73. The weather symbol, ══, indicates what type of weather condition? a. Fog b. Heavy snow c. Rain d. Thunderstorm
  74. 74. Q.1. What is a flight forecast?
  75. 75. Q.1. What is a flight forecast? A.1. A forecast of weather conditions on successive stages of a flight
  76. 76. Q.2. What is a route forecast?
  77. 77. Q.2. What is a route forecast? A.2. A forecast of weather conditions along a specific route
  78. 78. Q.3. What is a synoptic forecast?
  79. 79. Q.3. What is a synoptic forecast? A.3. A general or overall view
  80. 80. Q.4. What is the World Meteorological Organization?
  81. 81. Q.4. What is the World Meteorological Organization? A.4. An agency of the United Nations that provides the NWS with an exchange of weather information
  82. 82. Q.5. What are two kinds of weather reporting?
  83. 83. Q.5. What are two kinds of weather reporting? A.5. Long-range and local
  84. 84. Q.6. Who typically mans a Navy weather unit?
  85. 85. Q.6. Who typically mans a Navy weather unit? A.6. Trained enlisted aerographer's mates and meteorological officers
  86. 86. Q.7. What is a terminal forecast?
  87. 87. Q.7. What is a terminal forecast? A.7. A forecast of the weather conditions at the airfield intended for landing and takeoff
  88. 88. Q.8. On ships that do not have aerographers and meteorologists, who conducts weather observations and weather reporting duties?
  89. 89. Q.8. On ships that do not have aerographers and meteorologists, who conducts weather observations and weather reporting duties? A.8. Ship's navigator, assisted by trained quartermasters
  90. 90. Q.9. In what year was the first weather satellite launched, and what was its name?
  91. 91. Q.9. In what year was the first weather satellite launched, and what was its name? A.9. 1960, TIROS (TV and Infrared Observation Satellite)
  92. 92. Q.10. Who prepares local forecasts for the Navy?
  93. 93. Q.10. Who prepares local forecasts for the Navy? A.10. The local forecasts are prepared by ships or stations.
  94. 94. Q.11. Who issues storm warnings for the Navy?
  95. 95. Q.11. Who issues storm warnings for the Navy? A.11. NMOCs responsible for the area in which the storm is located

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