Principles and practices of waste management
Remove and Reduce
It is estimated that more than 3 billion tons of waste are
generated in Europe every year, and hazardous waste
generally makes up about 1% of all waste in Europe ;
nevertheless, hazardous waste presents a serous risk to the
ecosystem and human health if not managed and treated
Remove and Reduce
is known as ‘reduction at source’. Source reduction occurs prior to reuse, recycling,
treatment, or disposal. Source reduction may be achieved through equipment or
process or procedure modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution
of raw materials, and improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training or inventory
TYPES OF SOURCE REDUCTION
Source reduction can result from any activity that reduces the amount of a material need
ed and therefore used to make products. Some specific examples of source reduction pr
Redesigning products to use fewer materials (e.g., lightweighting, material substitution).
• Reusing products and materials (e.g., a refillable water bottle). المنتج استخدام اعادة/المواد
• Extending the useful lifespan of products. تطويل/عمر تمديدالمنتجات.
• Avoiding using materials in the first place (e.g., reducing junk mail).
األول المقام في المواد استخدام تجنب
Table 2 lists some chemicals/substances that should be avoided, because
they have been regulated by various regulatory authorities, and identifies
possible alternatives. Examples of reducing toxicity
• Use of non-chlorinated degreasing agents.
• Water-based paints in preference to solvent-based paints. استخدامالبويات(الماء)
• Biodegradable ‘plastics’. لتحلل قابل البالستيك
• Asbestos-free gaskets and insulation.
• Mercury-free components (this includes lighting).الزئبق من خالية مركبات استخدام
• Hydro-testing using low toxicity (or no) additives. سمية ذات مواد استخداممنخفظة
The re-use of materials in their original form such as:
• Chemical containers. Some containers can be reused only once to provide container
integrity while others can be reused multiple times using an approved chemical
vendor to refill chemical ‘x’ into the same used chemical ‘x’ container with the correct
choice of container material and
stock return procedures.
• Reuse of oily rags/pads that can be cleaned between uses. Need to consider the
• Refurbishment of equipment eg valves, meters.
• Supply of equipment in reusable containers. For example, the use of plastic boxes
rather than cardboard can be considered. It is essential to identify a re-use option and
to implement it;
This is the conversion of wastes into usable materials and/or extraction of energy or materials
from waste. Examples include:
• Recycling scrap metal.
• Re-conditioning drilling muds and solvents.
• Using oily wastes for road construction and stabilisation (though consideration of chemical
components and potential leaching to soil and groundwater should be undertaken before such
use, for example, asphaltics may be appropriate for road use, but used oil may not).
• Using cleaned drill cuttings and crushed clean concrete for road construction material and
• Discarding shredded tyres for landfill liner protective layers or as an alternate daily cover for
landfills. For example, tires and high grip rubber mats/flooring might be suitable for use. The
area of operation and availability of recycling facilities will dictate what can be done.
The destruction, detoxification and/or neutralisation of residues through processes
• Biological methods – composting (if appropriate, materials can be recycled), land
• Thermal methods – incineration, thermal desorption.
• Chemical methods – neutralisation, stabilisation.
• Physical methods – filtration, centrifugation, compaction or shredding.
Deep injection wells are also called brine disposal wells, and are
officially known as class II underground injection wells. They can
take any fluid related to oil and gas drilling, including frack
• Discharge to water or land.
[Form] DATA COLLECTION
The aim: الهدف/الغرض
1-؟ الصناعية للنفايات حلول ايجاد
2-بالمؤسسة؟ الصناعية النفايات ادارة ونظم مبادئ تطبيق(ع بشكلام)
what is the problem?
· Questionnaires: forms which are completed and returned by
respondents. An inexpensive method that is useful where literacy
rates are high and respondents are co-operative.
· Interviews: forms which are completed through an interview with
the respondent. More expensive than questionnaires, but they are
better for more complex questions, low literacy or less co-
· Direct observations: making direct measurements is the most
accurate method for many variables, such as catch, but is often
expensive. Many methods, such as observer programmes,
· Reporting: the main alternative to making direct measurements is
to require workers and others to report their activities. Reporting
requires literacy and co-operation, but can be backed up by a legal
requirement and direct measurements.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Recovery, treatment, anaerobic digestion, composting, incineration
Hazardous, non hazardous, inert and clinical waste
Waste strategy advice and submission to Local and Regional
Planning applications and environmental impact assessments
setting the solutions based on waste management ways