Biomaterials and its Applications


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  • Problems:Degeneration of Tissue.Mechanical Failure.Postoperative infection.Induction of blood clots
  • Biomaterials and its Applications

    1. 1. Biomaterials and itsApplicationsPresented by:Saransh Khandelwal,Trainee Scientist,CSIR-CSIO,Chandigarh 160030May20,20131
    2. 2. Outline• Introduction• Definition• Characteristics of Biomaterials• History• Biomaterials Science• Generations of Biomaterials• Examples of Biomaterials• Biocompatibility• Challenges• Future Scope• ReferencesMay20,20132
    3. 3. Introduction• How AMNS (Advanced Material and Nano Science) is beenapplied to the Medical World ?May20,20133AMNSBiomaterialsNanoMedicines
    4. 4. Healthcare Market (U.S. Data) [*1]May20,20134
    5. 5. Continued..May20,20135
    6. 6. Definition• Biomaterial is used to make devices to replace a part or afunction of the body in a safe, reliable, economic andphysiologically acceptable manner [Hench and Erthridge,1982,*2].• Materials of synthetic as well as of natural origin in contactwith tissue, blood, and biological fluids, and intended for usefor prosthetic, diagnostic, therapeutic, and storageapplications without adversely affecting the living organismand its components” [Bruck, 1980].May20,20136
    7. 7. History• More than 2000 years ago, Romans and Chinese used gold indentistry.• 1937 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) introduced indentistry.• 1958, Rob suggests Dacron Fabrics can be used to fabricate anarterial prosthetic.• 1960 Charnley uses PMMA, ultrahigh-molecular-weightpolyethylend, and stainless steal for total hip replacement.• Late 1960 – early 1970’s biomaterial field solidified.• 1975 Society for Biomaterials formed.May20,20137
    8. 8. Uses of BiomaterialsReplacement ofdiseased or damagedpart: Artificial hip joint,kidney dialysis machineAssist in healing:Sutures, bone plates,and screwsImprove function:Cardiac pacemaker,intraocular lensCorrect functionalabnormality: CardiacpacemakerCorrect cosmeticproblem:Augmentationmammoplasty, chinaugmentationAid to diagnosis:Probes and cathetersAid to treatment:Catheters, drainsMay20,20138
    9. 9. Characteristics of BiomaterialsPhysical Requirements• Hard Materials.• Flexible Material.Chemical Requirements• Must not react with any tissue in the body.• Must be non-toxic to the body.• Long-term replacement must not be biodegradable.May20,20139
    10. 10. Main featuresfor medical applications• Biofunctionality• Playing a specific function in physical and mechanical terms• Biocompatibility• Concept that refers to a set of properties that a material musthave to be used• safely in a biological organismMay20,201310
    11. 11. Biocompatible material features• Absence of carcinogenicity (the ability or tendency to producecancer)• Absence of immunogenicity (absence of a recognition of anexternal factor which could create rejection)• Absence of teratogenicity (ability to cause birth defects)• Absence of toxicityMay20,201311
    12. 12. MetalsCompositeMaterialsCeramicsPolymersBIOMATERIALSOrthopedicscrews/fixationDental Implants Dental ImplantsHeartvalvesBonereplacementsBiosensorsImplantableMicroelectrodesSkin/cartilageDrug DeliveryDevicesOcular implantsMay20,201312
    13. 13. Materials for Use in the BodyMay20,201313
    14. 14. Biomaterials involved in Human BodyMay20,201314
    15. 15. Examples of BiomaterialApplications• Heart Valve• Dental Implants• Intraocular Lenses• Vascular Grafts• Hip ReplacementsMay20,201315
    16. 16. Intraocular Lenses• By age 75 more than 50% ofpopulation suffers fromcataracts• Made of PMM, siliconeelastomer, and other materials.• 1.4 million implantations in theUnited States yearly.• Good vision is generallyrestored almost immediatelyafter lens is inserted.May20,201316
    17. 17. Heart Valve• Fabricated from carbons,metals, elastomers, fabrics, andnatural valves.• Must not React With Chemicalsin Body.• Attached By Polyester Mesh.• Tissue Growth Facilitated ByPolar Oxygen-ContainingGroups.May20,201317
    18. 18. Heart Valve• Almost as soon as valveimplanted cardiac function isrestored to near normal.• Bileaflet tilting disk heart valveused most widely.• More than 45,000 replacementvalves implanted every year inthe United States.May20,201318
    19. 19. • Small titanium fixture that serves as thereplacement for the root portion of amissing natural tooth.• Implant is placed in the bone of theupper or lower jaw and allowed to bondwith the bone.• Most dental implants are: pure titaniumscrew-shaped cylinders that act as rootsfor crowns and bridges, or as supportsfor dentures.Dental ImplantsMay20,201319A titanium dental implant. (Photograph courtesyof Dr. A. Norman Cranin, Brookdale HospitalMedical Center, Brooklyn, NY.)
    20. 20. Dental Implants• Capable of bonding to bone, aphenomenon known as"osseointegration”.• Bio-inert, there is no reactionin tissue and no rejection orallergic reactions.May20,201320
    21. 21. Vascular Grafts• Must Be Flexible.• Designed With Open PorousStructure.• Often Recognized By Body AsForeign.• Achieve and maintainhomeostasis.• Good structure retention.• Adequate burst strength.• High fatigue resistance.• Poly(ethylene terephthalate)—PETor Dacron• Good handling properties.• Biostable.May20,201321
    22. 22. Hip-ReplacementsMay20,201322• Most Common Medical Practice UsingBiomaterials.• Corrosion Resistant high-strengthMetal Alloys.• Very High Molecular Weight Polymers.• Thermoset Plastics.
    23. 23. Host Reactions to Biomaterials• Thrombosis• Hemolysis• Inflammation• Infection and Sterilization• Carcinogenesis• Hypersensitivity• Systemic EffectsMay20,201323
    24. 24. What are some of the Challenges?• To more closely replicate complex tissuearchitecture and arrangement in vitro.• To better understand extracellular andintracellular modulators of cell function.• To develop novel materials and processingtechniques that are compatible with biologicalinterfaces.• To find better strategies for immune acceptance.May20,201324
    25. 25. Biomaterials - An EmergingIndustry• Next generation of medical implants and therapeuticmodalities.• Interface of biotechnology and traditional engineering.• Significant industrial growth in the next 15 years -- potentialof a multi-billion dollar industry.May20,201325
    26. 26. Future Scope ( Surgical Robotics )• Instead of manipulating surgical instruments, surgeons usetheir thumbs and fingers to move joystick handles on a controlconsole to maneuver two robot arms containing miniatureinstruments that are inserted into ports in the patient. Thesurgeon’s movements transform large motions on the remotecontrols into micro-movements on the robot arms to greatlyimprove mechanical precision and safety.• A third robot arm holds a miniature camera, which is insertedthrough a small opening into the patient. The camera projectshighly magnified 3-D images on a console to give a broad viewof the interior surgical site.May20,201326
    27. 27. Surgical RoboticsMay20,201327• UCI Medical Center’s da VinciSurgical System is currentlyapproved for gall bladder,prostate, colorectal, gynecological,esophageal and gastric bypassprocedures.
    28. 28. References1. Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine ByBuddy D. Ratner, Allan S. Hoffman, Frederick J. Schoen, Jack E.Lemons2. Biomaterials, Joyce Y. Wong, Boston University3. Black, J. (1992) Biological Performance of Materials, 2nd ed. NewYork: M. Dekker, Inc.4. Bruck, S.D. (1980) Properties of Biomaterials in the PhysiologicalEnvironment. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.5. Greco, R.S. (1994) Implantation Biology. Boca Raton, FL: CRCPress.6. Hench, L.L. and Erthridge, E.C. (1982) Biomaterials —An InterfacialApproach, Vol. 4, A. Noordergraaf, Ed. New York: Academic Press.7. von Recum, A.F. (1994) Biomaterials: educational goals. In: AnnualBiomaterials Society Meeting. Boston,8. Williams, D.F. and Roaf, R. (1973) Implants in Surgery. London:W.B.Saunders.May20,201328
    29. 29. May20,201329