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Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering. Section 1: Concepts on management and strategy

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Set of slides for Section 1 of the course "Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering". Biomedical Engineering - UPF (2013-14)
Introduction to management concepts, innovation management, business models, value chain, strategies, design of communication plans.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering. Section 1: Concepts on management and strategy

  1. 1. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Lesson 0: Subject presentation
  2. 2. • You get familiar with basic management concepts and tools, so that: • You are able to assess key aspects in the biomedical engineering world from a managerial perspective • You are able to apply them in a specific entrepreneurial initiative: your career development Target
  3. 3. 4 ECTS credits (1st – 2nd quarter) • Theory (20 sessions – 1 hour) • Seminars ( 4 sessions – 2 hours) • Practical sessions ( 8 sessions – 2 hours) How
  4. 4. How • Basic management concepts and tools • Assess key aspects in the biomedical engineering world from a managerial perspective • Apply them in an entrepreneurial initiative: your career development • Theory • Classes plus own work from references • Seminars • Analysis of exemplary cases • Practical sessions and project • Application on own case
  5. 5. Who Mixed technical and professional backgrounds to foster a wider view on Biomedical Engineering Management • David de Lorenzo (background on genomics / entrepreneurship) http://www.linkedin.com/pub/david-de-lorenzo/5/a15/778 • Miguel Ángel González Ballester (background on computerized medical imaging / public and industrial research) http://es.linkedin.com/in/miguelangelgonzalez • Aurelio Ruiz (background on R+D+i management at industry and university) http://es.linkedin.com/in/aurelioruiz Plus diverse experts from different settings in seminars
  6. 6. Evaluation 4 points: Tests (at the end of each quarter, each 2 points, required at least 1 point in both tests). Can be reevaluated in a final redemption exam. Note: Failing one test implies directly going to the final test. 4 points: Group work. To be delivered at the end of the practical sessions. Cannot be reevaluated. 2 points: Presentation of individual plans (individual track within group work). Cannot be reevaluated. Each of the parts is to be passed (50%) independently, final score the sum-up of the 3 parts
  7. 7. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Strategic design. Aurelio Ruiz
  8. 8. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering By the end you should be able to answer What is management? What is project management? What is innovation? What is innovation management? Why is it relevant in Biomedical Engineering? Is it different from other disciplines?
  9. 9. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Introduction What is management? This is the focus of this first part Why is it relevant in Biomedical Engineering? Is it different from other disciplines? – This is embedded across the whole subject
  10. 10. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Introduction What is management? This is the focus of this first part
  11. 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Wikipedia shows “collective wisdom”, let’s analyze the way it defines it Additional questions: What do you think about “Management is what managers do” Have a look at the historic evolution. Any conclusion? Any thought about future evolution?
  12. 12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? “act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.” Goal 2 the object of a person’s ambition or effort; an aim or desired result: Objective 1 a thing aimed at or sought; a goal:  Quality Resource 1 (usually resources) a stock or supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively: Financial (money, asssets) Human (people, skills) Production (including IT) Knowledge, etc…  ALL INTERLINKED!
  13. 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? “act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.” Efficient: 1 (of a system or machine) achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense: Effective: 1 successful in producing a desired or intended result:
  14. 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? “act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.” This definition lacks the most essential responsibility in management Q1: How are goals defined? (What if goals are not the right ones?)
  15. 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Different levels (top management, mid-level, … up to individual management), mostly dependent / impacting in goals Irrespective of level, all share many common concepts What do you think about “Management is what managers do”
  16. 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Different activities, mostly depending on nature of resources (financial and legal, technical, marketing, communication,…) Often interlinked in every professional career, with different weights What do you think about “Management is what managers do”
  17. 17. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Different scopes (generic ones, specific for software development, etc) Often also sharing common principles. What do you think about “Management is what managers do”
  18. 18. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Different levels Different activities Different scopes Summary: What do you think about “Management is what managers do” Q2: Which are the common concepts across different management roles? Q3: How to choose the right methodology for me in a specific time? (How to focus on those aspects more relevant for me?)
  19. 19. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Have a look at the way management has evolved
  20. 20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Have a look at the way management has evolved Management evolves from the need to formalize technological and social advances Is technology nowadays going faster than human do? Often management skills in an organization / project are following past principles (is this also the case of the Wikipedia definition?)
  21. 21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Have a look at the way management has evolved Military treaty Politics (16th cent) Economy (18th cent)
  22. 22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Have a look at the way management has evolved Technical production (18th-19th cent) Organisations (20th cent) Quality management (20th cent)
  23. 23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Have a look at the way management has evolved Collective creation (and evaluation) Top-down Vs Bottom-up approaches Business models
  24. 24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Have a look at the way management has evolved (End-user, open, etc) Innovation
  25. 25. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Which will be the future changes pushing new management concepts Large information management? Suggested reading: How Technology Is Destroying Jobs. MIT Technology Review http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/51 5926/how-technology-is-destroying-jobs/
  26. 26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Summary: Have a look at the way management has evolved Management adapts! Again Q3 (less personalised): which management principles are most suitable for the biomedical engineering field? (How to decide?) Relevant for your current career stage (but out of the scope of this subject): which will be the ones most suitable in the future biomedical engineering field? (keep an eye to progress in related fields!)
  27. 27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Q3: How to choose the right methodology for me in a specific time? (How to focus on those aspects more relevant for me?) Which management principles are most suitable for the biomedical engineering field? Q2: Which are the common concepts across different management roles? Q1: How are goals defined?
  28. 28. Basic Concepts - Strategy Business Model Value Chain Strategic design
  29. 29. Basic Concepts - Strategy Business Model Value Chain Strategic design
  30. 30. Business Model Business Model Article: (1) Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. David J. Teece Let’s have a look at some selected excerpts
  31. 31. Business Model (abstract) “(a business model) reflects management’s hypothesis about what customers want, how they want it and what they will pay, and how an enterprise can organize to best meet customer needs, and get paid for doing so, and make a profit” (pg. 173) “it refers in the first instance to a conceptual, rather than a financial, model of a business. It makes implicit assumptions about customers, the behavior of revenues and costs, the changing nature of user needs, and likely competitor responses”
  32. 32. Business Model (pg. 188) “Selecting the “right” architecture and pricing model for a business requires not just understanding the choices available, but also assembling the evidence needed to validate conjectures and hunches about costs, customers, competitors, complementors, distributors and suppliers takes detailed fact-specific enquiry, and a keen understanding of customer needs and customer willingness to pay, as well as of competitor positioning and likely competitor responses”
  33. 33. Business Model (pg. 190) “The chances of good design are greater if entrepreneurs and managers have a deep understanding of user needs, consider multiple alternatives, analyze the value chain thoroughly so as to understand just how to deliver what the customer wants in a cost-effective and timely fashion, adopt a neutrality or relative efficiency perspective to outsourcing decisions, and are good listeners and fast learners” (pg. 191) “Its sustainability can only be determined against a particular business environment or context”
  34. 34. Business Model (Page 191) “The essence of a business model is that it crystallizes customer needs and ability to pay, defines the manner by which the business enterprise responds to and delivers value to customers, entices customers to pay for value, and converts those payments to profit through the proper design and operation of the various elements of the value chain” “Put differently, a business model reflects management’s hypothesis about what customers want, how they want it and what they will pay, and how an enterprise can organize to best meet customer needs, and get paid well for doing so”
  35. 35. Business Model (pg. 192) “Good business model design and implementation involves assessing such internal factors as well as external factors concerned with customers, suppliers, and the broader business environment.”
  36. 36. Business Model management’s hypothesis Conceptual model assumptions validate conjectures and hunches assembling the evidence fact-specific enquiry deep understanding proper design and operation Similar process to technical / research design But issues to be taken into account are those relevant for management consider multiple alternatives
  37. 37. Business Model organize to best meet revenues and costs competitor costs, customers, competitors, complementors, distributors and suppliers competitor positioning cost-effective and timely value chain pay for value internal factors as well as external factors customer needs get paid make a profit (*) (*) Taking profit as a core goal. It could be more complex or even different (as the case of public sector, research, NGOs, etc)
  38. 38. Business Model – own career development organize to best meet revenues and costs Competitor – other job seekers in my field?, candidates from other fields? automation of job? costs, customers, competitors, complementors, distributors and suppliers - the overall job market: demand, offer, services supply such as training, etc competitor positioning – relative situation against other job seekers cost-effective and timely value chain pay for value internal factors as well as external factors customer needs – employer needs get paid make a profit (*) – reach own professional goals (money for some, vocational for others, etc) (*) Taking profit as a core goal. It could be more complex or even different (as the case of public sector, research, NGOs, etc)
  39. 39. Business Model Business Model Business models in the Biomedical (engineering) field Main Article: (2) Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions Comp. Article: Still deploying Milkmen in a Megastore World? Fixing the MedTech Commercial model. Boston Consulting Group (to address other sectors)
  40. 40. Business Model Business Model Business models in the Biomedical (engineering) field Main Article: (2) Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions This article introduces 3 relevant concepts: value chain / SWOT analysis / organisation types.
  41. 41. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Strategic design. Session 2. Aurelio Ruiz
  42. 42. Introduction Last chapter ….
  43. 43. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Introduction What is management? This is the focus of this first part Why is it relevant in Biomedical Engineering? Is it different from other disciplines? – This is embedded across the whole subject
  44. 44. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management What is Management? Q3: How to choose the right methodology for me in a specific time? (How to focus on those aspects more relevant for me?) Which management principles are most suitable for the biomedical engineering field? Q2: Which are the common concepts across different management roles? Q1: How are goals defined?
  45. 45. Basic Concepts - Strategy Business Model Value Chain Strategic design
  46. 46. Business Model management’s hypothesis Conceptual model assumptions validate conjectures and hunches assembling the evidence fact-specific enquiry deep understanding proper design and operation Similar process to technical / research design But issues to be taken into account are those relevant for management consider multiple alternatives
  47. 47. Business Model organize to best meet revenues and costs competitor costs, customers, competitors, complementors, distributors and suppliers competitor positioning cost-effective and timely value chain pay for value internal factors as well as external factors customer needs get paid make a profit (*) (*) Taking profit as a core goal. It could be more complex or even different (as the case of public sector, research, NGOs, etc)
  48. 48. Introduction This chapter ….
  49. 49. Sample Business Models ‘Reengineering’ of the meat packing industry. Prior to the 1870s, cattle were shipped live by rail from the Midwestern stockyard centers like Omaha, Kansas City and Chicago to East Coast markets where the animals were slaughtered and the meat sold by local butchers. Gustavus Swift sensed that if the cattle could be slaughtered in the Midwest and shipped already dressed to distant markets in refrigerated freight cars, great economies in production’/centralization and transportation could be achieved, along with an improvement in the quality of the final product  Sell a product of a higher quality and lower cost by changing the way cattle is distributed  This is a basic business model Implementation: His biggest challenge was the absence of refrigerated warehouses to store the beef near point of sale  Logistic problem  Swift set about creating a nationwide web of refrigerated facilities, often in partnerships with local jobbers. ‘Once Swift overcame the initial consumer resistance to meat slaughtered days before in distant places, his products found a booming market because they were as good as freshly butchered meats and were substantially cheaper - Swift’s success quickly attracted imitators - By the 1890s, men like Phillip Armour had followed on Swift’s heels’
  50. 50. Sample Business Model Sell a product of a higher quality and lower cost by changing the way cattle is distributed  This is a basic business model Implementation: Internal problems: I cannot do the investment required to have the required warehouse  Share risk / benefits with partners External problems: Initial consumer resistance  they were as good as freshly butchered meats and were substantially cheaper Competitors Does it look like naïve from our perspective? Many areas in Biomedical Engineering are in a similar situation of business development as cattle business was in the 19th century - Very mature market but with new opportunities and models possible by technological advances, but with very conservative customers / regulations. Global markets often requiring large investments
  51. 51. Sample Business Model Discussion. The typical example: Zara http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/11/magazine/how-zara-grew-into-the- worlds-largest-fashion-retailer.html?_r=0
  52. 52. Business Model Before managing a project / company, it is important to be able to manage oneself! -Which are my own goals at the short, mid, long- term? -Which are my current capabilities? -What do I expect from this project? How does it help me reach my goals? -Are there future capabilities I need and still not possess? And also, for the specific case of this subject, one external factor: which are the expectations of my direct clients?
  53. 53. Business Model – professional model? organize to best meet revenues and costs – should I invest? Other job seekers in my field?, candidates from other fields? automation of job? Do I compete locally or internationally? The overall job market: demand, (where is it?), offer (do I have negotiation power?), services supply such as training, etc Competitor positioning – relative situation against other job seekers. Do I know how to compare? cost-effective and timely – what is to be done at a specific time? pay for value – will I have a Special value proposition? internal factors as well as external factors Employer needs – do you know them? Which are your sources of information? get paid – which are the usual salaries? Which are my needs / expectation? Reach own professional goals (money for some, vocational for others, etc)
  54. 54. Business Model Business Model Business models in the Biomedical (engineering) field Main Article: (2) Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions Comp. Article: Still deploying Milkmen in a Megastore World? Fixing the MedTech Commercial model. Boston Consulting Group
  55. 55. Business Model Business Model Business models in the Biomedical (engineering) field Main Article: (2) Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions 3 relevant concepts: value chain / SWOT analysis / organisation types.
  56. 56. Basic Concepts - Strategy Business Model Value Chain Strategic design
  57. 57. Value chain – Biomedical sector internal and external - Internal: Which is the chain of activities within an organization to deliver its products - External: Which is the whole chain involved in a generic business. Example: Music (Creation, Distribution, Enjoyment plus tools horizontally) “chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain
  58. 58. Value chain – Biomedical sector Horizontal and vertical integration possible Within a single company or through strategic partnerships Example: Cattle – having the whole business exploiting both slaughter house and its distribution / being able to exploit my segment if I deal with the problem in other segments “chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain
  59. 59. Value chain – Biomedical sector “chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions Why important? -Internal: Dependencies? Barriers? Synergies? May my role disappear? - External: Who are my clients? Do I need to take into account their clients? Competitors? Only in my “segment”? Think how IT revolutionized the music business by impacting, specially, the distribution part of the chain
  60. 60. Sample Value Chain - External “chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain Music Creation – Distribution - Enjoyment Why did it happen? Creators were given new opportunities Did it play a role? Consumers modified their behavior – perception over price + possibilities of piracy New business models and fragmentations of the market, including a large new market for devices
  61. 61. Value chain Internal“chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain
  62. 62. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Strategic design. Session 3. Aurelio Ruiz
  63. 63. Introduction Last chapter ….
  64. 64. Value chain – Biomedical sector internal and external - Internal: Which is the chain of activities within an organization to deliver its products - External: Which is the whole chain involved in a generic business. Example: Music (Creation, Distribution, Enjoyment plus tools horizontally) “chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain
  65. 65. Value chain – Biomedical sector Horizontal and vertical integration possible Within a single company or through strategic partnerships Example: Cattle – having the whole business exploiting both slaughter house and its distribution / being able to exploit my segment if I deal with the problem in other segments “chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain
  66. 66. Introduction This chapter ….
  67. 67. Strategy definition Out of the scope of this course
  68. 68. SWOT analysis (pg. 192) “Good business model design and implementation involves assessing such internal factors as well as external factors concerned with customers, suppliers, and the broader business environment.” Focused analysis of the internal and external value chains
  69. 69. SWOT analysis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_analysis If a goal is defined, build the most appropriate strategy If a goal is not defined, identify potential sources of competitive advantages Just a tool for a systematic analysis and support decision – making. But does not make decisions for you It simplifies complex problems: a virtue, and a risk!
  70. 70. SWOT analysis Critical to correctly define the scope of the analysis! Not the same analysis for: -I do not know what to do with my professional career. I may carry out a general internal analysis of job market situation and trends, to take a decision (match strengths and opportunities? Work out weaknesses to match opportunities? Mitigate threats? -I know I want to undertake a research career. Internal assessment should be directed to those issues relevant for a research career
  71. 71. Business Model Business Model Business models in the Biomedical (engineering) field Main Article: (2) Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions Comp. Article: Still deploying Milkmen in a Megastore World? Fixing the MedTech Commercial model. Boston Consulting Group
  72. 72. Value chain – Biomedical sector External“chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions
  73. 73. Value chain – Biomedical sector Horizontal and vertical integration possible “chain of activities (…) in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain Trends and drivers of change in the biomedical healthcare sector in Europe: Mapping report. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and working conditions
  74. 74. Value chain – Biomedical sector What makes biomedical areas special with respect to other engineering fields? Market: Payer, prescriber and final customer (patient) are often not the same one! (A medical doctor will recommend a treatment to a patient, paid by a government, insurance company or sometimes directly by the patient) Regulation: Time or requirements to bring something to market / commercialize / advertise / distribute, etc (no beta versions!) Way of use: Often required an intermediary to use the product different from a mere distributor (a doctor, for instance) Cost and value: Perceived value and willingness to pay different than in other areas
  75. 75. SWOT analysis
  76. 76. SWOT analysis Example on professions: A comprehensive SWOT audit of the role of the biomedical physicist in the education of healthcare professionals in Europe. C.J. Caruana, M. Wasilewska-Radwanska, A. Aurengo, P.P. Dendy, V. Karenauskaite, M.R. Malisan, J.H. Meijer, D. Mihov, V. Mornstein, E. Rokita, E. Vano, M. Weckstrom, M. Wucherer
  77. 77. Summary analysis Analysis frameworks (just) provide structured means to facilitate analysis (above all if done / discussed by multiple persons!) to serve as a basis for informed strategic planning. Several tools are often combined. Their quality depends on completeness and accuracy of data and information used. Their usefulness relies on the capability to draw strong strategies based on the information they provide.
  78. 78. Strategy implementation Follow-up Balanced Scoreboard Key Performance Indicators
  79. 79. Strategy implementation Balanced Scoreboard Identify a key, limited set of indicators, representative for the strategy which allow monitoring and early identification of potential deviations / successes. It should be properly used! Reducing the set of key indicators does not reduce the complexity of problems. It should reflect completely the strategy
  80. 80. Strategy implementation Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Key  Relevant Primary objectives of KPIs is to assess strategy Aligned with it! Clearly defined (what they mean, how they are calculated) Temporal evolution is often the most interesting information
  81. 81. Organisations Organisations
  82. 82. Organisations A good manager understands organizations (own, competitors, clients, other stakeholders) very good. Strategic plans are useless if not assumed by an organization. Often strategic plans have important external dependencies such as alliances -Fighting against organizational dynamics is not practical -But if required, it is adequate to carefully select the right path -Why? - Mafia (Los Soprano): ruled by values and personal relations - Church: pyramidal, unity, obedience -Army : relevance of hierarchies
  83. 83. Organisations Newton’s law of motion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_laws_of_motion First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force. Second law: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass. Thus, F = ma, where F is the net force acting on the object, m is the mass of the object and a is the acceleration of the object. Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body.
  84. 84. Organisations If the velocity is the right one, why change? How to assess velocity is the right one  Where should I reach? When? Start from the end: definition of goals But velocity depends on observer  Which is my evaluation system? Is it the same as for other (relevant observers)? If there is no movement, or is inadequate, force is required!  Most adequate tactics for me First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force.
  85. 85. Organisations Proportional to applied force Proportional to mass of what we want to move In the direction of the force When applying a force relevant: -What depends just on me? -What does not depend on me, but can be influenced by my force? -What is absolutely out of my scope of influence? Second law: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass. Thus, F = ma, where F is the net force acting on the object, m is the mass of the object and a is the acceleration of the object.
  86. 86. Organisations The importance of people: -Managers -Organizations -Customers -Other relevant stakeholders The importance of tools: -Control and coordination efforts take effort, and generate resistance -Any action has consequences. Any lack of action may lack reactions! Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body.
  87. 87. Organisations What could be energy in management? Resources? -Time - Money -People -Quality -Resources I cannot modify one without affecting others. Which degrees of freedom do I have? Any factor is fixed? Any factor out of my control? In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but can change form, for instance chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy in the explosion of a stick of dynamite.
  88. 88. Organisations Which is the lack of efficiency I can (unavoidably) assume? Am I able to identify sources of inefficiency? Irreversible? Entropy is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a system may be arranged, often taken to be a measure of disorder, or a measure of progressing towards thermodynamic equilibrium (…) "a measure of thermal energy per unit temperature that is not available for useful work". In physics, a force is said to do work when it acts on a body when there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. The force does not need to cause the displacement (…) The work done by a constant force of magnitude F on a point that moves a displacement d in the direction of the force is the product W=Fd A force not generating displacement is not Work, just erosion
  89. 89. Organisations A good manager understands organizations (own, competitors, clients, other stakeholders) very good: -Fighting against organizational dynamics is not practical -But if required, it is adequate to carefully select the right path Why? - Mafia (Los Soprano): ruled by values and personal relations - Church: pyramidal, unity, obedience -Army : relevance of hierarchies
  90. 90. Organisations
  91. 91. Organisations
  92. 92. Seminars In seminars we will have the opportunity to discuss these issues with experts from non-academic sectors: 1st quarter: -Jaime García (Crisalix) -Bárbara Vallespín (Mobile World Capital)
  93. 93. Other relevant issues at strategic level Communication Intellectual Property Management We will get into detail in the next sessions
  94. 94. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering Strategic design. Session 4. Aurelio Ruiz
  95. 95. Introduction Last chapter ….
  96. 96. Value chain – Biomedical sector What makes biomedical areas special with respect to other engineering fields? Market: Payer, prescriber and final customer (patient) are often not the same one! (A medical doctor will recommend a treatment to a patient, paid by a government, insurance company or sometimes directly by the patient) Regulation: Time or requirements to bring something to market / commercialize / advertise / distribute, etc (no beta versions!) Way of use: Often required an intermediary to use the product different from a mere distributor (a doctor, for instance) Cost and value: Perceived value and willingness to pay different than in other areas
  97. 97. Strategy implementation Follow-up Balanced Scoreboard Key Performance Indicators
  98. 98. Organisations First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force. Second law: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass. Thus, F = ma, where F is the net force acting on the object, m is the mass of the object and a is the acceleration of the object. Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body. In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but can change form, for instance chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy in the explosion of a stick of dynamite. Entropy is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a system may be arranged, often taken to be a measure of disorder, or a measure of progressing towards thermodynamic equilibrium (…) "a measure of thermal energy per unit temperature that is not available for useful work". In physics, a force is said to do work when it acts on a body when there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. The force does not need to cause the displacement (…) The work done by a constant force of magnitude F on a point that moves a displacement d in the direction of the force is the product W=Fd
  99. 99. Organisations A good manager understands organizations (own, competitors, clients, other stakeholders) very good. Strategic plans are useless if not assumed by an organization. Often strategic plans have important external dependencies such as alliances -Fighting against organizational dynamics is not practical -But if required, it is adequate to carefully select the right path -Why? - Mafia (Los Soprano): ruled by values and personal relations - Church: pyramidal, unity, obedience -Army : relevance of hierarchies
  100. 100. Organisations A good manager understands organizations (own, competitors, clients, other stakeholders) very good: -Fighting against organizational dynamics is not practical -But if required, it is adequate to carefully select the right path Why? - Mafia (Los Soprano): ruled by values and personal relations - Church: pyramidal, unity, obedience -Army : relevance of hierarchies
  101. 101. Introduction This chapter ….
  102. 102. Other relevant issues at strategic level Communication Intellectual Property Management
  103. 103. Other relevant issues at strategic level Communication Intellectual Property Management What do you understand as communication?
  104. 104. Communication communicate verb (SHARE INFORMATION) /kəˈmjuː.nɪ.keɪt/ B1 [I or T] to share information with others by speaking, writing, moving your body, or using other signals: B2 [I] to talk about your thoughts and feelings, and help other people to understand them marketing noun [U] (JOB) /ˈmɑː.kɪ.tɪŋ/ /ˈmɑːr.kɪ.t̬ɪŋ/ B2 a job that involves encouraging people to buy a product or service: “communication is what communicators do”? In every activity there is communication involved: sharing goals and updating progress within a team, dealing with a supervisor, interacting with clients, positioning ourselves with competitors…
  105. 105. Communication Communicating has effects (it may also have 2rd order effects)  for instance, the one who was not my target but happens to be affected Not communicating has also effects (we also convey a message with what we do not communicate) We may be technically perfect and not obtain our goals due to communication problems
  106. 106. Communication Objective(s) Message Activities ToolsTarget audience What to achieve with the communication (there could be primary and secondary) Look at your business model Look at your strategy Who is the main (and secondary if required) target of my communication Homogeneous or heterogeneous groups? Look at your internal and external value chains Information you want to give to reach your goal Product, service, etc you have to sell How is my target audience already positioned with respect to my objective and possible messages I am competing with others with similar messages? Is it good or bad? Look at your internal and external value chains / organisations We have a tendency to think directly on tools, while adequacy of tools strongly depends / is a consequence of former steps Relevant to my objectives What my target appreciates, in the most effective way Suitable for message / relevant for my target Proportional to objectives Determined by the activites The specific actions Which are relevant for my target audience? - organisations Which are the ones most suitable to convey my meesage? Which is my budge? Resources? Work already existing? What you use to carry out activities (including the form - how it is expressed) Dependent on all the former issues
  107. 107. Communication Objective(s) Message Activities ToolsTarget audience Receive feedback / specifications from users (patients) For the product’s benefit? For the benefit of society? Relevant to my objectives What my target appreciates, in the most effective way Suitable for message / relevant for my target Proportional to objectives Determined by the activites Patients (or should I address prescribers?) Commercial actions (contests, price reduction, etc) Non-profit activity
  108. 108. Communication Objective(s) Message Activities ToolsTarget audience Relevant to my objectives What my target appreciates, in the most effective way Suitable for message / relevant for my target Proportional to objectives Determined by the activites Raise money from investors Increase sales
  109. 109. Communication Objective(s) Message Activities ToolsTarget audience Relevant to my objectives What my target appreciates, in the most effective way Suitable for message / relevant for my target Proportional to objectives Determined by the activites Change the way something is done within an organisation
  110. 110. Communication Objective(s) Message Activities ToolsTarget audience Get a salary increase (how much?) Who takes the decision on salary increases? I deserve it given… If I do not get it I may leave Others have received it Depends on who takes decision. But do the activities already exist? (regular meeting, etc) or do I have to create the activities? Internal press releases Quantification of results
  111. 111. Communication Objective(s) Message Activities ToolsTarget audience Develop the professional career I am most interested in (Get the type of job I want) Target employers I am interested in (and not all employers!) I am the best now for what they want, with respect to all other possible candidates I am the best in the future My skills are worth being compensated at the highest possible way (salary, responsibility, job conditions, etc) Job application Direct contact (“cold”, via intermediaries) Colaboration opportunities (internship, thesis) Job fairs CV (document, linkedin, etc) Letters of motivation Social Networks, blogs (my presence Previous results (publications, thesis, etc) Target other relevant actors (intermediaries, collaborators, etc) in their area of interest
  112. 112. Communication If we are elaborating a Communication Plan (as in ay other project management activity, more in next lessons), objectives should be as SMART as possible: -Specific, Measurable, Attainable - Assignable, Realistic, Time-Related And have agreed how they will be evaluated (the “measurable” component) If it is the communication component within a wider management activity, objectives may be composed by a set of quantitative and qualitative indicators
  113. 113. Communication First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force. Second law: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass. Thus, F = ma, where F is the net force acting on the object, m is the mass of the object and a is the acceleration of the object. Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body. In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but can change form, for instance chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy in the explosion of a stick of dynamite. Entropy is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a system may be arranged, often taken to be a measure of disorder, or a measure of progressing towards thermodynamic equilibrium (…) "a measure of thermal energy per unit temperature that is not available for useful work". In physics, a force is said to do work when it acts on a body when there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. The force does not need to cause the displacement (…) The work done by a constant force of magnitude F on a point that moves a displacement d in the direction of the force is the product W=Fd
  114. 114. Other relevant issues at strategic level Communication Intellectual Property Management
  115. 115. Intellectual Property Management http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectual_property “Intellectual property (IP) is a legal concept which refers to creations of the mind for which exclusive rights are recognized. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property rights include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, trade dress, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.” Certain, not all! (all other regulations still need to be met) For a given period of time (paying renovations) and, generally, for a given country / geographical area (paying for each of them) Intellectual property in Spain is separated in “Propiedad Intelectual” and “Propiedad Industrial” (who created, who has rights over exploitation)
  116. 116. Intellectual Property Management http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectual_property “The stated objective of most intellectual property law (with the exception of trademarks) is to "Promote progress."[21] By exchanging limited exclusive rights for disclosure of inventions and creative works, society and the patentee/copyright owner mutually benefit, and an incentive is created for inventors and authors to create and disclose their work (…) The thinking is that creators will not have sufficient incentive to invent unless they are legally entitled to capture the full social value of their inventions." [22] This absolute protection or full value view treats intellectual property as another type of 'real' property, typically adopting its law and rhetoric. ” Other moral issues (including the fact that a specific owner may be benefiting from social investments to carry out the invention) But in terms of pure economic profit, absolute protection is NOT necessarily the optimal management decision
  117. 117. Intellectual Property Management Territorial scope. For Spain Derechos de propiedad industrial e intelectual en proyectos tecnológicos de cooperación público – privada. Foro de Empresas Innovadoras (FEI), CDTI. 2009
  118. 118. Intellectual Property Management Territorial scope. For Spain Derechos de propiedad industrial e intelectual en proyectos tecnológicos de cooperación público – privada. Foro de Empresas Innovadoras (FEI), CDTI. 2009
  119. 119. Intellectual Property Management http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright “Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time, with the intention of enabling the creator of intellectual wealth (e.g. the photographer of a photograph or the author of a book) to get compensated for their work and be able to financially support themselves. Generally, it is "the right to copy", but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from it, and other related rights. It is a form of intellectual property (like the patent, the trademark, and the trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. “ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_rights “Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and, to a lesser extent, in some common law jurisdictions. They include the right of attribution, the right to have a work published anonymously or pseudonymously, and the right to the integrity of the work. The preserving of the integrity of the work bars the work from alteration, distortion, or mutilation. Anything else that may detract from the artist's relationship with the work even after it leaves the artist's possession or ownership may bring these moral rights into play. Moral rights are distinct from any economic rights tied to copyrights. Even if an artist has assigned his or her copyright rights to a work to a third party, he or she still maintains the moral rights to the work.”
  120. 120. Intellectual Property Management Secrecy is also a possible IP strategy IP strategies are to be adapted to overall strategy IP strategies should consider how to handle OUR IP, but also how others handle theirs! An important issue to consider is my capacity to: 1 - Exploit the IP - I have the IP, but am I able to have the product? -I have the product, but am I able of reaching the market? 2 – Defend the IP - Detect infringements -Prosecute them
  121. 121. Intellectual Property Management Territorial scope. For Spain Derechos de propiedad industrial e intelectual en proyectos tecnológicos de cooperación público – privada. Foro de Empresas Innovadoras (FEI), CDTI. 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time, in exchange for the public disclosure of the invention. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements , such as novelty and non- obviousness (and usefulness!).
  122. 122. Intellectual Property Management I own the rights, what to do with them? Strategic Management of Intellectual Property – An Integrated Approach. William W. Fisher III, Harvard Law School Felix Oberholzer‐Gee, Harvard Business School
  123. 123. Intellectual Property Management http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/License A license may be granted by a party ("licensor") to another party ("licensee") as an element of an agreement between those parties. A shorthand definition of a license is "an authorization (by the licensor) to use the licensed material (by the licensee).“ (…) A license under intellectual property commonly has several components beyond the grant itself, including a term, territory, renewal provisions, and other limitations deemed vital to the licensor. Term: many licenses are valid for a particular length of time. This protects the licensor should the value of the license increase, or market conditions change. It also preserves enforceability by ensuring that no license extends beyond the term of the agreement. Territory: a license may stipulate what territory the rights pertain to. For example, a license with a territory limited to "North America" (Mexico/United States/Canada) would not permit a licensee any protection from actions for use in Japan. Incomplete! Incomplete! Critical for price, for instance: exclusivity! Critical for your own future: guarantees given!
  124. 124. Intellectual Property Management Sample presentation on terms to be taken into account The world of open source licenses / copyright licenses as Creative Commons, etc Understand what you are allowed to do / what you are allowing others to do
  125. 125. Intellectual Property Management Case Studies IP Advantage – Case studies on Intellectual Property http://www.wipo.int/ipadvantage/en/
  126. 126. Intellectual Property Management I do not own right. Does it mean I do not need to carry out Intellectual Property Management? Strategic Management of Intellectual Property – An Integrated Approach. William W. Fisher III, Harvard Law School Felix Oberholzer‐Gee, Harvard Business School
  127. 127. Summary next session Key concepts from this part Discuss articles Individual work expected on these issues (specially related to your personal project)
  128. 128. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering What’s next What is project management? – to be continued by colleagues
  129. 129. Project Management and Innovation in Biomedical Engineering What’s next What is innovation? What is innovation management? – To be continued by colleagues

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