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MANUFACTURING OF
SUGARS FROM DIFFERENT
SOURCES
Presented by:
Aqsa Abbas (2016-bt-032)
Faiza Abdullah (2016-bt-033)
Biochemical Engineering.
Institute of Biotechnology and Biochemistry.
University of Veterinary and Animal sciences, Lahore.
OBJECTIVES
 Sugars
 History
 Sugars formation mechanism
 Sources of sugars
 Sugars manufacturing process ( by sugarcane)
 Byproducts of Sugarcane industry.
 Advantages and Disadvantages of Cane Sugar
 Uses of sugars.
SUGARS
 Sugars are sweet in taste, soluble carbohydrates.
 Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as
dextrose), fructose, and galactose.
 Elementary composition of sugars is carbon combined with hydrogen and oxygen in
the stoichiometric ratio in which these two elements are combined in water.
 When two simple sugars are joined together by a chemical bond they are called
disaccharides, the most common of which is sucrose or table sugar. It is found in the
stems of sugarcane and roots of sugar beet. In the body, sucrose is hydrolized into
fructose and glucose.
 Sugar is made by some plants to store energy that they don't need straight away.
People like sugar for its sweetness and its energy so, some of these plants are grown
commercially to extract the sugar e.g. sugarcane and sugar beet.
 A teaspoon of sugar contains 15 calories.
HISTORY
 It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it
spread to India.
 In 510 BC the Emperor Darius of what was then Persia invaded India where he
found "the reed which gives honey without bees“.
 It was the major expansion of the Arab peoples in the seventh century AD that led
to a breaking of the secret. When they invaded Persia in 642 AD, they found sugar
cane being grown and learnt how sugar was made.
 Sugar was only discovered by western Europeans as a result of the Crusades in
the 11th Century AD.
 In the 15th century AD, European sugar was refined in Venice.
HOW SUGAR IS FORMULATED
The process by which plants make sugars is photosynthesis. The plant
takes in carbon dioxide from the air though pores in its leaves and
absorbs water through its roots. These are combined to make sugar
using energy from the sun and with the help of a substance called
chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is green which allows it to absorb the sun's
energy more readily and which, of course, gives the plants' leaves their
green color. The reaction of photosynthesis can be written as the
following chemical equation when sucrose is being made:
12 CO2 + 11 H2O = C12 H22 O11 + 12 O2
carbon dioxide + water = sucrose + oxygen
DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SUGARS
 Table sugar or sucrose is extracted from plant sources.
 The most important two sugar crops are
sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
sugar beets (Beta vulgaris)
 Bees (Honey)
 Starch (Maltose)
 Coconut palm trees (coconut palm sugar)
 Dates (palm sugar)
 Maple trees (Maple syrup)
SUGAR MANUFACTURING PROCESS
(from sugarcane)
 A sugar processing industry converts raw sugarcane to a refined form
of cane sugar with other useful byproducts.
 Following main steps are involved in the process of sugar manufacturing:
 Washing
 Cutting and shredding
 Extraction of sugarcane
 Clarification and Filteration
 Evaporation
 Crystallization
 Centrifugation
 Refining of the raw sugar
 Drying
 Sieving
 Packaging
WASHING
Apply water to the sugarcane before cutting to remove dirt and other
dust residue that are stickled with sugarcane pipes to remove mud, by
applying water at high velocity(nozzle), while the sugarcane is conveyed
as well.
Simple types of nozzle are attached with water.
CUTTING and Shredding
 It is basically, a size reduction procedure.
 Mechanical Knives are used to cut sugarcane to smaller
pieces, because if long un cut cane is pressed in-between
roller of mills, It may slipped or some other problems occurs.
 Mostly more than one cutters are used to achieve this
operation.
 Rotational speed of these mechanical knives are 600-1200
rpm, speed of these knives is set according to the speed of
conveyer.
 Shredder is used to remove leaves and undesired solid
particles from cane.
Extraction of juice
 Raw cane juice obtain by extraction operation. When sugar
cane cells are braked sweet liquid substance came out that is
known as cane juice.
 Cane crusher are used to carry on extraction. These are in 5
to 7 nos.
 It is operated by electric motor. It consist 3 friction roller in
each crusher.
 MAIN ROLLER or DRIVER : feed & discharge roller are driven
by main roll.
 FEED ROLLER : canes are suck or pull by feed roller.
 DISCHARGE ROLLER : it discharge bagasse and juice.
These roller are attach each other in triangle shape.
Filteration and Clarification
 Filtration process is the separation of suspended & colloidal particles from raw juice.
 In clarification process sludge, mud, suspended & colloidal particles are removes by
some chemical compounds.
 Raw cane juice are filled in clarifier (conical shape vessel), where phosphoric acid, lime
& sulphur dioxide are mixed with the help of agitator.
 When these chemicals are mixed, suspended and colloidal particles are collect in flock
and resulting settled down.
 Neat and clean juice comes out from the upper section of clarifier, sludge and mud are
collect in bottom and drainage to rotary filter.
 Calcium phosphate : as flocculent
 Lime & SO2 : acts as bleaching agent
 CO2 : acts as acidifying agent
Evaporation
Evaporation process deals heat and mass transfer operation both.
Evaporators are used in process industry to concentrate liquids.
The operation is performed normally by use of low pressure, dry & saturated steam.
The evaporator consist a heat exchanger in inner section .
In the evaporator feed interred at upper section and concentrated thick liquor exit at
bottom section.
Steam used to evaporate juice: 1 liter steam to evaporate 4 liter juice.
Steam temperature 113-130 degree Celsius at 1st pan and 55 degree Celsius at last
pan .
Each subsequent vessel with decreasing pressure.
Last pan being under almost a total vacuum.
Here used 3 to 5 number evaporator known as multiple effect evaporator.
Crystallization
 This process consists of three major events:
1. Clustering
2. Nucleation
3. growth
 The crystallization process takes place in vacuum pans which
boil the juice at lower temperatures under vacuum.
 When the juice concentrates it is clustered with tiny sugar
crystals which provide the nucleus for larger crystals to form
and grow. When the growth of the crystals reach the desired
size the process is stopped.
 Sometimes some crystals are added by self to achieve
crystallization.
Centrifugation
 Centrifugation process is based on centrifugal force.
 To remove the sugar crystals from the molasses
 high-speed (100-18,000 rpm) rotating spin applied to the massecuite, and then
washed by 85% water and sugar crystals and mother liquor are separated.
 The Raw sugar is then sent to dryers or refining unit according to the type of desired final product.
 Different grades of molasses are separated by using centrifuges e.g A-heavy, B-heavy, C-heavy.
Refining of raw sugar
 A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white
refined sugar.
 Refining process consist of 4 step that are as follow:
 Affination - dissolving off some surface impurities
 Carbonization - removing further impurities that precipitate from
solution with calcium carbonate
 char filtration - removing further impurities with activated carbon
 Recovery - using a vacuum process (see salt recovery). The liquor
left over from the preparation of white sugar and the washings from
the affination stage both contain sugar which it is economic to
recover.
 After refining ,sugar is again evaporated and crystallized and then
dried.
Drying
 Drying is very essential mass transfer operation in processing
sugar cane into sugar.
 The wet raw sugar from centrifuges goes to rotary drier to remove
the water from the wet sugar and to reduce moisture content to
0.5-2% by using hot air at 110ºC which flow counter currently with
sugar.
Sieving
 Sugar moves overs sifter, which has to and fro motion.
 Different sizes of mesh sieves are used for this
purpose.
 The purpose of sieving is to separate large crystals
from very fine crystals of sugar.
 It is useful for the grading of sugars .i.e.
 Small
 Medium
 Large crystals.
Storage and Packaging
 packing is final process of sugar manufacturing process.
 Containers opaque, airtight, moisture/odour proof Glass
canning jars or cans for liquid sugars
 Factors affecting sugar storage
 Temperature
 Moisture
 Quality of sugar
 Light
 Grain size and distribution
 Compression
.Flow sheet diagram
By products of cane sugar industry
 BAGASSE :
 it is a solid fibrous material contains more cellulose.
 Used in Pulp & paper industry, and also cattle feed.
 Boiler fuel to produce steam & power.
 Mixture of powder bagasse and tar coal is used to seal building roof to become water
proof.
 MOLASSES :
 Raw material for fermentation industry.
 Molasses is used in bakery, sweets, chocolates & biscuits industry.
 It is Used to produce denatured power alcohol (spirit) & potable alcohol.
 Molasses is also used to produce industrial and automobile fuel.
 Mill mud:
 It is used as fertilizer. It contains full of sulphur, phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen.
Advantages
 Increasing sugarcane production and processing would not only enhance energy
security and improve the environment.
 Plays Important role in the development of a country.
 It is Easily available
 Cost effective
 Sweeter than other sugars.
 It gives by products like bagasse, molasses which is converted to alcohol after
fermentation.
 Bagasse ash is also used as a partial cement replacement material.
 Gives more Job opportunities and electrification of rural areas.
 sugar industry did not involve in a generation of harmful chemical substance neither the
product has an effect on surrounding environment. It comes under the green industry,
which maintained zero discharge.
Disadvantages:
 Gives low yield of sugar due to the lack of high yield varities of sugarcane.
 It is processed not a natural sugar.
 It has rapid rate of deterioration.
 A high-sugar diet can lead to chromium deficiency. Sugar accelerates aging.
Sugar causes tooth decay.
USES OF SUGARS
 Sugar is used for many purposes in the food industry. It is vital in maintaining the
safety and availability of our food.
 Ice cream is made thicker and smoother with sugar. More than 20% of ice cream is
sugar.
 Sugar helps cakes to be moist and soft, and to stay fresh longer.
 Soft drinks and fruit juice are often 10% or 12% sugar. As well as adding flavour,
the sugar makes the drinks heavier and more pleasant to drink.
 The sugar in jams helps them to keep for a longer time, by stopping molds and
germs from growing.
,
 Natural sugar in canned fruit also acts as a preservative in the same way.
 Condensed milk relies on up to 55% sugar content.
 Cane sugar is used in making many types of candies.
 Sugar is used to bring out the flavours of many foods such as preserved meats,
tomato sauce and canned soup.
 Custard is made smooth and creamy as well as sweet by sugar.
 Many medicines have sugar added to hide their bitter taste. Some cough syrups
have sugar to make them more soothing.
References
 www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Sugar.html#ixzz5Y088SVaD
 www.slideshare.net/VijayaShastry1/sugar-manufacture-dr-vijaya-shastry-
14143885?qid=11b869f9-c784-4b48
 www.slideshare.net/santoshpaswans1/sugar-production
 www.slideshare.net/najjatariq/sugar-manufacturing-process
 www.eu0.proxysite.com/process.php?d=iAsY94dlanwFL1V0xh2DyPQKMw0UySO7KU
BuNYY5LPiVC1V3m4H8&b=9
 www.google.com.pk/search?q=BManufacturing+sugars+ppts&oq=BManufacturing+sug
ars+ppts&aqs=chrome.
 https://www.google.com.pk/search?ei=Ur_7W9TMG5bw9QPDxpOQDQ&q=journals+of
+sugar+manufacturing+from+different+sources&oq=journals+of+sugars+manufacturing
.
 www.youtube.com/cane sugar production practices/.

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Manufacturing of Sugars from different sources

  • 1. MANUFACTURING OF SUGARS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES Presented by: Aqsa Abbas (2016-bt-032) Faiza Abdullah (2016-bt-033) Biochemical Engineering. Institute of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. University of Veterinary and Animal sciences, Lahore.
  • 2. OBJECTIVES  Sugars  History  Sugars formation mechanism  Sources of sugars  Sugars manufacturing process ( by sugarcane)  Byproducts of Sugarcane industry.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Cane Sugar  Uses of sugars.
  • 3. SUGARS  Sugars are sweet in taste, soluble carbohydrates.  Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose.  Elementary composition of sugars is carbon combined with hydrogen and oxygen in the stoichiometric ratio in which these two elements are combined in water.  When two simple sugars are joined together by a chemical bond they are called disaccharides, the most common of which is sucrose or table sugar. It is found in the stems of sugarcane and roots of sugar beet. In the body, sucrose is hydrolized into fructose and glucose.  Sugar is made by some plants to store energy that they don't need straight away. People like sugar for its sweetness and its energy so, some of these plants are grown commercially to extract the sugar e.g. sugarcane and sugar beet.  A teaspoon of sugar contains 15 calories.
  • 4. HISTORY  It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India.  In 510 BC the Emperor Darius of what was then Persia invaded India where he found "the reed which gives honey without bees“.  It was the major expansion of the Arab peoples in the seventh century AD that led to a breaking of the secret. When they invaded Persia in 642 AD, they found sugar cane being grown and learnt how sugar was made.  Sugar was only discovered by western Europeans as a result of the Crusades in the 11th Century AD.  In the 15th century AD, European sugar was refined in Venice.
  • 5. HOW SUGAR IS FORMULATED The process by which plants make sugars is photosynthesis. The plant takes in carbon dioxide from the air though pores in its leaves and absorbs water through its roots. These are combined to make sugar using energy from the sun and with the help of a substance called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is green which allows it to absorb the sun's energy more readily and which, of course, gives the plants' leaves their green color. The reaction of photosynthesis can be written as the following chemical equation when sucrose is being made: 12 CO2 + 11 H2O = C12 H22 O11 + 12 O2 carbon dioxide + water = sucrose + oxygen
  • 6. DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SUGARS  Table sugar or sucrose is extracted from plant sources.  The most important two sugar crops are sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) sugar beets (Beta vulgaris)  Bees (Honey)  Starch (Maltose)  Coconut palm trees (coconut palm sugar)  Dates (palm sugar)  Maple trees (Maple syrup)
  • 7. SUGAR MANUFACTURING PROCESS (from sugarcane)  A sugar processing industry converts raw sugarcane to a refined form of cane sugar with other useful byproducts.  Following main steps are involved in the process of sugar manufacturing:  Washing  Cutting and shredding  Extraction of sugarcane  Clarification and Filteration  Evaporation  Crystallization  Centrifugation  Refining of the raw sugar  Drying  Sieving  Packaging
  • 8. WASHING Apply water to the sugarcane before cutting to remove dirt and other dust residue that are stickled with sugarcane pipes to remove mud, by applying water at high velocity(nozzle), while the sugarcane is conveyed as well. Simple types of nozzle are attached with water.
  • 9. CUTTING and Shredding  It is basically, a size reduction procedure.  Mechanical Knives are used to cut sugarcane to smaller pieces, because if long un cut cane is pressed in-between roller of mills, It may slipped or some other problems occurs.  Mostly more than one cutters are used to achieve this operation.  Rotational speed of these mechanical knives are 600-1200 rpm, speed of these knives is set according to the speed of conveyer.  Shredder is used to remove leaves and undesired solid particles from cane.
  • 10. Extraction of juice  Raw cane juice obtain by extraction operation. When sugar cane cells are braked sweet liquid substance came out that is known as cane juice.  Cane crusher are used to carry on extraction. These are in 5 to 7 nos.  It is operated by electric motor. It consist 3 friction roller in each crusher.  MAIN ROLLER or DRIVER : feed & discharge roller are driven by main roll.  FEED ROLLER : canes are suck or pull by feed roller.  DISCHARGE ROLLER : it discharge bagasse and juice. These roller are attach each other in triangle shape.
  • 11. Filteration and Clarification  Filtration process is the separation of suspended & colloidal particles from raw juice.  In clarification process sludge, mud, suspended & colloidal particles are removes by some chemical compounds.  Raw cane juice are filled in clarifier (conical shape vessel), where phosphoric acid, lime & sulphur dioxide are mixed with the help of agitator.  When these chemicals are mixed, suspended and colloidal particles are collect in flock and resulting settled down.  Neat and clean juice comes out from the upper section of clarifier, sludge and mud are collect in bottom and drainage to rotary filter.  Calcium phosphate : as flocculent  Lime & SO2 : acts as bleaching agent  CO2 : acts as acidifying agent
  • 12. Evaporation Evaporation process deals heat and mass transfer operation both. Evaporators are used in process industry to concentrate liquids. The operation is performed normally by use of low pressure, dry & saturated steam. The evaporator consist a heat exchanger in inner section . In the evaporator feed interred at upper section and concentrated thick liquor exit at bottom section. Steam used to evaporate juice: 1 liter steam to evaporate 4 liter juice. Steam temperature 113-130 degree Celsius at 1st pan and 55 degree Celsius at last pan . Each subsequent vessel with decreasing pressure. Last pan being under almost a total vacuum. Here used 3 to 5 number evaporator known as multiple effect evaporator.
  • 13. Crystallization  This process consists of three major events: 1. Clustering 2. Nucleation 3. growth  The crystallization process takes place in vacuum pans which boil the juice at lower temperatures under vacuum.  When the juice concentrates it is clustered with tiny sugar crystals which provide the nucleus for larger crystals to form and grow. When the growth of the crystals reach the desired size the process is stopped.  Sometimes some crystals are added by self to achieve crystallization.
  • 14. Centrifugation  Centrifugation process is based on centrifugal force.  To remove the sugar crystals from the molasses  high-speed (100-18,000 rpm) rotating spin applied to the massecuite, and then washed by 85% water and sugar crystals and mother liquor are separated.  The Raw sugar is then sent to dryers or refining unit according to the type of desired final product.  Different grades of molasses are separated by using centrifuges e.g A-heavy, B-heavy, C-heavy.
  • 15. Refining of raw sugar  A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white refined sugar.  Refining process consist of 4 step that are as follow:  Affination - dissolving off some surface impurities  Carbonization - removing further impurities that precipitate from solution with calcium carbonate  char filtration - removing further impurities with activated carbon  Recovery - using a vacuum process (see salt recovery). The liquor left over from the preparation of white sugar and the washings from the affination stage both contain sugar which it is economic to recover.  After refining ,sugar is again evaporated and crystallized and then dried.
  • 16. Drying  Drying is very essential mass transfer operation in processing sugar cane into sugar.  The wet raw sugar from centrifuges goes to rotary drier to remove the water from the wet sugar and to reduce moisture content to 0.5-2% by using hot air at 110ºC which flow counter currently with sugar.
  • 17. Sieving  Sugar moves overs sifter, which has to and fro motion.  Different sizes of mesh sieves are used for this purpose.  The purpose of sieving is to separate large crystals from very fine crystals of sugar.  It is useful for the grading of sugars .i.e.  Small  Medium  Large crystals.
  • 18. Storage and Packaging  packing is final process of sugar manufacturing process.  Containers opaque, airtight, moisture/odour proof Glass canning jars or cans for liquid sugars  Factors affecting sugar storage  Temperature  Moisture  Quality of sugar  Light  Grain size and distribution  Compression
  • 20. By products of cane sugar industry  BAGASSE :  it is a solid fibrous material contains more cellulose.  Used in Pulp & paper industry, and also cattle feed.  Boiler fuel to produce steam & power.  Mixture of powder bagasse and tar coal is used to seal building roof to become water proof.  MOLASSES :  Raw material for fermentation industry.  Molasses is used in bakery, sweets, chocolates & biscuits industry.  It is Used to produce denatured power alcohol (spirit) & potable alcohol.  Molasses is also used to produce industrial and automobile fuel.  Mill mud:  It is used as fertilizer. It contains full of sulphur, phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen.
  • 21. Advantages  Increasing sugarcane production and processing would not only enhance energy security and improve the environment.  Plays Important role in the development of a country.  It is Easily available  Cost effective  Sweeter than other sugars.  It gives by products like bagasse, molasses which is converted to alcohol after fermentation.  Bagasse ash is also used as a partial cement replacement material.  Gives more Job opportunities and electrification of rural areas.  sugar industry did not involve in a generation of harmful chemical substance neither the product has an effect on surrounding environment. It comes under the green industry, which maintained zero discharge.
  • 22. Disadvantages:  Gives low yield of sugar due to the lack of high yield varities of sugarcane.  It is processed not a natural sugar.  It has rapid rate of deterioration.  A high-sugar diet can lead to chromium deficiency. Sugar accelerates aging. Sugar causes tooth decay.
  • 23. USES OF SUGARS  Sugar is used for many purposes in the food industry. It is vital in maintaining the safety and availability of our food.  Ice cream is made thicker and smoother with sugar. More than 20% of ice cream is sugar.  Sugar helps cakes to be moist and soft, and to stay fresh longer.  Soft drinks and fruit juice are often 10% or 12% sugar. As well as adding flavour, the sugar makes the drinks heavier and more pleasant to drink.  The sugar in jams helps them to keep for a longer time, by stopping molds and germs from growing.
  • 24. ,  Natural sugar in canned fruit also acts as a preservative in the same way.  Condensed milk relies on up to 55% sugar content.  Cane sugar is used in making many types of candies.  Sugar is used to bring out the flavours of many foods such as preserved meats, tomato sauce and canned soup.  Custard is made smooth and creamy as well as sweet by sugar.  Many medicines have sugar added to hide their bitter taste. Some cough syrups have sugar to make them more soothing.
  • 25. References  www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Sugar.html#ixzz5Y088SVaD  www.slideshare.net/VijayaShastry1/sugar-manufacture-dr-vijaya-shastry- 14143885?qid=11b869f9-c784-4b48  www.slideshare.net/santoshpaswans1/sugar-production  www.slideshare.net/najjatariq/sugar-manufacturing-process  www.eu0.proxysite.com/process.php?d=iAsY94dlanwFL1V0xh2DyPQKMw0UySO7KU BuNYY5LPiVC1V3m4H8&b=9  www.google.com.pk/search?q=BManufacturing+sugars+ppts&oq=BManufacturing+sug ars+ppts&aqs=chrome.  https://www.google.com.pk/search?ei=Ur_7W9TMG5bw9QPDxpOQDQ&q=journals+of +sugar+manufacturing+from+different+sources&oq=journals+of+sugars+manufacturing .  www.youtube.com/cane sugar production practices/.