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# 3.Directions

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### 3.Directions

1. 1. Where is the North? What North is that one? How are you going to make it there?But the good question is….. Do you really know where you are going?
2. 2. Horizontal Plane > DirectionVertical Plane > Inclination, slope, elevation
3. 3. Definitions: Course: Intendend track Heading: Directions in which the fore- and-aft axis of the aircraft is pointing Track: Flight path that the aircraft has followed (Track Made Good)
4. 4. TRUE DIRECTION: Any direction in reference to the directions of the Geographic North Pole (True North = TN)
5. 5. MAGNETIC DIRECTION MAGNETIC FIELD: - 2 Magnetic Poles not co-located with the Geographic (Not antipodal) - “Meridians” & “Parallels”. Not homogeneous! (Areas of magnetic disturbance)
6. 6. MAGNETIC DIRECTION: MAGNETIC FIELD: - ANGLE OF DIP: Angle crated between the horizontal (Parallel to the earths surface) and vertical (Perpendicular to the Earths surface) components of the magnetic field. Isoclinal / Aclinic lines Horizontal component = Magnetic direction
7. 7. MAGNETIC DIRECTION: Any direction in reference to the direction of the Magnetic North Pole (Magnetic North Pole = MN)
8. 8. COMPASS DIRECTION: Any direction in reference to the Compass North (Compas North Pole = CN) Due to the fact of the compass being imperfect and to the possible electromagnetic fields induced on the needle, the compass will not indicate the real magnetic north > COMPASS NORTH
9. 9. GRID DIRECTION: Any direction in reference to the Grid North (GN). The Grid North is associated with the Grid Reference Meridian (Grid Datum Meridian). GRID: Parallel lines, printed on a chart, that are parallel to the Grid Reference Meridian.(Widely used on Polar Stereographic charts
10. 10. RELATIVE DIRECTION: Any direction, measured angularly, in reference to the aircraft’s longitudinal axis
11. 11. TRUE BEARING = TRUE HEADING + RELATIVE BEARING TB = TH + RB
12. 12. Heading H TH = True HeadingTrack T MT = Magnetic TrackBearing B RB = Relative BearingCourse C GC = Grid Course Course means intended track. But , when crourse is used, track is only used to refer the path already flown If not specifying a particular type of line: DIRECTION (TD, MD, GD)
13. 13. DEFINITION: Relationship between a direction given in term of True and terms of Magnetic Relationship between the direction of the Geographical Meridian and the Magnetic Meridian through the same place. Isogonal/Agonic lines EASTERLY : If MN seems to lie to the east of the TN WESTERLY: If MN seems to lie to the west of the TN
14. 14. MH = TH + VarE MH = TH - VarE
15. 15. Variation WEST, Magnetic BESTVariation EAST, Magnetic LEAST
16. 16. DEFINITION: Relationship between a direction given in relation to the MN and the same given in relation to the CN. Relationship between the direction of the Magnetic North and the one to which the compass points for any given position on the Earth. Measured in degree from the Magnetic North MN
17. 17. DEVIATION WEST - COMPASS BESTDEVIATION EAST - COMPASS LEAST
18. 18. DEFINITION: Defined for a position, is the angular difference between the direction towards the Grid North and the Meridian in that position. Angular difference between GN and TN on a particular position. East: TN lies to the east of GN West: TN lies to the west of GN
19. 19. DEFINITION: In a position, is the angular difference between the Grid North and the Magnetic North in that position. Includes both, Grid Convergence and Magnetic Variation (GRIV)ISOGRIVES: Lines joining positions with the same grivation