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- 1. Topographic Maps
- 2. Easting and northing• Easting are vertical grid lines on a topographic map• Northing are horizontal lines on a topographic map
- 3. 4 figure grid reference• Locates the grid square of a feature on the topographic map• E.g. What is the 4 figure grid reference of the lower village in the following topographic map
- 4. Identify the gridsquare of thefeature(Lowervillage)
- 5. Identify the eastingand northing of thegrid square of thefeature(Easting-12,Northing-02)
- 6. The grid reference is the easting followed bythe northing ; The 4 grid reference is 1202
- 7. 6 figure grid reference• Locate the exact location of a feature.• E.g. What is the 6 figure grid reference of the lake at Cady Hill in the topographic map
- 8. Step 1:Identify theplace of the feature
- 9. • Divide the grid square into 10 equal part
- 10. Using the divided gridsquare, identify the gridsquare of the feature
- 11. Identify the easting andthe northing of thefeature(Easting -3,Northing-4)
- 12. The 6-figure grid reference is the easting of themap followed by the divided line followed bythe northing of the map followed by thenorthing of the divided line; The 6-figure gridreference is 123044
- 13. Finding direction using a compass on a map• A compass have 4 points known as compass point, they are north, south, east and west• E.g. What is the direction of the lake at the lower village from Cady Hill
- 14. Draw a north arrowon Cady hill
- 15. Draw a line fromCady Hill to the lakein the lower village
- 16. Look at the compasspoint, the line ispointing atSoutheast; thedirection of CadyHill is southeast tothe lake in the lowervillage
- 17. Finding direction on a map using compass bearing• Compass bearing show the exact degree of the direction of a place• E.g. What is the compass bearing of Cady Hill from the lake in the lower village in the topographic map
- 18. In order to find thecompass bearing,we need a 360°protractor or anormalprotractor(needmore steps). First,draw a lineconnecting thefeatures
- 19. Put the protractor’scentre point on thefeature. Ensure thatthe 0 is facingupwards
- 20. The compass bearing is the angle where theline cut across the protractor; The compassbearing of Cady hill from the lake in the lowervillage is 133°
- 21. Measuring straight distance on a topographic mapE.g. What is the distancebetween the lakes in thelower village in thetopographic map
- 22. To find the distance,we need a ruler andthe scale of the map.First, take a ruler tomeasure thedistance betweenthe 2 features
- 23. The distancebetween the 2 lakeson the map is1.7cm.To find theactual distance, weneed to use the scaleon the map. Thescale is 1:100000which mean 1cm onthis map=100000cm(1km) inactual distance; Thedistance betweenthe 2 lakes in thelower village is 1.7 X100000=170000cm/1.7km
- 24. Measuring curved distance on a topographic map E.g. What is the distanceof the road from the lowervillage to Stowe in thetopographic map
- 25. In order to findcurve distance on atopographic map,you need a string.First, order thestring on the curvedistance
- 26. Take the string off andmeasure the distance byputting it straight andmeasuring the distancewith a ruler
- 27. Multiply the scale withthe distance to find theactual distance; Thedistance of the roadfrom the lower villageto Stowe is 10.8 X100000= 1080000cm(10.8km)
- 28. Contours on topographic map• Contours are imaginary lines that connect places of the same height above sea level• It also show the relief of the place; If the contours are far apart, it means gentle slope and if it is near, it represent steep slope
- 29. Contour of a hillA hill is an area of highland, has gentle slope and A hill’s contour is in circular forma rounded peak. It is less than 600 meters high increasing at the centre
- 30. Contour of a mountainA mountain is an area of highland, has steep slope and A mountain’s contour is in circular formsharp peak. It is more than 600 meters high increasing at the centre
- 31. Contour of a valleyA valley is a low area in between A valley’s contour is pointing towardshighlands higher ground
- 32. Contour of a plateauA plateau is an up landed area which A plateau’s contour is closely spaced as itresemble a table top. It has steep slope is steep and the top is broad
- 33. Contour of a ridgeA ridge is an up landed area that is A ridge’s contour is closely spaced asnarrow and steep sided it is steep and the top is narrow
- 34. Summary Easting and northing are vertical and horizontal grid lines on a topographic maprespectively.4 and 6 figure grid reference show the grid square of a place and the exactlocation of a feature respectively. Identify the grid square of the feature first. Next, identifythe easting and northing of the grid square of the feature. The 4 grid reference is the eastingfollowed by the northing. Divide the grid square into 10 equal part. Using the divided gridsquare, identify the divided grid square of the feature from 1 to 10. The 6-figure gridreference is the eastings followed by the northings. A compass have 4 compass point. Draw anorth arrow on the feature then look at the line pointing which is the direction. Compassbearing show the exact degree of the direction of a place. Connect the features with a line.Put the protractor’s centre point on the feature with 0° facing upwards. The compass bearingis the angle where the line cut across the protractor. A ruler and a string (for curved distance)is needed for finding distance. Order the string of the curve distance(For curved distance),next, measure the distance using a ruler, next, multiply the scale by the distance of the thingyou are measuring on the map. Contours are imaginary lines connecting places of the sameheight above sea level and also show the relief of the place; Contours far away means gentleslope and contours near to each other means steep slope. A hill and a mountain is an area ofhighland. A hill less than 600 meters high, has a rounded peak and gentle slope while a hill ismore than 600 meters high, has sharp peak and steep slope. A hill and mountain havecontours in circles increasing at the centre. A valley is a low area in between highlands andhas contours pointing towards higher ground. A plateau and a ridge is an up landed area withsteep slope. A plateau has flat top while a ridge is narrow

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