MX: Managing Experience | Day 2 - Designing Delivery: A Unified Approach to Digital Service Quality | Jeff Sussna

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The digital service economy demands the ability to create coherent user experiences while achieving end-to-end agility and efficiency. The ability to deliver them together requires seamless system, process, and organizational design. Companies need a unified approach to design and operations that centers the entire organization around helping customers achieve their goals.

This workshop teaches participants how to connect user-centered design to the entire service delivery lifecycle. It introduces a holistic approach that interconnects marketing, design, development, and operations into a circular design/operations loop. Through talks, discussions, and guided exercises, participants learn how to improve both customer satisfaction and operational effectiveness by:

-designing for service, not just software
-minimizing latency and maximizing feedback throughout the organization
-designing for failure and operating to learn
-using operations as input to design

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MX: Managing Experience | Day 2 - Designing Delivery: A Unified Approach to Digital Service Quality | Jeff Sussna

  1. 1. Designing Delivery:
 A Unified Approach to Digital Service Quality @jeffsussna
  2. 2. Me: IT consultant/design thinker Practice: help digital businesses deliver continuous value
 Career: Dev/QA/Ops
 Background: liberal arts
  3. 3. What happens when we apply design to IT itself?
  4. 4. Service design meets DevOps meets complexity
  5. 5. Products -> services Things -> experiences
 Transactions -> relationships
 Convincing -> understanding
  6. 6. Silos -> infusion Is the coffee shop for chatting or working?
 Is your phone for calls/photos/email?
 Is your car a car or a Spotify client?
  7. 7. Complicated -> complex Is your car radio Honda’s fault or Spotify’s?
 Is online customer subscription management SoE or SoR?
 Do your customers call support or just complain on Twitter?
  8. 8. Complexity is strange and counterintuitive
  9. 9. “…the automation was not operational due to an unrelated failure…” -Google
  10. 10. Efficiency -> adaptability Kodak lasted 100 years before being disrupted
 Microsoft lasted 30 years
 Apple went from world’s most valuable company to a ? in 1 year
  11. 11. Brand promise shifts from delivery to conversation
  12. 12. The new business imperative Engineer robustness -> navigate complexity
 Push product/message -> co-create product/message
  13. 13. Exercise: Where/how does complexity impact design?
 Example: how did that birthday reminder get in my calendar?
  14. 14. What is business? Control Profit, market share, stock price
 Product quality, customer satisfaction
 Operational efficiency, employee behavior 
 …
  15. 15. Industrialism: the age of control
  16. 16. Taylorism Time/motion studies -> standardized activities
 Separation of planning/management from execution

  17. 17. The problems with industrial control Product-centric
 Efficiency/scale over adaptability
 Assumes predictability

  18. 18. We need a new, post-industrial model of control
  19. 19. Cybernetics: kybernetes, “good steering”
  20. 20. Horst Rittel: design methods founder, cyberneticist
  21. 21. Lean Startup is a cybernetic methodology Product development: predict the customer’s trajectory
 MVP: calibrate your aim
 Pivot: adjust your prediction
  22. 22. “Cybernetics needs to be applied to itself” -Margaret Mead
  23. 23. How do you adopt <methodology>?
  24. 24. Steering -> self-steering
  25. 25. The cybernetic insight Life/business is a never-ending process of adaptation:
 Internal/external
 Product/process/organization
 Design/operations
  26. 26. “I like cybernetics: its intrinsic circularity helps me see myself through the eyes of the other.” -Heinz von Foerster
  27. 27. Exercise: What happens when we shift from linear to circular thinking?
 Example: “including” support in planning
  28. 28. How do we become self-steering organizations? Principles and practices
  29. 29. Minimize delay, maximize feedback: New measure of end-to-end efficiency: course correction
 Design signals, not just features
 Apply to internal and external relationships
  30. 30. Agile: “continuous delivery of valuable software”
  31. 31. “Agile processes harness change 
 for the customer's competitive advantage"
  32. 32. Agile optimizes for steering, not speed Beware temptation to re-industrialize
  33. 33. LeanUX: "giving Agile a brain" The cybernetics of what to deliver
  34. 34. DevOps completes the Software-as-a-Service equation The cybernetics of how to deliver (and listen/respond)
  35. 35. DevOps isn’t just about faster application delivery Inseparability of functionality and operability 
 Flow + feedback = learning
  36. 36. Microservices “a new organizational as much as a new architectural model"
  37. 37. Design for failure, operate to learn: Design for resilience
 Use failure as information
  38. 38. Treat operations as an input to design: Seek out operational insight
 Expose internal and external interactions
 Listen to reality -> act on what you hear
  39. 39. Exercise: Design for failure and learning
 Example: database crash while reserving a hotel room
  40. 40. Design for service, not just software: Start with the customer’s larger needs & goals
 Address experience across touchpoints and time
 Treat employees as customers
  41. 41. What is the real meaning of service?
  42. 42. Software product quality “The software meets the spec.”
  43. 43. Software service quality "The service helps customers accomplish jobs-to-be-done"
  44. 44. ITIL v.3 definition of service: “…delivering value by facilitating outcomes customers want…”
  45. 45. Service value is co-created in use Customers “hire” services to help them accomplish larger goals
  46. 46. "The product is the trip." -AirBnb designer
  47. 47. Service exposes the sausage factory
  48. 48. Service exposes the sausage factory
  49. 49. Service exposes the sausage factory
  50. 50. Seek empathy: Approach everything you do as user-centered design 
 Use operations to better understand the customer’s perspective
  51. 51. Exercise: Design for internal/external jobs-to-be-done
 Example: Amazon Web Services
  52. 52. When you: Minimize delay, maximize feedback +
 Design for failure, operate to learn +
 Treat operations as input to design +
 Design for service, not just software +
 Seek empathy…
  53. 53. …design becomes continuous
  54. 54. “Continuous design is fractal” -after Andy Polaine
  55. 55. How do we ensure service quality?
  56. 56. Four dimensions of service: Outcomes
 Access
 Coherency
 Continuity
  57. 57. Outcomes Do the elements work correctly?
 Are they usable? Do they fit into my workflow?
 Do they help me accomplish my job-to-be-done?
  58. 58. Access Can I use the service how and when I need to?
 Performance, scalability, security, visibility…
  59. 59. Access depends on humans not just systems Biz/tech operations staff are customers too
 “Running the service” helps me accomplish my goals
  60. 60. Access is about repair not just prevention Failure is inevitable in complex systems
 Solving problems contributes to customer satisfaction
  61. 61. Coherency Does the service address my entire journey?
 Does my experience hang together?
 Does it integrate with the surrounding context?
  62. 62. Continuity Does the service evolve along with me and my world?
 Bugs, improvements, evolution…
  63. 63. Design and development become part of operations
  64. 64. Managing change becomes a UX concern Releasing features trigger employee and customer journeys
 Need to design across time, not just space
  65. 65. Exercise: Design and testing across the four dimensions
 Example: Spotify privacy policy failure
  66. 66. Exercise: Self-steering from here to there
 Example: the Leadenhall Building
  67. 67. In conclusion…
  68. 68. Product-centric -> service-centric thinking Captures the essence of industrial -> post-industrial shift 
 The most important and difficult mindset shift to make
  69. 69. Service exposes the sausage factory
  70. 70. Ingineering.IT: Coaching and assessments Workshops Strategic design and communication
  71. 71. Thank you!
  72. 72. Design Upstream Scaling Design Culture in your Organization Chris Avore / @erova / March 30 2016
  73. 73. But enough about me
  74. 74. Today’s Agenda • Introduction • Lecture • The current state:
 Design in your organization Second halfFirst half • Lecture • The future state:
 Enabling change as a team • Wrap up
  75. 75. people are thinking talking writing about culture
  76. 76. “Type a quote here.” The Defining Elements of a Winning Culture There’s No Such Thing as a Culture Turnaround A Winning Culture Keeps Score How to Engender a Performance Culture
  77. 77. why now?
  78. 78. Business needs to • reduce costs • improve quality of products & services • identify new opportunities for growth • increase productivity
  79. 79. meanwhile…
  80. 80. Businesses are suffering from: • Incremental or little innovation • losing market share to new ideas, competitors • finding fundamental problems too late • job descriptions that confine talent • cultures of hoarding vs sharing
  81. 81. It used to be that when we said we were going to be design-driven, the engineers said, “Well, here’s the technology constraints.” ! The product manager said, “Well, here’s the thing we have to solve,” and then gave it to the designers and said… http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-03-20/intuit-how-design-drove-its-turnaround http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2014-03-20/intuit-how-design-drove-its-turnaround
  82. 82. Make it pretty before it ships http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2014-03-20/intuit-how-design-drove-its-turnaround Make the logo bigger! Make it pop! This doesn’t look like Apple Less whitespace plz kthx is this above the fold?
  83. 83. deliver the planned thing deliver the right thing>
  84. 84. Design averse culture leads to… • low morale • distrust among departments, teams • design team perceived as decorators, not deciders • loss of credibility in good design • high turnover
  85. 85. A respectful, multi-team collaborative working environment where designers are empowered to effectively solve business problems via exploration, iteration, and validation.
  86. 86. Solve better problems
  87. 87. Design better products
  88. 88. Right people
  89. 89. Right room
  90. 90. Right questions
  91. 91. If they want you to cook the dinner, at least they ought to let you shop for some of the groceries. “
  92. 92. What barriers prevent UX from having a greater impact? 30 minute exercise
 10 minutes: Jot one barrier per Sticky 20 minutes: organize Stickies into themes Label themes and be prepared to share with group 15 minute discussion
  93. 93. https://www.forrester.com/Modernizing+User+Experience+In+Your+Firm/-/E-WEB18803
  94. 94. “What barriers prevent UX from having a greater impact?” LACK OF LEADERSHIP 11% OVERALL FIRM CULTURE 9% https://www.forrester.com/Modernizing+User+Experience+In+Your+Firm/-/E-WEB18803
  95. 95. • Overall firm culture • Lack of leadership • Partial implementation • Lack of understanding • Silos and politics • Resource contraints } Perception problem
  96. 96. • Overall firm culture • Lack of leadership • Partial implementation • Lack of understanding • Silos and politics • Resource contraints } Influence problem
  97. 97. • Overall firm culture • Lack of leadership • Partial implementation • Lack of understanding • Silos and politics • Resource contraints } Visibility problem
  98. 98. What do UXers do to impede having a bigger impact? 15 minute discussion
  99. 99. Look in the mirror too • Speaking different languages • Different measures of success • Not embracing wider goals • Deliverable Dogma • Assuming non-designers don’t get design
  100. 100. Change Management Problem
  101. 101. But before you can change, you need to know where you are today.
  102. 102. Limited to feature implementation Design informs product strategy, opportunity, innovation Strategy PROGRESSING / TACTICAL MODERN / STRATEGIC Build solutions based on requirements, specs • Address problems first • Establishes standards, patterns, priorities Design Tactical usability testing validate features • Beyond screens or dept • Hypothesis-based • Quant and Qual lenses Research
  103. 103. OUTDATED PROGRESSING MODERN SCOPE Ad#hoc,# digital#only Multiple#digital# touchpoints End5to5end,#digital#and#non5 digital STRATEGY Absent Gather#requirements Set#vision#and#shape#a#road# map#aligned#to#firm#strategies RESEARCH Usability#testing Iterative#testing Ethno#research Qualitative/quantitative#drive# hypothesis5driven#experiments DESIGN Wireframes Process#goes#from# sketch#to#high5fidelity Sets#and#governs#experience# standards STAFFING Generalist#individual# contributors#only Full#teams#with# research,#IxD/visual# design,#prototypers Executive#leadership#plus# centralized#strategy#and# governance
  104. 104. Identify 1 point in each attribute of design teams on the maturity model where you want to advance one step. Then briefly describe your plan of how you could lead that change effort. 15 minutes to complete 15 minutes table discussion
  105. 105. OUTDATED PROGRESSING MODERN SCOPE Ad#hoc,# digital#only Multiple#digital# touchpoints End5to5end,#digital#and#non5 digital STRATEGY Absent Gather#requirements Set#vision#and#shape#a#road# map#aligned#to#firm#strategies RESEARCH Usability#testing Iterative#testing Ethno#research Qualitative/quantitative#drive# hypothesis5driven#experiments DESIGN Wireframes Process#goes#from# sketch#to#high5fidelity Sets#and#governs#experience# standards STAFFING Generalist#individual# contributors#only Full#teams#with# research,#IxD/visual# design,#prototypers Executive#leadership#plus# centralized#strategy#and# governance
  106. 106. What’s next • Enabling Change • Team-based scenario challenge • Additional practical approaches • Wrap up
  107. 107. Enabling Change Find an advocate Establish a sense of urgency Craft a vision and a story Communicate the future state Celebrate short term wins Raise the profile Deliver the goods
  108. 108. BREAK
  109. 109. Enabling Change Find an advocate Establish a sense of urgency Craft a vision and a story Communicate the future state Celebrate short term wins Raise the profile Deliver the goods
  110. 110. Find an Advocate
  111. 111. Selecting the right challenge is paying attention to who else cares about it “
  112. 112. Find that Advocate • Expertise (may not be as important as others) • Control over resources (time, budget, people, expense) • Political support (access to influential colleagues, partners, network) • Build a coalition of advocates—don’t stop at 1
  113. 113. Establish a Sense of Urgency
  114. 114. Traits of Complacent Orgs:Yes, we have our problems, but they aren’t that terrible, and I’m doing my job just fine Kotter 5
  115. 115. Traits of Complacent Orgs: • Too much past success • Lack of visible crises • Low performance standards • Insufficient feedback from external, trusted sources
  116. 116. How to increase urgency • External data refutes comfortable status quo • Talk to unhappy or former customers • Show how profitable future opportunities are unobtainable with current mindset
  117. 117. Craft a vision *and* a story
  118. 118. • Feasible, appealing picture of the future • Focused • Flexible • Easy to communicate to a variety of audiences • Tie back to vision • Anyone could deliver the story • Describe backgrounds, skills, techniques • Reinforce credibility, including external success • Describe reporting line, org hierarchy • Share physical locations Vision Story
  119. 119. How to communicate the vision • Share the spirit of vision, if not vision itself • Keep it simple, jargon-free • Multiple channels, forums even if not 100% official • Repetition, Repetition, Repetition, • Create a dialogue, not one-way communication
  120. 120. Celebrate short term wins
  121. 121. Short term wins… • Visible to outsiders • Unambiguous • Tied directly to change effort, vision
  122. 122. Short term wins… • Provide evidence you’re on the right track • Help hone the vision and long-term strategies • Build momentum • Keep bosses/advocates on your side
  123. 123. Raise your visibility
  124. 124. Raise your visibility • Present at annual sales kick-offs • Become part of the pitch of new hires or client visits • Attend conferences/trade shows attended by sales/marketing/account teams
  125. 125. In my career at both Thomson Reuters and Nasdaq, I’ve never seen us build a solution that looks as clean and solid as this one
  126. 126. us In my career at both Thomson Reuters and Nasdaq, I’ve never seen build a solution that looks as clean and solid as this one
  127. 127. Deliver the goods
  128. 128. To become that trusted partner, there is no substitute for demonstrated competence. “http://boxesandarrows.com/recruiting-your-army-creating-the-in-house-design-agency/
  129. 129. How to show you’re good • Share usability clips—audio or video is best, not just transcripts • Perception of pace, even if you’re right on schedule • Performance metrics • Adhering to budget • Additional stakeholder validation
  130. 130. More KPIs • Revenue generated from new products • Projects in pipeline • Stage-gate specific • P&L impact • Patent applications or patents granted • Internal rate of return • Earned-Value Analysis • Press/Social mentions
  131. 131. We are most optimistic on the Next Gen IR platform…[Nasdaq] is in advanced beta testing, set to be launched in Q4. This software appears to be best in class… Wall Street Research Report “
  132. 132. Learn about the silos
  133. 133. On silos (or closed, tight networks) • Nonaligned and unshared priorities • Lack of information flow • Lack of coordinated decision making across silos • Groupthink / overconfidence of decisions / confirmation bias • Few new ideas • No incentive to share knowledge
  134. 134. Building those bridges Collaborative workshops • design studio • gamestorming activities • pre-mortem • design-the-box • magazine cover Promote & Publish • shared vision, north stars • useful, reusable assets • personas • successes • research findings
  135. 135. Managers enable good design • Facilitate introductions & conversations • Best evangelist may not be your best designer • Embrace the unknowns, let go from planning • Don’t overspecialize—enable generalists, growth, exposure
  136. 136. Managers enable good design Deploy design research beyond usability testing
  137. 137. Managers enable good design Don’t pull the ladder up
  138. 138. Connect to the big picture • Map your success to company goals • Is customer service mentioned as a core value? • Show how you reduced support calls by 20% • Is increasing margin a business goal? • Prove the new features command a higher price with less maintenance investment than preceding release.
  139. 139. Help others help themselves
  140. 140. Resources • Inventory of your work • Design patterns lets designers focus on big problems • Style guide, fonts, palettes (or point to Marketing) • Personas & other research findings
  141. 141. Workshops • How to conduct design studio • How to discuss design via critique • How to conduct a customer interview • How to write a user story • Rethink the kick off meeting • Facilitate a retro
  142. 142. Future State Exercise
  143. 143. Wrapping up
  144. 144. The real risk • Other businesses or orgs will use their own budgets for hiring designers who won’t report to you • Those businesses may hire consultants or outside agencies to execute one project, but no long term engagement for knowledge sharing later • Design will be the scapegoat
  145. 145. Projects end Allies move on Market conditions change Priorities shift Competitors evolve Teammates quit Such Disruption
  146. 146. Building a Culture of Design
  147. 147. Building a Culture of Design
  148. 148. Experimentation
  149. 149. Innovation
  150. 150. Learning
  151. 151. Quality
  152. 152. A culture of quality requires employees to apply skills and make decisions in highly ambiguous but critical areas while leading them toward deeper reflection about the risks and payoffs of their actions. Creating a Culture of Quality http://hbr.org/2014/04/creating-a-culture-of-quality/
  153. 153. A culture of quality requires employees to apply skills and make decisions in highly ambiguous but critical areas while leading them toward deeper reflection about the risks and payoffs of their actions. Creating a Culture of Quality http://hbr.org/2014/04/creating-a-culture-of-quality/
  154. 154. Don’t atrophy
  155. 155. Persuasion is a process not an event
  156. 156. Delivery is your currency
  157. 157. Credibility is your social capital
  158. 158. Your vision is your access
  159. 159. THANK YOU Chris Avore / avore@erova.com / @erova
  160. 160. Further Reading • Leading Change
 by John Kotter • Communicating the UX Vision: 13 Anti-Patterns That Block Good Ideas
 by Martina Schell and James O’Brien • Designing for Growth: A Design Thinking Tool Kit for Managers
 by Jeanne Liedtka

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