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How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF

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A step by step guide in introducing Enterprise Architecture for large organizations, following ADM phases. Based on EntArchs experience.

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How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF

  1. 1. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting margo.cronin@entarchs.com nemanja.kostic@entarchs.com MARGO CRONIN NEMANJA KOSTIC
  2. 2. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF STARTING POINT EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting COMMON METHODOLOGY COMMON TOOLING ARCHITECTURE REPOSITORY FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWS COMMON MEANS FOR REUSE REFERENCE ARCHITECTURES TRACEABILITY VALID APPLICATION INVENTORY ARCHITECTURES DRIVEN BY TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS RATHER THAN BUSINESS STRATEGY BUSINESS DRIVEN ENTEPRISE ARCHITECTURE NO TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS DUPLICATION OF ASSETS EVERYWHERE What can you expect to find in organisations WITHOUT mature Enterprise Architecture? What can you expect to find in organisations WITH mature Enterprise Architecture?
  3. 3. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF GARTNER’S ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE MATURITY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Level 0: None Level 1: Initial Level 2: Under Development Level 3: Defined Level 4: Managed Level 5: Nirvana No enterprise architecture to speak of. Processes are ad hoc and localized. Minimal, or implicit linkage to business strategies. Limited management team awareness or involvement in the architecture process. No explicit governance of architectural standards. Basic enterprise architecture process is documented. IT vision, principles, business linkages, Baseline, and Target Architecture are identified. Architecture standards exist, but not necessarily linked to Target Architecture. Governance of a few architectural standards. The architecture is well defined and communicated to IT staff and business management. The process is largely followed. Enterprise architecture is integrated with capital planning and investment control. Senior management team aware of and supportive of the enterprise-wide architecture process. Management actively supports architectural standards. Architecture documents updated regularly. Enterprise architecture process is part of the culture. Enterprise architecture documentation is updated on a regular cycle Business, Data, Application, and Technology Architectures defined by appropriate standards. Senior management team directly involved in the architecture review process. Explicit governance of all IT investments. All planned IT acquisitions and purchases are guided and governed by the enterprise architecture. 2014 -> present present -> future E.G. THIS TRANSITION USUALLY TAKES 12 MONTHS
  4. 4. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF ON A GOOD WAY COMMON STANDARDS COMMON GOVERNANCE COMMON METHODOLOGY TRACEABILITY ACROSS DOMAINS ARCHITECTURAL REPOSITORY FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWS COMMON TOOLING COMMON MEANS FOR SHARING & REUSE COMMUNITY OF PRACTICES ACROSS DOMAINS REFERENCE ARCHITECTURES CREATED END-TO-END TRACEABILITY (BUSINESS CAPABILITIES VIA APPLICATION TO TECHNOLOGY AND DATA) VALID APPLICATION INVENTORY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting You are on a good way if you have achieved the following:
  5. 5. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF FUTURE STATE EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Where should you be? YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO DEVELOP THE CAPABILITY AND CREDIBILITY TO EVALUATE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND TO DRIVE DIGITAL BUSINESS STRATEGY FOR THE ORGANISATIONS. In the fully mature organisa2ons, Enterprise Architects must: Create a clear statement of how Enterprise Architecture can contribute to digital business outcomes. Link into exis2ng efforts or create innova1on programs to reach out and collaborate with business groups in order to iden2fy areas that will impact the business. Create a process to iden1fy disrup1ve technologies likely to impact your industry and organisa2on.
  6. 6. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF JOURNEY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting THE FOLLOWING SLIDES ARE NOT GOING TO TEACH YOU TOGAF. THEY WILL SHOW YOU REAL WORLD IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES THAT YOU CAN APPLY TO ALMOST ANY LARGE SCALE ORGANISATIONS. WE WISH WE SAW THESE SLIDES BEFORE…
  7. 7. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF JOURNEY IN THE FOLLOWING SLIDES WE’LL SHOW YOU A SET OF PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EACH OF THE ADM PHASES. WE’LL ALSO SHOW YOU CHALLENGES WE FACED IN EACH OF THE PHASES AS WELL AS SOLUTIONS THAT WE USED TO RESOLVE THOSE CHALLENGES. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting
  8. 8. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF PRELIMINARY PHASE • OBTAIN C-LEVEL SUPPORT FOR THE GROUP WIDE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ACTIVITY • SELECT A FRAMEWORK TO BE USED (WE CHOSE TOGAF ADM) • CREATE A SET OF ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES TO BE SIGNED OFF AND MANDATED BY CIO. WE CREATED 60 PRINCIPLES CATEGORISED AS: ‣ GUIDING PRINCIPLES ‣ ARCHITECTURE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ‣ BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ DATA ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ SECURITY ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES • START EVALUATING WHAT TOOLS CAN BE REUSED FOR THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ACTIVITY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  9. 9. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF PRELIMINARY PHASE • HOW TO SELL THE EA VALUE TO THE WIDER COMMUNITY? ‣ Develop a set of use cases to show what benefits Enterprise Architecture can bring to the business in terms of cost savings, strategy execu2on, roadmaps development, impact analysis etc. • HOW TO ADOPT ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES? ‣ Include and engage as many people as possible in the process of crea2ng the principles. Once they feel they contribute to them and own them, they can adopt them. ‣ Allocate 1me to iden2fy and sign-off the principles. Try to keep the number low (60 is a lot!). • HOW TO SELECT RIGHT TOOLS? ‣ Look internally first to what can be reused or integrated with. That way lots of internal poli2cs and big egos are removed of the table. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  10. 10. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF ARCHITECTURE VISION • DEFINE SCOPE OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE TO COVER THE WHOLE GROUP, NOT JUST INDIVIDUAL BUSINESS UNITS OR INDIVIDUAL CUSTOMER SEGMENTS. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE CAN BRING VALUE ONLY IF IT IS THE OVERARCHING ENTITY. • CREATE GOVERNANCE BODIES THAT WILL HELP YOU CARRY OUT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ACTIVITIES: ‣ APPLICATION/BUSINESS/DATA/TECHNOLOGY COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE WHERE ALL THE PRACTITIONERS FROM THAT DOMAIN ARE PARTICIPATING (KNOWLEDGE SHARING, EVOLUTION OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ARTEFACTS, ETC.) ‣ CROSS-DOMAIN DIALOGUES WHERE SELECTED REPRESENTATIVES FROM EACH DOMAIN ARE PARTICIPATING (BETTER COORDINATION BETWEEN DOMAINS) ‣ ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE GOVERNANCE BODY WHERE THE HEADS OF IT ARE PARTICIPATING (EXCEPTIONS, ESCALATIONS, APPROVALS) EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  11. 11. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF ARCHITECTURE VISION • HOW TO ESTABLISH COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE (COP)? ‣ Use collabora1on tools extensively as the knowledge sharing plaMorm. ‣ Organise monthly mee1ngs/calls with the CoP members to share ideas, present new projects, get insights into what other business units are doing, seek for help. • CARROT VS STICK? ‣ Use both! ‣ Central EA group should be a glue between other units and a funnel where ideas are explored and shared. ‣ But integrate EA governance into Project Management, Procurement, Sourcing and other internal processes to make sure principles/standards/reference architectures are followed and implemented. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  12. 12. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE • HIRE BUSINESS ARCHITECTS! IT’S ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO CREATE BUSINESS SERVICES, CAPABILITIES AND PROCESSES WITHOUT INVOLVEMENT OF BUSINESS ARCHITECTS WHO UNDERSTAND THE DOMAIN. • TAILOR META-MODEL TO FIT YOUR ORGANISATION. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations IN OUR EXPERIENCE, EXPECT THE HEAVIEST TAILORING OF THE BUSINESS DOMAIN META- MODEL! ALLOCATE A LOT OF TIME. USE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP CAPABILITY AND PROCESS FRAMEWORKS IF THEY DON’T EXIST ALREADY.
  13. 13. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE • BUSINESS AND IT WORKING IN ISOLATION ‣ Don’t let business architects working in isola1on. They need to see the big picture and to realise how business pieces fit with IT pieces. It’s all part of the same puzzle. ‣ Start early with connec2ng business process and applica2on systems! It creates a posi2ve feedback loop to the business with the possibility to op2mise processes. • AS-IS VS TO-BE ‣ Always start with As-Is capabili2es & processes. Create To-Be business architecture once the priori2es are established. Op2misa2on possibili2es of As-Is architecture can influence To-Be architecture. ‣ Allow enough 1me to build capability and process frameworks. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  14. 14. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE • IDENTIFY ARCHITECTURE & SOLUTION BUILDING BLOCKS IN YOUR APPLICATION DOMAIN. FIRST FOCUS ON THOSE APPLICATIONS & DATA THAT DELIVER CRITICAL BUSINESS CAPABILITIES. • CATEGORISE THEM PER SYSTEMS OF RECORD, ENGAGEMENT, UTILITY AND INSIGHT. USE AGILITY QUADRANT TO DETERMINE BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY AGILITY. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations See EntArchs Agility Quadrant for the detailed explanation of the diagram.
  15. 15. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE • META-MODEL TAILORING? ‣ Use basic TOGAF meta-model if you already have internal systems that capture applica2on and data a[ributes. Don’t duplicate a_ributes. ‣ If you are star2ng green-field, start capturing smaller set of applica2on & data a[ributes and then gradually grow. In extreme cases, physical applica2on component can have over 500 a[ributes! Manage your stakeholder expecta2ons, add only those a[ributes that are absolutely needed to start with. • WHEN IS THE WORK DONE? ‣ The biggest challenge in iden2fying Physical Applica2on Components is that there are just too many of them! Large companies can easily have over 5.000 different internal applica2ons. Focus on big ones where the TCO is high. Use Pareto 80/20 Principle - “capture 20% of applica2ons that deliver 80% of capabili2es”. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  16. 16. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE • CATEGORISE PRODUCTS IN LOGICAL AND PHYSICAL TECHNOLOGY COMPONENTS. • IN OUR EXPERIENCE THE TOGAF ENTITIES MAY NOT BE ENOUGH TO CAPTURE THE COMPLEXITY OF YOUR ENVIRONMENT, USE PHYSICAL TECHNOLOGY GROUPS TO CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY STACKS. • TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE NEEDS TO DRIVE YOUR STANDARDISATION ROADMAP. MAKE SURE THERE IS TIGHT INTEGRATION WITH INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE SO THAT THE APPLICATION & TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS ARE IN SYNC. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  17. 17. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE • TO WHAT LEVEL OF GRANULARITY DO YOU DEFINE? ‣ Technology is typically well defined in an organisation, but the level of detail can complicate a meta-model (OS versioning, Prog. Lang. versioning). In contract an organisation can also have PaaS, SaaS, IaaS based solutions. • HOW DO YOU MODEL SAAS, PAAS, IAAS? ‣ We recommend creating “Physical Technology Component Group” that represented a stack of technologies. It makes reporting easier and enables modelling of the “lowest common denominator”. These PTCG’s can be used to create technology standards to govern against. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  18. 18. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS • THE BIGGEST QUESTION IS: HOW TO IMPLEMENT ARCHITECTURE REPOSITORY EFFICIENTLY? • MOST IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS FOR AN ARCHITECTURE REPOSITORY: 1. CUSTOMISABLE META-MODEL 2. SIMPLE & EASY TO USE 3. GOOD REPORTING/DASHBOARD FUNCTIONALITY • ALWAYS LOOK TO REUSE INTERNAL TOOLS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE (HELPS WITH AVOIDING INTERNAL POLITICS). • IF THERE ARE NO INTERNAL TOOLS (OR NO INTERNAL POLITICS TO DEAL WITH) GO WITH MARKET LEADERS SUCH AS ORBUS ISERVER. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  19. 19. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting An example of Architecture Repository composed of internal tools using EntArchs dashboard. • REUSE INTERNAL TOOLS IN YOUR ORGANISATION. • ENTARCHS BUILT THEIR OWN DASHBOARD (AS THE PICTURE ON THE RIGHT SHOWS) ON TOP OF ALL OF THOSE INTERNAL TOOLS TO BE AS SIMPLE AND USABLE FOR YOUR STAKEHOLDERS AS POSSIBLE. • DON’T ADD ANY NEW BUSINESS LOGIC BUT INTEGRATE WITH THE BACKEND SYSTEMS VIA REST API’S OR SIMILAR PROTOCOL. • CONTACT ENTARCHS FOR INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE THIS OPEN-SOURCE SOLUTION FOR YOUR NEEDS.
  20. 20. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting An example of Architecture Repository composed of internal tools using EntArchs dashboard.
  21. 21. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF MIGRATION PLANNING • GETTING ALL OF THE STAKEHOLDERS (ARCHITECTS, BUSINESS, IT OWNERS) TO ADOPT YOUR NEW METHODOLOGY IS A CHALLENGING TASK THAT REQUIRES CAREFUL PLANNING. • NEVER GO WITH BIG-BANG APPROACH, RATHER WITH SMALL STEPS: 1. SHOW THEM VALUE THAT YOUR METHODOLOGY BRINGS 2. EDUCATE THEM IN TOOLS THAT YOU ARE IMPLEMENTING 3. DO THE WORK FOR THEM INITIALLY 4. INCLUDE THEM IN THE GOVERNANCE PROCESS 5. LET THEM SEE THE BENEFITS (USE CASES) 6. LISTEN TO THEIR FEEDBACK AND IMPLEMENT SUGGESTIONS 7. LET THEM BE PART OF THE METHODOLOGY • MIGRATING STAKEHOLDERS TO A NEW METHOD TAKES TIME. • COMMUNICATION IS THE KEY! USE INTERNAL COLLABORATION TOOL TO CONNECT TO YOUR STAKEHOLDERS, TO NOTIFY THEM ABOUT CHANGES, TO PUBLISH NEWS ETC. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  22. 22. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF IMPLEMENTATION GOVERNANCE • DOCUMENT THE GOVERNANCE PROCESS AND MAKE IT MANDATORY FOR EVERYONE. • TIGHTLY INTEGRATE GOVERNANCE PROCESS INTO OTHER COMPANY PROCESSES - PROJECT MANAGEMENT, PROCUREMENT, SOURCING. • MONITOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNANCE VIA ARCHITECTURE REVIEW BOARDS. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  23. 23. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF CHANGE MANAGEMENT • MOST CHANGES WILL COME DURING THE MIGRATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PHASE. • MOST CHANGES WILL REQUIRE META-MODEL MODIFICATIONS. NEW ENTITIES, ATTRIBUTES AND RELATIONSHIPS WILL BE REQUESTED. BEING ABLE TO EXTEND META-MODEL BY YOURSELF (WITHOUT INVOLVING A VENDOR) IS CRUCIAL! • START WITH THE MINIMAL SET OF ENTITIES AND ATTRIBUTES IN YOUR META- MODEL AND LET IT GROW. IT’S EASIER TO ADD NEW THINGS IN THE META- MODEL THAN TO TAKE IT OUT LATER ON. • REPORTS WILL REQUIRE LOTS OF CHANGES AS WELL. DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS HAVE DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS AND WILL REQUEST DIFFERENT REPORTS (VIEWS). • USE INTERNAL COLLABORATION TOOLS TO CAPTURE THE CHANGE REQUESTS. USE FORUM FUNCTIONALITY TO GIVE USERS POSSIBILITY TO DISCUSS THE CHANGE. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  24. 24. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT • USE INTERNAL COLLABORATION OR REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT TOOL TO MANAGE ALL THE REQUIREMENTS. • TRY TO BE AGILE AND PRIORITISE REQUIREMENTS IN THE BACKLOG. • DO 2 WEEK SPRINTS TO SHOW RESULTS AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE (VERIFY USE CASE,DEVELOP NEW REPORTS, INCLUDE NEW ATTRIBUTE IN META-MODEL ETC.) EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  25. 25. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF THANK YOU! EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting www.entarchs.com Visit us at… … and see our Resources and Posts

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