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Learning groovy 1: half day workshop

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Slides for "Learning Groovy 1" Workshop at Gr8Conf US 2017.

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Learning groovy 1: half day workshop

  1. 1. Learning Groovy (in 3 hours)! Adam L. Davis The Solution Design Group, Inc. Author of “Learning Groovy” (& What’s New in Java 8 & others) 14 years Java Dev. github.com/adamldavis /2017-gr8conf-learning-groovy
  2. 2. Java ~ Brian Goetz (Java Language Architect)
  3. 3. Groovy
  4. 4. <Insert your hated language here> PHP
  5. 5. groovy-lang.org sdkman.io
  6. 6. ● Dynamic or Static ● (@CompileStatic @TypeChecked) ● As fast as Java (with static & indy) ● Meta-programming ● Optional semi-colons ● Optional parentheses ● Short-hand for Lists and Maps ● Automatic getters and setters ● A better switch ● Groovy GDK… Groovy 2.4 Features
  7. 7. ● Closures ● Currying ● Method references ● Map/Filter/Reduce as collect, findAll, inject ● Internal iterating using each ● Operator Overloading (+ - * % / …) ● methodMissing and propertyMissing ● AST Transformations ● Traits … Groovy 2.4 Features (cont.)
  8. 8. Starting Out Option 1: Using sdkman.io – sdk install groovy 2.4.9 Option 2: Download from groovy-lang.org – Alter your PATH ● Export PATH=$PATH:/usr/lib/groovy/bin ● Option 3: Mac – see http://groovy-lang.org/install.html ● Option π: Windows – see https://github.com/groovy/groovy-windows-installer Then: $ groovyConsole IntelliJ IDEA or NetBeans
  9. 9. Dynamic typing ● def keyword ● Parameters’ typing optional ● Possible to mock using a map – def dog = [bark: { println ‘woof’ }] ● Using @TypeChecked or @CompileStatic you can make Groovy statically typed in some classes
  10. 10. Groovy Strings ● ‘normal string’ ● “groovy string can contain $variables” ● “can also do expressions ${x + 1}” ● Use triple quote to start/end multi-line strings ‘’’ This is a Multi-line String ‘’’
  11. 11. Math, Groovy Truth, and Equals ● Numbers are BigDecimal by default not Double – 3.14 is a BigDecimal – 3.14d is a Double ● Groovy truth: null, “”, [], 0 are false – if (!thing) println “thing was null” – if (!str) println “str was empty” ● Groovy == means .equals – For identity use a.is(b)
  12. 12. Property Access ● Everything is public by default ● Every field has a getter and setter by default ● Gotcha’s – Map access – String.class->String ● Property access automatically uses getters and setters ● foo.bar == foo.getBar() ● foo.bar = 2 == foo.setBar(2)
  13. 13. Lists and Maps ● def emptyList = [ ] ● def emptyMap = [:] ● def numList = [1,2,3] ● def strMap = [cars: 1, boats: 2, planes: 3] ● def varMap = [(var1): 1, (var2): 2, (var3): 3]
  14. 14. Maps Continued... ● def map = [cars: 1, boats: 2, planes: 3] ● String key access: map.cars ● OR map[‘cars’] ● Also works for modifying: – map.cars = 42 – map[‘cars’] = 42
  15. 15. Code Demo
  16. 16. A better switch ● Switch can use types, lists, ranges, patterns… Switch (x) { case Map: println “was a map”; break case [4,5,6]: println “was 4, 5 or 6”; break case 0..20: println “was 0 to 20”; break case ~/w+/: println “ was a word”; break case “hello”: println x; break case BigDecimal: println “was a BigDecimal”
  17. 17. Groovy GDK ● Adds methods to everything! Adds its own classes... ● Collections: sort, findAll, collect, inject, each,… ● IO: toFile(), text, bytes, withReader, URL.content ● Ranges: x..y, x..<y – GetAt syntax for Strings and Lists: ● text[0..4] == text.substring(0,5) ● Utilities: ConfigSlurper, Expando, ObservableList/Map/Set
  18. 18. Safe dereference & Elvis operator ● Safe dereference ?. – String name = person?.name – Java: person == null ? null : person.getName() ● Elvis operator ?: – String name = person?.name ?: “Bob” – Java: if (name == null) name = “Bob”
  19. 19. Closures ● Closure: “a self-containing method” (like Lambda exp.) – def say = { x -> println x } – say(‘hello gr8conf’) – def say = { println it } – def adder = { x, y -> x + y } ● Closures have several implicit variables: – it - If the closure has one argument – this - Refers to the enclosing class – owner - The same as this unless it is enclosed in another closure. – delegate - Usually the same as owner but you can change it (this allows the methods of delegate to be in scope).
  20. 20. Closures Continued... ● When used as last parameter, closure can go outside parentheses – methodCalled(param1, param2) { closureHere() } – methodWithOnlyClosure { closureHere() }
  21. 21. Regex Pattern Matching ● Regex = regular expressions ● Within forward slashes / is a regex – You don’t need to use double ● =~ for matching anywhere within a string – if (text =~ /d+/) println “there was a number in it” ● ==~ for matching the whole string – if (email ==~ /[w.]+@[w.]+/) println “it’s an email”
  22. 22. Meta-programming ● Every class and instance has a metaClass ● String.metaClass.upper = { delegate.toUpperCase() } – “foo”.upper() == “FOO” ● Traits can be used as mixins ● Maps can be cast to actual types using as [bark: {println “Woof!”}] as Dog
  23. 23. Code Demo
  24. 24. Other Surprises for Java Devs ● Default values for method parameters ● groovy.transform.* – @EqualsAndHashCode – @TupleConstructor – @ToString – @Canonical ● Generics not enforced by default
  25. 25. Advanced Groovy ● Groovy Design Patterns – Strategy pattern – Categories – Method caching ● DSLs – Domain Specific Languages – Operator Overloading ● Traits ● Functional Programming – curry
  26. 26. Spock Grails Gradle grooscript The Groovy Ecosystem and many others…. Griffon
  27. 27. Gradle Imperative, not declarative Relies on plugins Tasks Vanilla groovy Easy to build plugins Easy to do sub-projects
  28. 28. Spock Built on JUnit Somewhat enhanced groovy “test names can be any string” given: when: then: expect: Built-in mocking Table-syntax for provided test data Pretty assert output
  29. 29. Thanks! Adam L. Davis “Learning Groovy” github.com/adamldavis /2017-gr8conf-learning-groovy adamldavis.com @adamldavis groocss.org @groocss How? Gedit + https://github.com/aeischeid/gedit-grails-bundle

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