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Tecnologías de control de emisiones para instalaciones térmicas de biomasa pequeñas

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Presentación realizada por Walter Haslinger, Jefe de I+D Bioenergy2020+, en el 10º Congreso Internacional de Bioenergía "Retos de la biomasa hacia 2020" (2015)

Acceso al vídeo en el canal de AVEBIOM en youtube en este link https://youtu.be/F3jwcrLnq3o?list=PLiI9QXKYMxh06h-WnlG7007bUkwPg6sKV

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Tecnologías de control de emisiones para instalaciones térmicas de biomasa pequeñas

  1. 1. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices Walter Haslinger
  2. 2. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices Objective •Provide an overview of available and not yet available concepts for emission reduction in small scale biomass heating devices Non-objectives •Exhaustive and complete survey of individual products •Promotion of any supplier of individual products 2
  3. 3. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 3 Flue gas cleaning technologies - General • State-of-the-art in medium to large scale combustion plants – Electrostatic precipitators, bag house filters, … – Scrubbers, SNCR and SCR • Few / no commercially available flue gas cleaning technologies in small scale biomass plants (<500 kW) Most relevant challenges: – Changing raw gas concentration and raw gas composition – High costs – Reliability and maintenance
  4. 4. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 4 Potential flue gas cleaning technologies for small scale plants • Oxidation catalysts • Particle abatement technologies – Electrostatic precipitators – Fabric filters – (cyclones) – (condensation heat exchangers) • Scrubbers • Catalytic or non catalytic DeNOx concepts (SCR, SNCR) Zumikon by Ruegg Oekosolve Köb Viessmann Group
  5. 5. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 5 Fields of applications of particle abatement technologies • Manually operated combustion appliances – Room heating systems and low-tech fire wood boilers: Oxidation catalysts – Fire wood boilers (high-tech): Electrostatic precipitators • Automatically operated combustion appliances – < 100 kW: Electrostatic precipitators – 100 – 500kW: Electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters
  6. 6. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 6 Oxidation catalysts – combination of primary and secondary measures °C 1) Deploy primary measures Optimise: - Time - Temperature - Turbulence - Air excess = avoid formation of harmful emissions Oxidation catalyst (Pt, Pd) 2) Integrate secondary measures = abate formed harmful emissions 3) Consider effects of secondary measure (e.g. pressure drop) on primary measures
  7. 7. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 7 Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT 1. Characterisation of the catalyst T rechts 2. Uml T links 1. Uml T Brennkammer T rechts 1. Uml T Gastemp T links 2. Uml T Ofen Austritt 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 21.6.2012 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850°C 2. Characterization of the stove
  8. 8. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 8 Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT 3. Primary optimization Source: Bioenergy 2020+ 4. Catalyst integration 1) 2) 3) Optimum Temperature
  9. 9. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 9 Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT Results from lab tests; Trends and orders of magnitude of reduction reproduced in field tests CO PM VOC
  10. 10. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 10 Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) • Several developments and first market attempts on-ongoing for boilers <100 kW • Functions (in most cases) proven under lab conditions • Challenges: – Different dust composition (e.g. pellets / chips / firewood) and varying composition (e.g. automatic – manual feeding, start – continuous) – Costs (above all in the very small scale range) – Continuous reliable operation – Maintenance / cleaning
  11. 11. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 11 Examples of ESPs
  12. 12. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 12 Separation efficiencies of three different ESPs Source: TFZ
  13. 13. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 13 Fabric filters / bag house filters for biomass plants of 100-500 kW • Several RTD projects on-going • Challenges – Optimization of seperation efficiencies – Costs (invest and operation) – Reliability – Interaction and joint control with furnace • Status – Field tests on-going – Optimization needs identified – Full market introduction not yet decided
  14. 14. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 14 Summary and conclusions • Several secondary technologies for emission control under development or in an early phase of commercialization • Common challenges – Instationary operating conditions – Varying concentration and varying composition of raw gas – High costs and efforts (maintenance and cleaning) – Rarely proven reliability  Deployment of primary measures, appropriate fuel choice, correct system integration and appropriate user behaviour are first choice!  Secondary measures hardly suited to overcome lost primary opportunities!
  15. 15. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 15 Thank you: Gracias • Walter Haslinger, CSO/CTO • BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH • walter.haslinger@bioenergy2020.eu

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