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Emissions control
technologies for small heat
biomass devices
Walter Haslinger
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
Objective
•Provide an overview of available and not yet available concepts
for emission reduction in small scale biomass heating devices
Non-objectives
•Exhaustive and complete survey of individual products
•Promotion of any supplier of individual products
2
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
3
Flue gas cleaning technologies - General
• State-of-the-art in medium to large scale combustion plants
– Electrostatic precipitators, bag house filters, …
– Scrubbers, SNCR and SCR
• Few / no commercially available flue gas cleaning
technologies in small scale biomass plants (<500 kW)
Most relevant challenges:
– Changing raw gas concentration and raw gas composition
– High costs
– Reliability and maintenance
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
4
Potential flue gas cleaning technologies for small scale plants
• Oxidation catalysts
• Particle abatement technologies
– Electrostatic precipitators
– Fabric filters
– (cyclones)
– (condensation heat exchangers)
• Scrubbers
• Catalytic or non catalytic DeNOx concepts
(SCR, SNCR)
Zumikon by Ruegg Oekosolve
Köb Viessmann Group
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
5
Fields of applications of particle abatement technologies
• Manually operated combustion appliances
– Room heating systems and low-tech fire wood boilers: Oxidation
catalysts
– Fire wood boilers (high-tech): Electrostatic precipitators
• Automatically operated combustion appliances
– < 100 kW: Electrostatic precipitators
– 100 – 500kW: Electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
6
Oxidation catalysts – combination of primary and secondary measures
°C
1) Deploy primary measures
Optimise:
- Time
- Temperature
- Turbulence
- Air excess
= avoid formation of harmful
emissions
Oxidation catalyst
(Pt, Pd)
2) Integrate secondary measures
= abate formed harmful emissions
3) Consider effects of secondary measure (e.g. pressure drop) on primary measures
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
7
Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT
1. Characterisation of the catalyst
T rechts 2. Uml T links 1. Uml T Brennkammer T rechts 1. Uml T Gastemp T links 2. Uml T Ofen Austritt
09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30
21.6.2012
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850°C
2. Characterization of the stove
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
8
Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT
3. Primary optimization
Source: Bioenergy 2020+
4. Catalyst integration
1)
2)
3)
Optimum
Temperature
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
9
Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT
Results from lab tests;
Trends and orders of
magnitude of reduction
reproduced in field tests
CO PM
VOC
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
10
Electrostatic precipitators (ESP)
• Several developments and first market attempts on-ongoing for boilers
<100 kW
• Functions (in most cases) proven under lab conditions
• Challenges:
– Different dust composition (e.g. pellets / chips / firewood) and varying
composition (e.g. automatic – manual feeding, start – continuous)
– Costs (above all in the very small scale range)
– Continuous reliable operation
– Maintenance / cleaning
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
11
Examples of ESPs
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
12
Separation efficiencies of three different ESPs
Source: TFZ
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
13
Fabric filters / bag house filters for biomass plants of 100-500 kW
• Several RTD projects on-going
• Challenges
– Optimization of seperation efficiencies
– Costs (invest and operation)
– Reliability
– Interaction and joint control with furnace
• Status
– Field tests on-going
– Optimization needs identified
– Full market introduction not yet decided
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
14
Summary and conclusions
• Several secondary technologies for emission control under development or in
an early phase of commercialization
• Common challenges
– Instationary operating conditions
– Varying concentration and varying composition of raw gas
– High costs and efforts (maintenance and cleaning)
– Rarely proven reliability
 Deployment of primary measures, appropriate fuel choice, correct system
integration and appropriate user behaviour are first choice!
 Secondary measures hardly suited to overcome lost primary opportunities!
Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices
15
Thank you: Gracias
• Walter Haslinger, CSO/CTO
• BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH
• walter.haslinger@bioenergy2020.eu

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Tecnologías de control de emisiones para instalaciones térmicas de biomasa pequeñas

  • 1. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices Walter Haslinger
  • 2. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices Objective •Provide an overview of available and not yet available concepts for emission reduction in small scale biomass heating devices Non-objectives •Exhaustive and complete survey of individual products •Promotion of any supplier of individual products 2
  • 3. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 3 Flue gas cleaning technologies - General • State-of-the-art in medium to large scale combustion plants – Electrostatic precipitators, bag house filters, … – Scrubbers, SNCR and SCR • Few / no commercially available flue gas cleaning technologies in small scale biomass plants (<500 kW) Most relevant challenges: – Changing raw gas concentration and raw gas composition – High costs – Reliability and maintenance
  • 4. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 4 Potential flue gas cleaning technologies for small scale plants • Oxidation catalysts • Particle abatement technologies – Electrostatic precipitators – Fabric filters – (cyclones) – (condensation heat exchangers) • Scrubbers • Catalytic or non catalytic DeNOx concepts (SCR, SNCR) Zumikon by Ruegg Oekosolve Köb Viessmann Group
  • 5. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 5 Fields of applications of particle abatement technologies • Manually operated combustion appliances – Room heating systems and low-tech fire wood boilers: Oxidation catalysts – Fire wood boilers (high-tech): Electrostatic precipitators • Automatically operated combustion appliances – < 100 kW: Electrostatic precipitators – 100 – 500kW: Electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters
  • 6. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 6 Oxidation catalysts – combination of primary and secondary measures °C 1) Deploy primary measures Optimise: - Time - Temperature - Turbulence - Air excess = avoid formation of harmful emissions Oxidation catalyst (Pt, Pd) 2) Integrate secondary measures = abate formed harmful emissions 3) Consider effects of secondary measure (e.g. pressure drop) on primary measures
  • 7. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 7 Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT 1. Characterisation of the catalyst T rechts 2. Uml T links 1. Uml T Brennkammer T rechts 1. Uml T Gastemp T links 2. Uml T Ofen Austritt 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 21.6.2012 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850°C 2. Characterization of the stove
  • 8. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 8 Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT 3. Primary optimization Source: Bioenergy 2020+ 4. Catalyst integration 1) 2) 3) Optimum Temperature
  • 9. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 9 Integration of oxidation catalyst into a stove: FP7 project BioCAT Results from lab tests; Trends and orders of magnitude of reduction reproduced in field tests CO PM VOC
  • 10. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 10 Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) • Several developments and first market attempts on-ongoing for boilers <100 kW • Functions (in most cases) proven under lab conditions • Challenges: – Different dust composition (e.g. pellets / chips / firewood) and varying composition (e.g. automatic – manual feeding, start – continuous) – Costs (above all in the very small scale range) – Continuous reliable operation – Maintenance / cleaning
  • 11. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 11 Examples of ESPs
  • 12. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 12 Separation efficiencies of three different ESPs Source: TFZ
  • 13. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 13 Fabric filters / bag house filters for biomass plants of 100-500 kW • Several RTD projects on-going • Challenges – Optimization of seperation efficiencies – Costs (invest and operation) – Reliability – Interaction and joint control with furnace • Status – Field tests on-going – Optimization needs identified – Full market introduction not yet decided
  • 14. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 14 Summary and conclusions • Several secondary technologies for emission control under development or in an early phase of commercialization • Common challenges – Instationary operating conditions – Varying concentration and varying composition of raw gas – High costs and efforts (maintenance and cleaning) – Rarely proven reliability  Deployment of primary measures, appropriate fuel choice, correct system integration and appropriate user behaviour are first choice!  Secondary measures hardly suited to overcome lost primary opportunities!
  • 15. Emissions control technologies for small heat biomass devices 15 Thank you: Gracias • Walter Haslinger, CSO/CTO • BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH • walter.haslinger@bioenergy2020.eu