Estimation of on farm ghg emissions from poultry houses-waste to worth

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  • The “knee-jerk” reaction to reducing GHG is reducing energy use. The effects of reducing energy use should not be underestimated but is dependent on the type of operation.
  • Estimation of on farm ghg emissions from poultry houses-waste to worth

    1. 1. Estimation of On-Farm GreenhouseGas Emissions from Poultry HousesC. S. DunkleyDept. Poultry ScienceUniversity of Georgia
    2. 2. Recent findingsIntroductionChicken- 2.36 kg CO2e/kg of productat farm gateBeef- 14.8 kg CO2e/kg of productat farm gatePork- 3.4-4.2 kg CO2e/kg of productat farm gate (Pelletier, 2010)(Pelletier et al., 2010)(Pelletier, 2008)
    3. 3. 2 Studies• Broiler Complex– 627 houses were tested:• Broiler- 87 farms, 538houses• Breeder- 15 farms, 55houses• Pullet- 7 farms, 34 houses• Layer Complex– 12 house in-line complex• Upstream and downstreamemissions were notconsidered
    4. 4. Inventory in ScopesScope 1Scope 2Scope 3
    5. 5. Data Collection and Evaluation• Survey distributed to growers• Survey questions included:– Electricity usage– Propane use– Diesel oil use– Age of house– Construction of house– Number of birds raised each year, etc.– Refrigerant use• GHG emissions estimated using IPPC spreadsheetssome of which were pre-populated with emissionfactors.
    6. 6. Types of Emissions• Mechanical– Purchased Electricity– Mobile machinery– Stationary machinery• Non-mechanical– Enteric fermentation– Manure management
    7. 7. Mechanical Emissions• ~96% of GHGemitted onbroiler and pulletfarms is frompropane use• ~82% of GHGemitted onbreeder farms isfrom electricityuseResults0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Broiler House Breeder House Pullet HouseStationary Combustion Transportation Fuel Purchased ElectricityCO2equivalent
    8. 8. Mechanical Emissions• Avg. broiler houseemits ~790 tonneCO2e• Avg. breeder houseemits ~35 tonneCO2e• Avg. pullet houseemits ~448 tonneCO2eResultstonnesCO2e/yr0100200300400500600700800900Broiler House Breeder House Pullet HouseStationary Combustion Transportation Fuel Purchased Electricity
    9. 9. Non-Mechanical Emissions020406080100120140Broiler Houses Breeder Houses Pullet Houses Layer Houses50.9632.7846.49138.97832.5315.2542.91N2O emissions CH4 EmissionstonnesCO2e/yr
    10. 10. Manure management systemin laying Hen house
    11. 11. GHG Inventory- Broiler HouseEmissions CategoriesGHG Emissions (metric tonnes)Base Period: 2009CO2 CH4 N2O CO2eScope 1MechanicalMobile Machinery 2.58 0.0004 0.00007 2.58Stationary Machinery 764.91 0.0606 0.0012 766.783Total 767.49 0.061 0.00127 769.363Non-mechanicalEnteric fermentation - - -Manure management - 0.32 0.1614 56.1Total - 0.32 0.1614 56.1Total Scope 1 767.49 0.381 0.16267 825.463Scope 2Purchased Electricity 21.52 0.0004 0.0004 21.54Total Scope 2 21.52 0.0004 0.0004 21.54Total Scopes 789.01 0.3215 0.16307 847.003Total Mechanical 767.49 0.061 0.00127 769.363Total Non-mechanical - 0.32 0.16267 56.1
    12. 12. Emissions CategoriesGHG Emissions (metric tonnes)Base Period: 2010CO2 CH4 N2O CO2eScope 1MechanicalMobile Machinery 45.675 0.00648 0.00117 46.174Stationary Machinery 683.373 5.415 1.083 685.049Total 728.448 5.421 1.084 731.223Non-mechanicalEnteric fermentation - - -Manure management - 20.6 5.7 2199.6Total - 20.6 5.7 2199.6Total Scope 1 728.448 26.012 6.78 3376.5Scope 2Purchased Electricity 1169.751 0.0199 0.0193 1176.152Total Scope 2 1169.751 0.0199 0.0193 1176.152Total Scopes 1 & 2 1898.199 26.22 6.98 4546.251Scope 3Users of refrigerant equipment 32.87Total Scope 3 32.87Total Scopes 4585.522Total Mechanical 728.448 5.42 1.084 731.238Total Non-mechanical - 20.6 5.70 2182.56GHG Inventory- 12 House Laying Hen Complex
    13. 13. Reducing GHG emissions• Reducing energy usewill also reduce theamount of GHGs that isemitted• Reduction must to bedone on a farm by farmbasis• Reduce propane use bypreventing heat loss;– Enclose houses that arenot solid walls– Insulate curtainopenings, walls andceiling
    14. 14. Reducing GHG emissions• Reducing energy usewill also reduce theamount of GHGs that isemitted• Reduction must to bedone on a farm by farmbasis• Reduce propane use bypreventing heat loss;– Enclose houses that arenot solid walls– Insulate curtainopenings, walls andceiling
    15. 15. Emissions based on house age0.00 200.00 400.00 600.00 800.00 1000.00 1200.005102024647.861027.02949.061027.26Total GHGTonnes CO2 equivalentsAgeofhouseinyears
    16. 16. Four farms with similar age andstructure houses020040060080010001200140016001800House 1 House 2 House 3 House 4Diesel kwh Propane Total GHGTonnesCO2e
    17. 17. Reducing GHG emissions• Reducing energy usewill also reduce theamount of GHGs that isemitted• Reduction must to bedone on a farm by farmbasis• Reduce propane use bypreventing heat loss;– Enclose houses that arenot solid walls– Insulate curtainopenings, walls andceiling
    18. 18. Three houses with similar age butdifferent type of construction05001000150020002500Combination sides Curtain sided Solid walledDiesel kwh Propane Total GHGTonnesCO2e
    19. 19. Reducing GHG emissions- mechanical• Use the attic area as a solar energy collector;– Install attic outlets• Use more efficient equipment such as;– Fans, generators, lighting, heaters• Maintenance of equipment;– Clean fans– Clean outlets/inlets– Change fan belts as needed
    20. 20. Reducing GHG emissions- ManureManagement1. Manure handled as a solid or spread onland, decompose aerobically and produce littleor no CH42. Proper management of bedding (indoor) andmanure heaps (in storage sheds) will reduceGHG emissions• Avoid prolonged litter storage to reduce CH4 emissions• Minimize compaction• Frequent addition of litter• Keep litter dry and covered from the elements
    21. 21. 1. Add nitrification inhibitors to reduce NH3 emissions2. Addition of high carbon substrate to manure heaps3. Compaction of manure heap to reduce aeration4. N2O emission from poultry litter is higher than syntheticfertilizer…but,5. Applying poultry litter to agricultural fields off-sets 10%energy use and 1% GHG emissions (Pelletier et al., 2010)Reducing GHG emissions- ManureManagement
    22. 22. Research Opportunities– Actual CH4 and N20 emissions from poultry housesand stack houses– Emissions from poultry litter application to croplands– Carbon sequestration from poultry litterapplication– Emissions factors from enteric fermentation forbirds.

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