Tuesday, July 01, 2013
Assignment No. 02
Submitted To: Dr. Abdul Basit Sahib
Submitted By: Bashir Ahmad (Regd# 1432-412019
Question: what are the four dimensions of Dualism?
Definition of Dualism:
Dualism means two aspects or two sides of something. Several philosophers and thinkers have
identified two different dimensions of human life. This is called dualism.
Simplistic concept that all issues can be divided into either/or states such as good/bad, right/wrong,
determinable/indeterminable. Dualism does not recognize a continuum of values (a stretch of varying
shades of gray between black and white at either ends) and cannot explain complexity.
There are four dimensions of dualism
First dimension (Russell)
Bertrand Russell was renowned philosopher, mathematician and historian in the 20th
conjectured a view of the humans before the beginnings of civilization and attempted to determin what
must have been the thoughts of human beings at that time about life and about their surroundings.
Russell, thus, postulated the following:
Primitive man was aware of two distinctions:
a. Human and animals had self-induced motion, while inanimate objects did not.
The primitive humans must have been strongly aware of the fact that humans and animals had the power
to move around and perform activities whereas all other objects (such as rocks, trees, etc.)did not have this
This implied meaning is hat in case of humans and animals, the movement was a decision or a choice
made by themselves. Therefore, the factors that caused a decision to move must be the ones responsible
for human and animal behavior. All such factors, in our modern conceptualization, are the motivators.
b. Human were better than animals in terms of the use of tools, foresight and rudimentary moral
The second aspect of Russell’s concept of dualism is even more interesting. According to his view,
primitive humans must have been aware of some stark distinctions between human and animals behavior.
types of tools. We know from scientific historical evidence that primitive humans modified or shaped
stones, rocks and sticks and use them, for example, hunting tools.
Primitive humans were also aware of some basic moral values such as the legitimate ownership and
possession, family relationships etc. and they were aware of the dualism that such moral values or
understanding were found only in humans and not in animals.
The second dimension (Murphy)
Murphy’s work on dreams and personality development is monumental. According to Murphy’s view,
dreams involve human soul being separated form the body (Dualism)
In summary, Murphy’s views are identified as follows:
a. Dreams form a foundation for self-concept.
b. In a dream, humans have motion and activity, while the body is immobile.
c. Leads to the concept of soul and body being different(difference between animate and inanimate
d. Soul is no dependent on body.
According to Murphy, the dualism is based on the soul being different from the body. The soul is animate
(capable of movement on its own) while the body is inanimate (not capable of movement without the soul
being present). Murphy describes the dream being a phenomenon in which the soul leaves the body and
moves around freely to have unique experiences and then returns back into the body and moves around
freely to have unique experiences and then returns back into the body. Such experiences of the soul are
termed as dreams, which are perceived by human beings as their “own” experiences in dreams.
Thus dreams do strongly influence the determination of our behavior and are, therefore, powerfully
connected to human motivation.
The third dimension (Plato):
Plato was a Greek Philosopher (three centuries BC) and his views on dualism may be summarized as
1. Human beings have perceptions about things around them that are imperfect
manifestation of reality, resulting in two different “worlds”:
a. Ultimate reality
Thus, there is a real, original world around us and then there is a perceived view of this world in
our mind. Since our minds are individualized and unique, therefore, our perceptions modify the
way we perceive the world around us. Consequently, this dualism shows that there is a “real
world” and a “perceived world”. Since our perceptions always change our view of the world, thus,
it follows that no one has ever known the ultimate real world. What we know is the perceived
This nation of dualism is very significant because it leads to the determination of our behavior.
The implication is that the way we perceive the world around us, determines the way we behave
to adjust to it. Therefore. The perceptions in our mind are strong sources of motivation for our
2. Perception lead to reasoning and ideas so that, again, there are two nations:
a. Perceptions of material objects
b. Ideas based on reasoning.
We perceive material objects around us. As a result, we have perceptions of these objects in our
mind. These perceptions interact with on another and with other “things” already in our mind.
These interactions produce reasoning. Thus, reasoning in our minds leads to our understanding
of natural phenomenon around us and on many occasions such reasoning is the cause of our
behavior or lack of behavior. According to Plato, reasoning eventually leads to the development
of ideas that could be either abstract ideas or perceived versions of event happenings around
us. This Plato’s second aspect of dualism: perceptions of material object so one hand and the
reasoning and ideas on the other.
However, it does highlight how the dualism of perceptions of objects on the one hand and the
reasoning/ideas on the other, determines our behavior. This concept, therefore helps us
understand the very basics of human motivation.
The Fourth Dimension (Aristotle):
Aristotle, who was a student of Plato, further developed the philosophical ideas about life and his
theories have had a strong influence on the way humans think about the world around and
create knowledge as well as on the development of human civilization in general. Aristotle’s
views on dualism may be expressed in a simplified form as follows.
1. Doctrine of universal distinction of the form from the soul for all living things.
According to Aristotle, all living things are composed of two components: body and soul. The
body or form is very distinct and uniquely different from the soul. This fact is true for all living
things. That is why Aristotle called it a doctrine of universal distinction. Thus, according to
Aristotle the entire domain of living things (consisting of plants, animals and humans) has the
presence of both the form) physical dimension) and the soul (non-Physical dimension) such that
the form and the soul are totally distinct from each other. This id Aristotle’s Dualism.
2. All living things have two entities: Body and Soul
According to Aristotle, the body is in material form and is mortal. Thus, the body or form is
physical in nature, it grows and develops and eventually declines leading to termination or
death. After death the body does not survive; it deteriorates and is decomposed.
b. Soul and Mind
The soul is non-material, has no form and is immortal. These three significant properties of the
soul were identified by Aristotle and made part of his thoughts about human life. According to
Aristotle, the soul for all life forms exists as something non-material and without any shape or
form. Eventually, even though the body becomes dead, the soul continues to live on forever. It
never becomes extinct.
Soul have three grades
Vegetative, sensitive and rational
It is concerned with propagation and growth and is found in all living things like as plants, animals
Vegetative soul is an essential part of al forms of life
It is concerned with senses, locomotion and appetite and is found in humans and animals.
The sensitive soul determines the functioning of the five physical senses and plays a critical role in
survival, growth and propagation. Is helps the body in maintaining its physiological systems and
keeping it in equilibrium with the physical environment.
Sensitive soul is found only in animals and humans. It is not present in plants
It relates to reasoning and is divine and immortal. It is found only in humans. The rational soul is
directly concerned with the functioning of the mind. It is responsible for development of reasoning
and leads to the very essential process of decision making, which in turn determines conduct or
behavior. Thus, rational soul shows a direct link to motivation.
A very significant property of the rational soul is that it is divine in nature, that is , its origin lies with
a great force or power, such as God. In religious terms, the rational soul is blessed by Allah and
is subject to Allah’s will.
Rational soul is also immortal. The term soul when used in general or in common language
actually refers to the rational soul. The immortality of the soul is commonly believed and is a basic
concept or belief in many religions.