Registration No: 1432-212048 Study Program: MBA (HRM) (3.5year) Subject: Motivation Created By: Badar-e-Alam-AnwarQ: Define Motivation and explain the process of motivation with example.Answer: Motivated people are those who have made a conscious decision to devoteconsiderable effort to achieving something that they value. What they value will differ greatlyfrom one individual to another. There are a variety of ways to motivate people, including thefear of losing a job, financial incentives, self-fulfilment goals and goals for the organisationor groups within the organisation.Motivation is complex because it is the term we use to explain humanbehavior Is related to a persons inner impulses Is closely associatedwith his/her values Motivation gives direction and intensity to apersons behavior It significantly affects his/her abilities andachievement.Motivation describes those processes that:a. Arouse and instigate behaviourb. Give direction or purpose to behaviorc. Continue to allow behavior to persistd. Lead to choosing or preferring a particular behaviourDefinition of Motivation:-Motivation is defined as the set of forces that energize behaviour, direct behaviour andsustain behaviour.OrMotivation is an internal process that activates guides and maintains goals- orientedbehaviour.For example: Everybody’s Problem your children, particularly teenagers won’t do theassigned homework; or, not performing well in studies. You are a wife and you want tomotivate your husband to stop smoking, or drinking, or to lose weight.
Process of motivation:It is a process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained towardsattaining the goal. Energy- A measure of intensity or drive Direction- Towards organizational goal Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goalMotivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goal.The Process of motivation consists of three stages which are as follows. Motivational inputs Motivational behaviour Motivational outputsMotivational Input:-Inputs are typically, effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, skill, ability, adaptability,flexibility, tolerance, determination, heart and soul, enthusiasm, trust in our boss andsuperiors, support of colleagues and subordinates, personal sacrifice, etc.For example : If we feel are that inputs are fairly rewarded by outputs(the fairness benchmark being subjectively perceived from market norms and othercomparable references) then generally we are happier in our work and more motivated tocontinue inputting at the same level.There are three types of inputs. a. Needs b. Incentives c. Perception a. Needs:- Need for Affiliation: An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. Need for Power: Tendency to seek impact, control or influence over others, and to be seen as powerful individual. Need for achievement: Desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. Needs acts as internal stimuli, causing an internal wish as desire or urge to fulfil the need. Needs may be Physiological or psychogenic. Needs is an internal desire satisfaction. For example: Foods, Cloths, shelters etc. b. Incentive:- Incentive is an external stimulus that can influence the behaviour of employees of organization.
For example: you might be motivated to go to work each day for the monetaryreward of being paid. Behavioural learning concepts such as association andreinforcement play an important role in this theory of motivation.Perception: Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involvesboth the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli.Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements ofthe environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates ourexperience of the world around us; it allows us to act within our environment.Perception includes the five senses; touch, sight, taste smell and taste. It also includeswhat is known as proprioception, a set of senses involving the ability to detectchanges in body positions and movements. It also involves the cognitive processesrequired to process information, such as recognizing the face of a friend or detecting afamiliar scent.For-example - you may look at a painting and not really understand the message theartist is trying to convey. But, if someone tells you about it, you might begin to seethings in the painting that you were unable to see before.The perception is divided into three types. Indicated by i. E-P (Expectancy of task performance) ii. P-I (Performance Instrumentality) iii. I-N (Valence of Incentive)Now we can discuss these three types one by one.i. E.P (expectancy of task performance): E.P is based on the perceived effort- performance relationship. It is expectancy that one’s effort will lead to the desired performance and is based on past experience, self-confidence the Perceived difficulty of the performance goal. For example: If I spend most of tonight studying will it improve my grade on tomorrows math exam? If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more? If I practice my foul shot more will my foul shooting improve in the game? If I make more sales calls will I make any more sales?ii. P-I (Performance Instrumentality): P-I is based on the perceived performance-reward relationship. The Instrumentality is the belief that if does meet performance expectations; he or she will receive a greater Award.
For example: if i produce more than anyone else in the plant, will i get a bigger raise or faster promotion. If I get a better grade on tomorrows math test will I get an "A" in math? If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get a bigger raise? A faster promotion? If my foul shooting improves will I have a shot a team MVP? If I make more sales will I get a bonus? A greater commission? If I make more sales will I believe that I am the best sales person or be recognized by others as the best sales person? iii. I-N (Valence of Incentive): I-N refers to the value the Individual personally places the rewards. This is a function of his or her needs, goals or values. For-example: Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion? Ability: Expectancy Theory can be used to define what is termed a strong situation. Strong situations act to have base is a strong influence on the behavior of individuals, often overriding their personalities, personal preferences, and other dispositional variables. Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance Consequences: There are highly valued positive or negative outcomes perceived to beassociated with behavior in the situation. This is the same as valance in expectancy theory. Likelihood: There is a high perceived probability that these consequences will followbehavior (e.g., "I am certain that if I swear at my boss, she will fire me"). This is the sameas instrumentality in expectancy theory. Specificity: Required behavior is well defined and understood by the individual(e.g., "Wear a black tuxedo" is more specific than "dress appropriately"). This is a part ofwhat determines expectancy in expectancy theory. Motivated behaviour: Behavior is designed by genetic, biological, physical,psychological, social, economic, technological, environmental and cultural forces. Designthinking must capture and reflect how learning occurs in the natural contours of people’slives. Products, services, policies, programs and communication serve to improve, supportand sustain learning and behaviour. Performing the new behavior results from three types ofincentives – the allure of direct, tangible rewards; observed or vicarious rewards -experiencing it though others; and self-produced ones.Behaviors are more likely to occurwhen they are met with valued outcomes – material benefits, sensory stimulation, positive ornegative social reactions, reward of efficacy in controlling events (feeling in control ofthings).For example: a student may excitedly repeat swear words to get or maintain a socialattention sequence, e.g., sustained attention from adults attempting to make him stop thebehavior.
Motivational outputs:- Outputs are typically all financial rewards - pay, salary, expenses,perks, benefits, pension arrangements, bonus and commission - plus intangibles - recognition,reputation, praise and thanks, interest, responsibility, stimulus, travel, training, development,sense of achievement and advancement, promotion, etc.For Example: If we feel that our ratio of inputs to outputs is less beneficial than the ratioenjoyed by referent others, then we become de-motivated in relation to our job and employer.Q: Give the five definition of motivation from other source with reference for each?Answer: 1. Define motivation as “the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something”. Reference: Guay et al., 2010 (p.106) Paraphrasing Gredler, Broussard and Garrison (2004). Timing: (10:13 am Sunday) 2. Motivation is defined as “beliefs and attitudes that affect the use and development of cognitive and met cognitive skills” Reference: (Schraw et al., 2006, p. 112). Timing: (10:15 am Sunday) 3. It is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves that person to action and continues him in the course of action already initiated. Reference: http://www.blurtit.com/q8174293.html Author: Dublin Timing: (18:28 pm Sunday) 4. Motivation is the act or process of motivating, the condition of being motivated, a motivating for a stimulus or influence, incentive, drive. Reference: http://www.blurtit.com/q8174293.html Author: Merriam-Webster Timing : (18:40 pm Sunday) 5. Motivation as physical forces that determine the direction of a person’s behaviour, a person’s level of effort and a person’s level of persistence in the face of obstacles. Reference: http://www.blurtit.com/q8174293.html Author: Jones, George & Hill (2000) Timing : (18:47 pm Sunday)