Assignment 2 motivation

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Assignment 2 motivation

  1. 1. Assignment -2 Subject: Motivation Topic : Four Dimensions of Dualism Reg. No: 1432-212048 Study Program: MBA (HRM) Submitted To: Dr. Abdul Basit Submitted by: Badar-e-Alam-Anwar
  2. 2. Q: Write a note on four dimension of dualism. Answer: Dualism: Dualism states that “two opposing, or opposite, ideas, things, or categories mutually exist. A person holding such views is a dualist. Such views are expressed in the humanities”. For example, in anthropology dualism may explain facts about man by two fundamental causes: reason or the passions, soul or body; freedom or determinism. Dualism explains the theory of knowledge by the confrontation of two different realities, subjective or objective; the religious cosmos in the terms of a perpetual conflict between good and evil, which has always existed. As one examines any dualistic situation he discovers that the two opposites are usually considered as coming from the same or similar source. Now we can discuss about the four significant views of on dualism as below. There are known as four dimensions of dualism. The First dimension of dualism (Russell): In twentieth Century, Bertrand Russell was a famous philosopher, mathematician and a historian. At the beginning of civilization, he proposed a view about humans that what were their thoughts at that time about life and their environments. He gave two distinctions about primitive men that they were aware of which are as follows: 1. Primitive men were strongly aware of the fact that humans and animals have the abilities to move around and do all kind of actives, while inanimate objects did not have the capability to do any kind of motion. Russell through this idea showed two dimension of life in the earth. In this case, humans and animals had given the decision to do all kind of activities whether to move or not which is a self induced motion. 2. The second aspect of Russell is that humans must be well aware of their superiority in the society over animals in terms of use various types of tools, for sights which is the ability to understand and predicted what might happen in the near future. They were also aware of some basic moral values and aware of dualism that such kind of moral value could only be present in humans and not in animals. The second Dimension of Dualism (Murphy):- Murphy worked on the development of personality and dreams. He said that dreams are complex phenomenon which directly effects the development of personality and how a person well perceives herself or himself. According to Murphy, human soul is separate from body in dreams (Dualism). Soul is animate while body is inanimate. He said that dream is a phenomenon in which soul leave the body and performs different activities and then returns back into the body. Such kinds of experience of souls are called dreams. He propounded that dreams have strong influence over the formation of self concept and the development of personality.
  3. 3. The third dimension of dualism (Plato): Plato was a Greek philosopher and he gave his own view about dualism which is as follows 1. Human beings have perception about things around them that are imperfect reality, resulting in two different “worlds”. a. Ultimate reality b. Perceptions He said that there is an original world and a perceived world around us which is present in our mind. Each individual has his own unique perception and our perception modify the way we perceive the world. This shows the idea of dualism that there is “real world” and a “perceived world”. Hence it shows that all people are living in the perceived world and no one has never known about the real world. 2. Perception leads to reasoning and ideas so that, there are two notions: a. Perception of material objects b. Ideas based on reasoning This is the second aspect of dualism according to Plato. He said the things that are present around us has a perception in our mind and the perception which is already present in our it, both of them interact with each other which leads to reasoning and reasoning in our mind makes us to understand the natural phenomenon around us. Such kind of reasoning leads to the development of ideas which can either be abstract ideas or perceived version of happening around us. The fourth dimension of dualism (Aristotle):- Aristotle was a great philosopher. He was the student of Plato. He further developed the philosophical ideas about life and his theories had a strong influence on human mind. Aristotle view on dualism was as follows. 1. Doctrine of universal distinction According to Aristotle, all living beings are composed of two components: body and soul. The body is distinct and uniquely different from the soul. That is called doctrine of universal distinction because body and soul are totally distinct from each other and this is Aristotle’s dualism. 2. All living things has two entities: (body and soul) a. Body: According to Aristotle, body is in material form and is mortal. It grows and develops and eventually declines and leads towards death. After death body does not survive and it deteriorates and is decomposed. b. Soul and Mind: Soul is non-material and not present in physical form and is also immortal. Aristotle also include mind as a part of soul. After death, the soul continues
  4. 4. to live on forever and body becomes dead. Soul has three grades which are Vegetative, Sensitive and Rational.

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