Topic : Four Dimensions of Dualism
Reg. No: 1432-212048
Study Program: MBA (HRM)
Submitted To: Dr. Abdul Basit
Submitted by: Badar-e-Alam-Anwar
Q: Write a note on four dimension of dualism.
Dualism: Dualism states that “two opposing, or opposite, ideas, things, or categories
mutually exist. A person holding such views is a dualist. Such views are expressed in the
For example, in anthropology dualism may explain facts about man by two fundamental
causes: reason or the passions, soul or body; freedom or determinism. Dualism explains the
theory of knowledge by the confrontation of two different realities, subjective or objective;
the religious cosmos in the terms of a perpetual conflict between good and evil, which has
always existed. As one examines any dualistic situation he discovers that the two opposites
are usually considered as coming from the same or similar source.
Now we can discuss about the four significant views of on dualism as below. There are
known as four dimensions of dualism.
The First dimension of dualism (Russell):
In twentieth Century, Bertrand Russell was a famous philosopher, mathematician and a
historian. At the beginning of civilization, he proposed a view about humans that what were
their thoughts at that time about life and their environments. He gave two distinctions about
primitive men that they were aware of which are as follows:
1. Primitive men were strongly aware of the fact that humans and animals have the
abilities to move around and do all kind of actives, while inanimate objects did not
have the capability to do any kind of motion. Russell through this idea showed two
dimension of life in the earth. In this case, humans and animals had given the decision
to do all kind of activities whether to move or not which is a self induced motion.
2. The second aspect of Russell is that humans must be well aware of their superiority
the ability to understand and predicted what might happen in the near future. They
were also aware of some basic moral values and aware of dualism that such kind of
moral value could only be present in humans and not in animals.
The second Dimension of Dualism (Murphy):-
Murphy worked on the development of personality and dreams. He said that dreams
are complex phenomenon which directly effects the development of personality and
how a person well perceives herself or himself. According to Murphy, human soul is
separate from body in dreams (Dualism). Soul is animate while body is inanimate. He
said that dream is a phenomenon in which soul leave the body and performs different
activities and then returns back into the body. Such kinds of experience of souls are
called dreams. He propounded that dreams have strong influence over the formation
of self concept and the development of personality.
The third dimension of dualism (Plato): Plato was a Greek philosopher and he gave his
own view about dualism which is as follows
1. Human beings have perception about things around them that are imperfect reality,
resulting in two different “worlds”.
a. Ultimate reality
He said that there is an original world and a perceived world around us which is present in
our mind. Each individual has his own unique perception and our perception modify the way
we perceive the world. This shows the idea of dualism that there is “real world” and a
“perceived world”. Hence it shows that all people are living in the perceived world and no
one has never known about the real world.
2. Perception leads to reasoning and ideas so that, there are two notions:
a. Perception of material objects
b. Ideas based on reasoning
This is the second aspect of dualism according to Plato. He said the things that are present
around us has a perception in our mind and the perception which is already present in our it,
both of them interact with each other which leads to reasoning and reasoning in our mind
makes us to understand the natural phenomenon around us. Such kind of reasoning leads to
the development of ideas which can either be abstract ideas or perceived version of
happening around us.
The fourth dimension of dualism (Aristotle):- Aristotle was a great philosopher. He was
the student of Plato. He further developed the philosophical ideas about life and his theories
had a strong influence on human mind. Aristotle view on dualism was as follows.
1. Doctrine of universal distinction
According to Aristotle, all living beings are composed of two components: body and
soul. The body is distinct and uniquely different from the soul. That is called doctrine
of universal distinction because body and soul are totally distinct from each other and
this is Aristotle’s dualism.
2. All living things has two entities: (body and soul)
a. Body: According to Aristotle, body is in material form and is mortal. It grows and
develops and eventually declines and leads towards death. After death body does not
survive and it deteriorates and is decomposed.
b. Soul and Mind: Soul is non-material and not present in physical form and is also
immortal. Aristotle also include mind as a part of soul. After death, the soul continues
to live on forever and body becomes dead. Soul has three grades which are
Vegetative, Sensitive and Rational.