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4.3   proteins
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4.3 proteins

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  • 1. PROTEINS Prepared by: Nur Fatihah Binti Din 4UPM
  • 2. Learning Outcomes/Objectives:
    • State the elements in proteins.
    • State the various structure of proteins.
    • Explain the formation and breakdown of dipeptides and polypeptides.
    • Explain the meanings of essential amino acids and non essential amino acids.
  • 3. Introduction
    • Protein are large complex organic molecules which play diverse roles in living organisms.
    • Proteins made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus.
  • 4.
    • Amino acid + amino acid dipeptide + water
    • Polypeptides + water dipeptides or amino acids
    condensation hydrolysis hydrolysis
  • 5. Examples
    • Protein sources: egg, meat, milk, yoghurt and etc.
  • 6. Protein Structures
    • a) Primary structure
    • b) Secondary structure
    • - alpha-helix
    • - beta-pleated sheets
    • c) Tertiary structure
    • d) Quaternary structure
  • 7. a) Primary structure
    • The linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
  • 8. b) Secondary structure
    • Alpha-helix
    • - Three dimensional arrangement of amino acids with the polypeptide chain in a cork screw shape.
    • Beta-pleated sheet
    • - Polypeptide chains are arranged side by side.
  • 9. c) Tertiary structure
    • The overall three dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain.
  • 10. d) Quaternary structure
    • The combination of two or more tertiary polypeptides that makes up a protein.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Amino Acids
    • There have two types of amino acids:
    • i) essential amino acids
    • ii) non essential amino acids
    • Essential amino acids are amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body. Example: Leucine
    • Non essential amino acids are amino acids that can be synthesized by the body. There are 11-non essential amino acids. Example: Alanine
  • 13. Thank You